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[The ancient Chinese is the language from which modern Chinese language is derived. That is to say, ancient Chinese language evolved to what is now termed as modern Chinese. Since modern Chinese developed from ancient Chinese, both languages have been closely related to each other. However,...
[A writing system, as a tool of recording, is attached to language with visual symbols as the medium. The sound (音) in pronunciation is different from the ordinary “sound” and it is always associated with meaning, i.e., the semanteme. Therefore, in a broad sense of writing systems, a written...
[Wang Yinzhi, in his General Exegeses of the Classics, quoted the words of his father Wang Niansun “Meanings of alliterative and rhymed characters are generally based on pronunciation rather than forms.”]
[As mentioned earlier, to interpret words, we should get some basic knowledge of extensions, phonetic loans and “cognate words with similar pronunciation”.]
[A sentence is a basic unit of language. The smallest free unit—word—can express meaning and exchange ideas only by forming a complete sentence according to certain grammatical rules. Therefore, even during the interpretation of word meaning, we should also take into account the relationship...
[In modern Chinese, most of judgment sentences use the judgement verb “是” (beverb). Only in special cases, “是” is omitted. However, in ancient Chinese, most of sentences do not use judgement verbs. Consider the following sentences quoted from biographies.]
[To distinguish parts of speech is the basis for syntactic and grammatical analysis of ancient Chinese. Except in some special cases, parts of speech in ancient Chinese are roughly similar to those of modern Chinese. In this chapter, we proposed the method for classification as follows.]
[Except nouns, verbs, adjectives and their adjuncts, many other words in ancient Chinese are very abstract. Ancient scholars, in research and discussion about these words, often categorized them into one group and called them “auxiliary words” “modal auxiliary words” or “function words”.]
[Pronouns serve the functions of substitution and demonstration. For example, “吾” (I) and “爾” (you) can be used to replace persons, while “彼” (that) and “此” (this) to replace both persons and objects (In the sentence “此壮士也” (this is a hero) in “Biography of Lord Huaiyin” in Records of the Grand...
[Ellipsis is a common phenomenon in both ancient and modern Chinese. As ellipsis is more frequently used in ancient Chinese, a detailed discussion is still warranted. It should be noted, in our discussion of ellipsis, that certain components of a sentence are omitted on the condition of...
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