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(1975)
Dept. Comptr. Sci., U. of California
Arvind, K. Gostelow (1975)
A new interpreter for data flow schemas and its implications for computer architecture
Kenneth Iverson (1899)
A programming language
J. Backus (1973)
Programming language semantics and closed applicative languagesProceedings of the 1st annual ACM SIGACT-SIGPLAN symposium on Principles of programming languages
O. Juelich, J. Ayers (1964)
On the recursive programming techniquesCommun. ACM, 7
(1973)
Lab. for Comptr. Sci., M.I.T
Peter Henderson, James Morris (1976)
A lazy evaluatorProceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGACT-SIGPLAN symposium on Principles on programming languages
E. Dijkstra (1976)
A Discipline of Programming
Z. Manna, Stephen Nes, J. Vuillemin (1973)
Inductive methods for proving properties of programsCommunications of the ACM, 16
J. McCarthy (1959)
Recursive functions of symbolic expressions and their computation by machine, Part ICommunications of the ACM, 3
D. Scott (1970)
Outline of a Mathematical Theory of Computation
A. Church (1941)
The calculi of lambda-conversion
J. Dennis (1974)
First version of a data flow procedure language
P. Landin (1964)
The Mechanical Evaluation of ExpressionsComput. J., 6
D. Scott (1973)
Models for Various Type-Free CalculiStudies in logic and the foundations of mathematics, 74
Daniel Friedman, David Wise (1976)
CONS Should Not Evaluate its Arguments
J. Reynolds (1970)
GEDANKEN—a simple typeless language based on the principle of completeness and the reference conceptCommunications of the ACM, 13
Z. Manna, Stephen Nes, J. Vuillemin (1972)
Inductive methods for proving properties of programs
K. Berkling (1975)
Reduction languages for reduction machines
(1970)
Scott, D. Lattice-theoretic models for various type-free calculi Towards a mathematical semantics for computer languages
Conventional programming languages are growing ever more enormous, but not stronger. Inherent defects at the most basic level cause them to be both fat and weak: their primitive word-at-a-time style of programming inherited from their common ancestor—the von Neumann computer, their close coupling of semantics to state transitions, their division of programming into a world of expressions and a world of statements, their inability to effectively use powerful combining forms for building new programs from existing ones, and their lack of useful mathematical properties for reasoning about programs. An alternative functional style of programming is founded on the use of combining forms for creating programs. Functional programs deal with structured data, are often nonrepetitive and nonrecursive, are hierarchically constructed, do not name their arguments, and do not require the complex machinery of procedure declarations to become generally applicable. Combining forms can use high level programs to build still higher level ones in a style not possible in conventional languages. Associated with the functional style of programming is an algebra of programs whose variables range over programs and whose operations are combining forms. This algebra can be used to transform programs and to solve equations whose “unknowns” are programs in much the same way one transforms equations in high school algebra. These transformations are given by algebraic laws and are carried out in the same language in which programs are written. Combining forms are chosen not only for their programming power but also for the power of their associated algebraic laws. General theorems of the algebra give the detailed behavior and termination conditions for large classes of programs. A new class of computing systems uses the functional programming style both in its programming language and in its state transition rules. Unlike von Neumann languages, these systems have semantics loosely coupled to states—only one state transition occurs per major computation.
Communications of the ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Published: Aug 1, 1978
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