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Living Quran in the Context of Rural Communities: A Study on the Miracle of the Quran in Gentasari, Kroya, Cilacap

Living Quran in the Context of Rural Communities: A Study on the Miracle of the Quran in... 1Introduction1The Quran is basically a holy book containing theological and social teachings that guide humans to the straight path.2 However, when the public consumes the Quran, the book undergoes a paradigm shift so that it is treated, implemented, and expressed differently according to their respective knowledge and beliefs.3The difference in the practice of the living Quran seems natural. This is because the Quran is intended for humans and confirms its status functionally as a guide or hudāʾ. Therefore, it is not surprising that Peter Werenfels emphasized that in this scripture – read Al-Quran, everyone will look for his theological system, and at the same time, he will also find the system with certain orientations and tendencies according to what he is looking for.4The reception pattern, which is expressed with a variety of motivations, when traced to its history, the embryo-integral has been almost every day practiced by the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH and friends.5 One sample story that can be raised in this context is the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH never cured a disease with ruqyah – reading the chapter of al-Fātihah and rejecting magic by reading the chapter of al-Muʾawwiḏatain.6In another episode, it can also be seen that Abdullah bin Masʾud carried out regular readings of the chapter of al-Wāqiʾah to be given sufficient and kept away from poverty.7 It was when Abu Bakar came to Abdullah bin Masʾud’s residence when he was sick – towards the end of his life while offering wealth as provisions for the descendants of Abdullah bin Masʿud after his death. However, in a narration, Abu Bakr’s offer was rejected by Abdullah bin Masʾud, who says, “After I’m dead, I have taught a chapter of the Quran to my sons and daughters, which if read intensively, they will not be overwritten by poverty forever, namely Surah al-Waqiʾah.”8In its history, the living practices of the Quran have been continuously preserved by the next generation – for example, from generation of Sahaba to Tabiʿīn, Tabiʿīn to tabiʿihim, even more so when the Quran is present in social realities outside its original community.9 That is, for the “ear and tongue” aʾjamiyya – non-Arabic who do not use Arabic in their daily lives, the potential to treat the Quran in a special way and beyond its capacity as a text will be much greater than the Quran is still alive in its community.10 Certain perceptions of the Quran from various new communities are the key factor in the emergence of creative practices and the functioning of the Quran in practical life.The phenomenon above, in the discourse of ʿulūm al-Qurʾān, is known as the Quran al-ḥayy or the study of the Living Quran – as the researcher mentioned earlier,11 namely, it is a phenomenon that lives in society as a response to its interaction with the Quran.12 Apart from this definition, the Living Quran can also be understood as the reader’s response to the holy verses of the Quran. The response can be how people interpret the verses, apply their moral teachings, and read and recite them. Thus, the interaction of society with the Quran is the focus of this study, so the implications of this study will contribute to conceptualizing the characteristics and typology of society in associating with the Quran.13Starting from the above, the author is interested in studying the phenomenon of the living Quran in rural communities, especially in Gentasari, Kroya District, Cilacap Regency. An area in the south of Java Island that has a variety of receptions to the Quran, especially from the aspect of magic. The approach used by the author in this study is a phenomenological approach, which is a research process emphasizing “meaningfulness.” That is, researchers are not limited to describing visible phenomena but also trying to understand the meaning inherent in these phenomena.Many previous researchers have carried out studies on the living Quran. Farid Esack’s work entitled The Quran in the Lives of Muslims in The Quran: A User’s Guide.14 In his article, Farid photographed how African Muslims interact with the Quran. In Africa, the Quran is read, memorized, and respected in such a way. Farid explained how when his mother cooks, he often hums the Quran, hoping the food will be delicious. Most houses in Africa are also decorated with Quranic calligraphy ornaments in the hope that the house is kept away from danger and disaster. These various phenomena led him to conclude that the Quran is alive in the African Muslim community and has a quasi- human personality.Second, is Bruce Lawrence, with his work entitled The Quran: A Biography.15 