1 - 10 of 16 articles
This special section on autism etiology began with the paper submitted to The Analysis of Verbal Behavior by Drash and Tutor, who propose that autism is a contingency-shaped disorder of verbal behavior. The five papers that follow the Drash and Tutor paper provide reactions to their analysis by...
This paper analyzes autism as a contingency-shaped disorder of verbal behavior. Contingencies of reinforcement in effect during the first to third year of a child’s life may operate to establish and maintain those behaviors that later result in a diagnosis of autism. While neurobiological...
The authors comment on Drash and Tudor’s operant theory of autism. Concerns with the theory’s face validity and empirical support are presented, along with concerns about four aspects of the theory.
This article addresses the meaning of autism, the etiology of autistic behavior and values, the naturenurture debate, contingencies vs. genes, and resistance to a behavioral analysis of autism.
Drash and Tudor describe six sets of reinforcement contingencies which may be present in the environments of some children eventually diagnosed with autism and suggest that these contingencies account for the etiology of “autistic” behaviors. Nevertheless, merely observing such contingencies in...
A critique is presented of the etiological model for autism as presented by Drash and Tudor. The model is rejected based upon conceptual and methodological grounds. The major points raised concern overgeneralization of research findings, limitations of single subject methodology to answer...
Drash and Tudor’s argument that autism is a contingency-shaped disorder of verbal behavior is logical and consistent with behavioral principles, but the argument’s premises have no direct empirical support and some conflicting evidence. The quantity and quality of research needed to support such...
This paper presents a response to five commentaries on our article An Analysis of Autism as a Contingency-Shaped Disorder of Verbal Behavior (Drash & Tudor, 2004). One of the principal objectives of that article is to provide the behavior analysis community and the autism community with a...
We tested the effects of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on the emergence of untaught mands or tacts of adjective-object pairs in a multiple-probe design across four students with autism/developmental disabilities. None of the students emitted either mands or tacts for three sets of three...
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