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[For many healthcare professionals, musculoskeletal diseases are the bread and butter of life after graduation. Therefore, radiological education dealing with the musculoskeletal system is vital for an adequate patient management and for the cost-effective use of healthcare financial resources....
[The anatomy of the shoulder girdle consists of several joints which connect the upper limb to the rest of the skeleton and provide a large range of movement; they act in a single biomechanical unit.
Fig. 2.1Volume rendering CT of the shoulder girdle]
[The elbow is the region surrounding the elbow joint and connects the arm to the forearm. The elbow joint is made by three bones: the humerus, the radius and the ulna. The elbow joint is complex and made by three joints with a unique articular capsule: humeroulnar, humeroradial and proximal...
[The wrist is the anatomic link bridging the hand to the forearm. Eight bones of the carpus and the distal ends of the radius and ulna allow three degrees of freedom (Fig. 4.1).
Fig. 4.1Photograph and volume rendering CT of the wrist]
[The hip joint is a synovial joint formed by the femoral head and the acetabulum. Both joint surfaces are covered with hyaline cartilage. The hip joint is a ball and socket joint where the roughly spherical femoral head is largely contained within the acetabulum.]
[The knee joins the thigh to the leg. It is composed of two joints: femorotibial and femoropatellar. The knee joint allows flexion and extension and slight medial and lateral rotation (Fig. 6.1).
Fig. 6.13D CT of the knee with surface rendering]
[The ankle is composed of three main articulations:
The distal tibiofibular joint (tibiofibular syndesmosis).The ankle (talocrural) joint.The subtalar (talocalcaneal) joint.]
[The spine is made up of vertebrae, which are irregular bones shaped to give flexibility to the column. The vertebrae are normally thirty-three (33), including the five that are fused to form the sacrum and the four coccygeal vertebrae. The upper group consists of 24 vertebrae divided into...
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