In his work, Bruce elaborated on various interactions of Islamic figures with the Quran, such as Jaʾfar Sadiq, Ibn Jarir at-Tabari, Ibn Arabi, and so on. From his study, he concluded that the behavior of the living Quran had been practiced since the time of the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH, such as by reading selected letters. This practice undergoes transmission and transformation from time to time which is influenced by the conditions and situations of the new community where the Quran is present.Third, Anwar Maulidin, with his article entitled Analisis Simbolik Penggunaan Ayat-ayat Al-Quran sebagai Jimat dalam Kehidupan Masyarakat Ponorogo,16 Discuss the Quran verses used as amulets and their meaning by the people of Ponorogo. The research shows that the amulets used by the people of Ponorogo vary. Each amulet has a different use, including to ward off the disturbance of spirits or jinn, amulets of immunity, amulets of the seller, and amulets to fertilize the soil. The verses and letters of the Quran used as amulets include the chapter of al-Fātihah, the chapter of Yāsin, the chapter of Thaha verse 39, and the chapter of al-Ikhlas and Muʾawwizatain. This practice combines elements of local cultures, such as slametan, etc.Fourth, the research conducted by Badruddin entitled Respons Masyarakat Krandon Kudus Jawa Tengah terhadap Tahfiz Al-Quran. In his research, Badruddin discusses the interaction of the Krandon community towards the Quran. From the research, it is found that the structure of the Krandon community, which is known to be religious, makes the eternal reception of the Quran – reception to maintain the eternality of the Quran by this community more prominent. The eternal reception manifests in the tradition of memorizing (simāʿan). Its reception was also born from their motivation.17Apart from several literature reviews of previous research, many books and studies – journal articles – still discuss the living Quran. However, researchers have not encountered previous research that discusses the living Quran in the community of Gentasari, Kroya District, Cilacap Regency. Therefore, this research has a novelty aspect by trying to conceptualize the practice of the living Quran in the structure of the village community, looking for a new typology of the reception of the Quran in society, as well as trying to reveal the meaning of the behaviors of the living Quran that are raised.18 We then gave this research the title Living Quran in the Context of Rural Communities (Study on the Magic of the Quran in Gentasari, Kroya, Cilacap).2Scope and MethodologyThe method used in this research is descriptive-qualitative and belongs to field research. The use of the descriptive-qualitative method is due to its suitability with the object and focus of this study. This research seeks to produce findings that cannot be achieved through measurement or statistical procedures.19The approach taken in this study is phenomenological. This approach is used to reveal the meaning inherent in the reception of the Quran by the Gentasari Village community. This research was conducted from May to July 2020. The process of collecting data in this study is by conducting observations, interviews – with actors, who are integrated into the practice of reception of the Quran in Gentasari Village, and documentation, as well as by tracking various references that have relevance to the focus of the study, both from books, articles and so on that function to support these data.20 Meanwhile, in clarifying the validity of the data, the researchers extended the participation and the triangulation of sources and methods.3Results and Discussion3.1Reception (Living) of the Quran: An Epistemological LookEtymologically, the word reception comes from the Latin “recipere,” meaning receiving or welcoming the reader.21 Meanwhile, according to terminology, reception is defined as a science based on the reader’s response to literary works.22 At first, the reception did examine the reader’s role in literary works. As for the literary work itself, it is aimed at the interests of the reader – as connoisseurs and consumers of literary works. So, literary works can have value because the readers provide value. So, it can be concluded that this reception theory is a theory that discusses the role of the reader in welcoming literary works.23Starting from the above, if the reception is combined with the Quran, it can be understood that the reception of the Quran means the reader’s response to the presence of the Quran.24 The response can be in the form of 1) the community interpreting the verses, 2) the community implementing its moral teachings, and 3) the community positioning the Quran in their daily lives.As a science that initially examines the reader’s role in literary works, an important question that must be answered is, is the Quran a literary work so that this theory is compatible to be used? According to literary experts, to be more precise can be said to be a literary work if it contains three elements, including:25 1) Rhythm and rhythm aesthetics, 2) Defamiliarization, and 3) reinterpretation.Of the three elements presented above, the Holy Quran is full of these values. The first element, for example, is contained in surah al-Insyirah verses 1–8;اَلَمْ نَشْرَحْ لَكَ صَدْرَكَۙ ١ وَوَضَعْنَا عَنْكَ وِزْرَكَۙ ٢ الَّذِيْٓ اَنْقَضَ ظَهْرَكَۙ ٣ وَرَفَعْنَا لَكَ ذِكْرَكَۗ ٤ فَاِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْرًاۙ ٥ اِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْرًاۗ ٦ فَاِذَا فَرَغْتَ فَانْصَبْۙ ٧ وَاِلٰى رَبِّكَ فَارْغَبْ ٨Have We not enlarged your chest (Muḥammād PBUH)? (1) And We also have lowered your burden from you (2), that burdens your back (3), And We exalt your name (name) for you (4). So surely, with hardship, there is ease (5); certainly, with hardship, there is ease (6). So, when you have finished (from a matter), keep working hard (for other matters) (7), and only to your God do you hope (8).The characteristics of the beautiful and orderly language in conveying the message of meaning contained in it can cause a sense of awe in the psychology of readers and listeners.26 The second element, namely defamiliarization, is the psychological condition of the reader who experiences amazement after “consuming” the work. The event of amazement after listening to the Quran has been recorded by history. Sayyid Qutb referred to this amazing event with the term masḥūrun bi al-Qurʾān, which means bewitched by the Quran, as experienced by Umar bin Khattab.27 In the book Sejarah Tuhan by Karen Armstrong, the following story is told:28One day Umar found his sister, Fatimah, who had secretly converted to Islam, listening to a new sura’s recitation. “What nonsense is that?” he shouted as he burst into the house and threw his poor little brother to the ground. However, when he saw his sister bleeding, Umar probably felt guilty; the look on his face changed. He picked up the manuscript that had accidentally fallen out of fear – from the hand of the Quran reader that Fatimah had brought to the house. Since Umar was among the few Quraysh who could read and write, he began to read. Umar was recognized as having authority in matters of oral Arabic poetry. Poets often consulted him about the exact meaning of the language, but Umar had never encountered anything resembling the Quran. “How majestic and beautiful this sentence is!” he said in amazement, and at that moment, he converted to Islam.Apart from the two things above, the element of reinterpretation, or the reader’s curiosity to reinterpret literary works, is also evident in the Quran. Hundreds of books of interpretation of the Quran were born in the classical, middle, and contemporary periods with different styles and characteristics. Finally, from this explanation, reception theory has relevance in studying the public’s response to the presence of the Quran.The various meanings of the Quran and its manifestations in everyday life are socio-cultural events or phenomena that are the focus of this living Quran research.29 In Indonesia, this phenomenon, according to Shri Ahimsa, has received little attention from experts in Islamic universities.Viewing the Living al-Quran is viewing this phenomenon as a socio-cultural phenomenon, a symptom in the form of individual behavior patterns that emerge from their understanding of the Quran. With this perspective, the phenomenon that later becomes the object of study is no longer the Quran as a book but human treatment of the Quran and how patterns of behavior that are considered based on an understanding of the Quran are realized. The object of study here is how the various meanings of the Quran above are practiced in daily human life.3.2The Magic of the Quran in the Context of the Time of RevelationBy borrowing the theory of the creation of the Quran from the Mutazilah flow, Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd positions the Quran as an ordinary text like other texts in general.30 When the Quran is positioned as a creature or creation of God, then simultaneously, according to Nasr Hamid Abu Zaid, Muktazilah has the notion that the Quran is an act of God often related to reality. Because the Quran has been transformed into a profane text in worldly reality, it can be studied through various approaches like other texts.31According to Aksin Wijaya, there was an intimate relationship between the revelation phenomenon and the reality of Arab culture at that time.32 Arab society – especially poets and shamans pre-Islam, has been accustomed to dealing with the figure of jinn and spirits created by God.33In the process of seeking inspiration, they depend on the jinn because the latter are believed to be able to capture natural phenomena, the unseen realities of the sky, so that writers and shamans can provide certain information that cannot be captured by the five senses of related to events that someone in the future will experience.34 This belief implies the existence of three elements of belief in pre-Islamic Arab society, namely 1) belief in the charisma of poets and kāhin figures, 2) that of mediators, and 3) that of supernatural messages. These three elements are accommodated and modified by Islam, with the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH as a charismatic figure, Jibril as a mediator, and revelation as a magical message.35Not only in terms of the existential relationship that the Quran accommodates but also in terms of the actual contents it carries. The magical power of šiʿr and kahānah is inherent in the Quran. As explained earlier, the magical power of the Quran often fills the historical space of Islam during the revelation period. The conversion of Umar bin Khatab to Islam because of masḥūrun bi al-Qurʾān (bewitched by the Quran) or even the practices of using verses of the Quran because they are considered to have magical powers, neatly recorded by history.36The explanation above confirms that the Quran was not born in space – ahistorically, but in historical spatial order. The Quran often engages in dialogue with the traditional teachings of early Arab Islamic society, both existentially and essentially. Precisely the Quran will lose its magical power and relevance if it is present in a foreign face from a developing cultural reality,37 because since the Quranic era – to borrow Toshihiko Isutzu’s term – even though Muslims have carried out various creative processes in understanding and receiving information related to the magical power of the Quran, such as making the Quran a medicine,38 protection from supernatural beings,39 Protection from poverty, and so forth. This creative process was later understood and practiced by later generations and has existed and been institutionalized to the present day.403.3Overview of Gentasari, Kroya, CilacapGentasari is one of the villages located in the administrative area of Kroya sub-district, Cilacap, Central Java Province. This village is approximately 2 km from Kroya District and 32 km from the district city, with an area of about 264.53 hectares (Ha). Geographically, this village is bordered by Nusajati Village in the west, Kedawung Village in the south, Mujur Village in the north, and Grujugan Village in the east.41In terms of demography, this village has a total population of 6991 people with details of 3539 men and 3452 women. Most of the residents of this village work as farmers and farm laborers. One thousand six hundred sixty-two villagers work as farmers, while 838 villagers work as farm laborers.42Here are some of the potentials in Gentasari village:3.3.1Natural ResourcesNatural resources owned by the village of Gentasari, Kroya, Cilacap includes rice fields, rivers, plantations, vacant land for livestock use, and fish farming.3.3.2Human ResourcesApart from the available natural resources, Gentasari, Kroya, Cilacap village has adequate human resources. Good human resources can be seen from the number of people with an education above the average in SMA/SMK (Senior High School).3.3.3Social ResourcesThe potential of social resources owned by Gentasari village is the number of institutions that are found in the community. These institutions or communities include Gapoktan, Kelompok Pengajian (Study Groups), Arisan Groups, Posyandu, Karang Taruna (Youth Organizations), and Pokdakan.3.4The Magic of the Quran in the Present Context: A Study on the Reception of the Quran in Gentasari3.4.1Al-Quran as a Medicinal MediaThe collaborative practice of the Gentasari Village community as a response to the presence of the Quran, which functions as a magical and healing medium, is present in the reading of Istiġaṯsah at the mosques of the local community. The local community performs this routine on Saturday night after performing the Isha prayer congregation.This activity begins with reading some awrād – recitation of religious formulae – by the congregation while waiting for the Imam to come to the assembly. The awrād include 1) the statement of monotheism – lā ilāha illallāh, 2) the attributes of Allah – al-mālik, al-haqq, al-mubīn, 3) the creed of the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH (Muḥammādun rasulullāh), and 4) the attributes of the Prophet – ṣādiq al waʾd al-amīn.43After the Imam joins the assembly, istiġaṯsah proceeds with the reading of tawassul, ḥaḍara, aḏkar, Quranic verses, and selected chapters and ends with the reading of prayers. As for the selected verses, they include 1) the first verse of the Surah al-Iḫlāṣ, 2) kun fayakūn pronunciation – found in Surah al-Maryām: 35; Surah Yāsin: 82; Surah al-Muʾmin: 68; and Surah Ali Imrān: 47, 3) qadīran pronunciation – found in Surah al-Qiyāmat: 3, and the pronunciation of Abadā – found in Surah al-Bayyināt: 8. the selected Quranic chapters include: 1) Surah Al-Muʾawwiḏatain – read seven times.44In this activity, several people brought water in many bottles and placed them in front of the istiġaṯsah Imam to seek blessings and treat their sick families.45 In medical studies, the practice of medicine can be carried out if it fulfills three elements, the sick person, the person who treats, and the means of treatment.46 In this context, it can be understood that the Imam has a position as a person who treats, while istiġaṯsah and water are media and means of treatment.The people of Gentasari Village are mostly farmers,47 and only some of them can speak Arabic. This situation seems to confirm the opinion conveyed by Sam D. Gill that in non-Arab communities, the existence of texts in the everyday life of a Muslim has a more important position than the meaning and content of the text itself.48 So that the potential for treating the Quran in its performative function will be much more common.The same emphasis was expressed by Kyai Zulfikar Rofi Usmani as the istiġaṯsah Imam when the researcher questioned how he interpreted the Quran. He says the Quran is God’s word, a guide for human life. Therefore, it is obligatory for humans to “believe” these instructions to be safe in this world and the hereafter. Among these instructions, Zulfikar mentions that the Quran informs and declares itself to us as šifā, which means medicine for humans.Quoting Heddy Shri Ahimsa, people have two understandings in interpreting the Quran as šifā, namely in the meaning of maǧazi (metaphor) and the ḥaqiqi meaning (actually).49 In this context, the Quran as a medicine in the istiġaṯsah of Yamisda al-Ihsan manifests the society’s interpretation of the pharmacy of the Quran in its essential meaning. According to Ahimsa, the functioning of the Quran does not refer to an understanding of its textual message. Still, it is based on the belief in the existence of faḍīlah from certain units of the Quran, as shown in various other Islamic kinds of literature, such as the book of Faḍāʾil Qurʾān wa Maʿālimuhu wa Adābuhu, and so on.3.4.2Al-Quran as a Media for Protection from Unseen CreaturesThe Quran is the social reality of the Gentasari Village community; apart from being a medium of treatment, it also has a position as a medium of protection from supernatural beings.50 For example, is the Quran or the part of the Quran used as an anti-theft talisman – repel reinforcements – which is placed on the door of their house? An amulet can be understood as an object in the form of a piece of paper, a precious stone, an iron plate, or so on, which some people believe to have supernatural powers for certain interests and purposes.51From the interviews, Mad Kurdi said he and several other villagers often experienced theft – losing money. This initiated him to ask for help from “dukun – smart people” to provide solutions to the problems he was experiencing. Then from the meeting, he was trusted to read the Surah Al-Fātihah and Ayat Kursi (Surah Al-Baqarah: 255), each read seven times a day and given a piece of paper containing the tattoo. Ayat Kursi be placed above the house door as a medium for rejecting reinforcements – an evil spirit.52According to J. G. Frazer, people who use amulets face problems that are rationally difficult to deal with.53 Humans usually look for solutions to various life problems based on the ability of reason and science. However, in reality, reason and science have a limited nature. Therefore, life problems that cannot be solved through reason will be solved with something irrational (as an alternative). In this regard, religion emerges as a solution because it has a system that affirms supra-rational powers.54Apart from that – about the Quran as a medium of protection against demonic disturbances or evil spirits – in the concept of thinking of the people of Gentasari Village, certain verses in the Quran, such as the Ayat Kursi are also believed to be able to protect their readers from interference or harassment of evil spirits.Relating to the above, we have read a hadith about one of the companions of the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH – Abu Hurairah Ra., who was assigned to guard the ḏakat assets of Muslims. For two consecutive nights, Abu Hurairah managed to catch the thief of the treasury (Bayt al-Māl). Still, whenever he was caught, this thief always asked for mercy not to be reported to the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH because he was poor and always promised not to steal again. However, these theft attempts still existed until, on the third night, the thief was caught again and asked to be released. He promised to tell the friend – Abu Hurairah Ra. – about something that would benefit him. When released, this thief said that if someone reads of Ayat Kursi before going to sleep, he will be protected from the devil’s evil.55The public’s belief in the magical power of the Quran is very visible in this reception pattern. The people of Gentasari Village presented the Quran as a medium of protection from supernatural beings. Objectively, this reception can also represent the connecting symbol between the servant and Khaliq. The servant represents himself as something limited and God as an absolute being – overall power.3.4.3Al-Quran as a Media to Facilitate Affairs3.4.3.1Ease during Sakārat al-Mawt (Nearing Death)Death is something real to come,56 and sakārat al-mawt is the initial process of death itself.57 Chapter Yāsin is one of the most popular chapters of the Quran among the people of Gentasari Village. This chapter, known as qalb al-Qurʾān (heart of the Quran), is usually read by Gentasari Village’s people to residents facing or after death.58 This reception was expressed by the people of Gentasari Village as a request to Allah SWT. so that a person is given ease in the time of death.59In addition to facilitating the process leading up to the sakārat al-mawt, several chapters of the Quran are also read as an expression of asking for protection against torment after death. Many, maybe even the majority of Muslims, believe that certain verses or chapters in the Quran can provide benefits in the form of protection for their readers from the torments that may be received in the grave. The chapter that is known to protect from the torment of the grave to those who diligently read it is al-Mulk.The companion of Abdullah bin ʿAbbas said that the Messenger of Allah has said – which means, “Indeed in the Quran, I found a chapter containing thirty verses.” Whoever reads it while he is going to sleep, thirty good deeds are written for him, thirty faults are removed from him, raised for him to thirty degrees, and Allah Swt – sent one of the angels to spread his wings over him, guarding him against (disruption) everything until he wakes up. That’s the chapter that filed a lawsuit in defense of people who always read it later in the grave, namely the chapter Tabārak – Al-Mulk.603.4.3.2Application for the Manifestation of the Ideal Baby, as Well as the Ease of Giving BirthJavanese society – including the people of Gentasari Village, known for their rich tradition and various traditional rite passage ceremonies, locally called slametan.61 One of the traditions that exist in the community of Gentasari Village is the Ngapati tradition, or the slametan ceremony for a four-month-old pregnancy.62Ngapati tradition begins with the reading of the Surah Yusuf, Surah Maryām, Surah Muḥammād, Surah Luqman, and Surah al-Takasur, continued by reading awrād – hamdallāh and ṣalawat and closed with a prayer. The selection of these chapters is expressed with a certain motivation and purpose.63 The reading of Surah Yūsuf is based on the hope that if the fetus is a male, he can inherit the characteristics of the Prophet Yusuf, who is handsome, firm, fair, and wise.64Reading of Surah Maryām is oriented so that if the fetus is female, she can inherit Maryām’s traits of being patient, tough, and qaniʾah.65 Reading of Surah Muḥammād is a tafāʾul so that the fetus can inherit the traits of the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH, who is honest, intelligent, and trustworthy. Reading of Surah Luqman aims that the fetus when it is born into the world, can become a person who is obedient to parents – in their terms, njunjung duwur mendhem jero – enhance or highlight the strengths and improve the family and overcome the shortcomings or families, and reciting Surah al-Takāṯur in the hope of being given the ease in the delivery process.664ConclusionFrom the explanation above, it can be concluded that a Gentasari Village Community positions the Quran as an entity with magical powers. The implications of this view are implemented in various practices of their reception – living – of the Quran.The variety of living Quran practices found in the community structure of Gentasari Village, including 1) Al-Quran is used as a medium of treatment, as a medium of protection from evil spirits, and repel reinforcements (tolak bala), 2) Al-Quran is used as a medium to facilitate life’s problems – such as those during the agony of death (sakārat al-mawt) or delivery, ease of processing childbirth, and 3) Al-Quran is positioned as a medium for requesting the birth of an ideal baby, which inherits the characteristics of figures in the Quran, such as Prophet Yunus, Prophet Muḥammād PBUH, and Maryām.The Quran as a treatment medium is found in the Istiġaṯsah tradition, carried out in mosques in Gentasari Village; Community members normally bring along the water as an instrument for the treatment. The Quran as a medium to facilitate affairs can be found in reading the Surah Yāsin before one’s death, and the Quran is positioned as a medium for implementing requests in the tradition of reading a selected chapter of the Quran – such as reading the Surah Maryām is an expression of hope for a beautiful baby girl “inside and out” as the figure of Maryām – the mother of Prophet Isa as., reading of Surah Yusuf is the hope of a handsome and pious baby boy as the figure of the Prophet Yusuf.This research studies the various living Quran practices in the Gentasari Village, Kroya, Cilacap; besides being receptive to the Quran in various forms above, several components of society also have a living practice of hadith texts. Thus, the next researcher can continue research on the traditions received by the Gentasari Village community through other approaches that are determined by the researcher’s interest. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Al-Bayan Journal of Qur’an and Hadith Studies Brill

Living Quran in the Context of Rural Communities: A Study on the Miracle of the Quran in Gentasari, Kroya, Cilacap

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References (13)

Publisher
Brill
Copyright
Copyright © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands
ISSN
2232-1950
eISSN
2232-1969
DOI
10.1163/22321969-20230132
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

1Introduction1The Quran is basically a holy book containing theological and social teachings that guide humans to the straight path.2 However, when the public consumes the Quran, the book undergoes a paradigm shift so that it is treated, implemented, and expressed differently according to their respective knowledge and beliefs.3The difference in the practice of the living Quran seems natural. This is because the Quran is intended for humans and confirms its status functionally as a guide or hudāʾ. Therefore, it is not surprising that Peter Werenfels emphasized that in this scripture – read Al-Quran, everyone will look for his theological system, and at the same time, he will also find the system with certain orientations and tendencies according to what he is looking for.4The reception pattern, which is expressed with a variety of motivations, when traced to its history, the embryo-integral has been almost every day practiced by the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH and friends.5 One sample story that can be raised in this context is the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH never cured a disease with ruqyah – reading the chapter of al-Fātihah and rejecting magic by reading the chapter of al-Muʾawwiḏatain.6In another episode, it can also be seen that Abdullah bin Masʾud carried out regular readings of the chapter of al-Wāqiʾah to be given sufficient and kept away from poverty.7 It was when Abu Bakar came to Abdullah bin Masʾud’s residence when he was sick – towards the end of his life while offering wealth as provisions for the descendants of Abdullah bin Masʿud after his death. However, in a narration, Abu Bakr’s offer was rejected by Abdullah bin Masʾud, who says, “After I’m dead, I have taught a chapter of the Quran to my sons and daughters, which if read intensively, they will not be overwritten by poverty forever, namely Surah al-Waqiʾah.”8In its history, the living practices of the Quran have been continuously preserved by the next generation – for example, from generation of Sahaba to Tabiʿīn, Tabiʿīn to tabiʿihim, even more so when the Quran is present in social realities outside its original community.9 That is, for the “ear and tongue” aʾjamiyya – non-Arabic who do not use Arabic in their daily lives, the potential to treat the Quran in a special way and beyond its capacity as a text will be much greater than the Quran is still alive in its community.10 Certain perceptions of the Quran from various new communities are the key factor in the emergence of creative practices and the functioning of the Quran in practical life.The phenomenon above, in the discourse of ʿulūm al-Qurʾān, is known as the Quran al-ḥayy or the study of the Living Quran – as the researcher mentioned earlier,11 namely, it is a phenomenon that lives in society as a response to its interaction with the Quran.12 Apart from this definition, the Living Quran can also be understood as the reader’s response to the holy verses of the Quran. The response can be how people interpret the verses, apply their moral teachings, and read and recite them. Thus, the interaction of society with the Quran is the focus of this study, so the implications of this study will contribute to conceptualizing the characteristics and typology of society in associating with the Quran.13Starting from the above, the author is interested in studying the phenomenon of the living Quran in rural communities, especially in Gentasari, Kroya District, Cilacap Regency. An area in the south of Java Island that has a variety of receptions to the Quran, especially from the aspect of magic. The approach used by the author in this study is a phenomenological approach, which is a research process emphasizing “meaningfulness.” That is, researchers are not limited to describing visible phenomena but also trying to understand the meaning inherent in these phenomena.Many previous researchers have carried out studies on the living Quran. Farid Esack’s work entitled The Quran in the Lives of Muslims in The Quran: A User’s Guide.14 In his article, Farid photographed how African Muslims interact with the Quran. In Africa, the Quran is read, memorized, and respected in such a way. Farid explained how when his mother cooks, he often hums the Quran, hoping the food will be delicious. Most houses in Africa are also decorated with Quranic calligraphy ornaments in the hope that the house is kept away from danger and disaster. These various phenomena led him to conclude that the Quran is alive in the African Muslim community and has a quasi- human personality.Second, is Bruce Lawrence, with his work entitled The Quran: A Biography.15 In his work, Bruce elaborated on various interactions of Islamic figures with the Quran, such as Jaʾfar Sadiq, Ibn Jarir at-Tabari, Ibn Arabi, and so on. From his study, he concluded that the behavior of the living Quran had been practiced since the time of the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH, such as by reading selected letters. This practice undergoes transmission and transformation from time to time which is influenced by the conditions and situations of the new community where the Quran is present.Third, Anwar Maulidin, with his article entitled Analisis Simbolik Penggunaan Ayat-ayat Al-Quran sebagai Jimat dalam Kehidupan Masyarakat Ponorogo,16 Discuss the Quran verses used as amulets and their meaning by the people of Ponorogo. The research shows that the amulets used by the people of Ponorogo vary. Each amulet has a different use, including to ward off the disturbance of spirits or jinn, amulets of immunity, amulets of the seller, and amulets to fertilize the soil. The verses and letters of the Quran used as amulets include the chapter of al-Fātihah, the chapter of Yāsin, the chapter of Thaha verse 39, and the chapter of al-Ikhlas and Muʾawwizatain. This practice combines elements of local cultures, such as slametan, etc.Fourth, the research conducted by Badruddin entitled Respons Masyarakat Krandon Kudus Jawa Tengah terhadap Tahfiz Al-Quran. In his research, Badruddin discusses the interaction of the Krandon community towards the Quran. From the research, it is found that the structure of the Krandon community, which is known to be religious, makes the eternal reception of the Quran – reception to maintain the eternality of the Quran by this community more prominent. The eternal reception manifests in the tradition of memorizing (simāʿan). Its reception was also born from their motivation.17Apart from several literature reviews of previous research, many books and studies – journal articles – still discuss the living Quran. However, researchers have not encountered previous research that discusses the living Quran in the community of Gentasari, Kroya District, Cilacap Regency. Therefore, this research has a novelty aspect by trying to conceptualize the practice of the living Quran in the structure of the village community, looking for a new typology of the reception of the Quran in society, as well as trying to reveal the meaning of the behaviors of the living Quran that are raised.18 We then gave this research the title Living Quran in the Context of Rural Communities (Study on the Magic of the Quran in Gentasari, Kroya, Cilacap).2Scope and MethodologyThe method used in this research is descriptive-qualitative and belongs to field research. The use of the descriptive-qualitative method is due to its suitability with the object and focus of this study. This research seeks to produce findings that cannot be achieved through measurement or statistical procedures.19The approach taken in this study is phenomenological. This approach is used to reveal the meaning inherent in the reception of the Quran by the Gentasari Village community. This research was conducted from May to July 2020. The process of collecting data in this study is by conducting observations, interviews – with actors, who are integrated into the practice of reception of the Quran in Gentasari Village, and documentation, as well as by tracking various references that have relevance to the focus of the study, both from books, articles and so on that function to support these data.20 Meanwhile, in clarifying the validity of the data, the researchers extended the participation and the triangulation of sources and methods.3Results and Discussion3.1Reception (Living) of the Quran: An Epistemological LookEtymologically, the word reception comes from the Latin “recipere,” meaning receiving or welcoming the reader.21 Meanwhile, according to terminology, reception is defined as a science based on the reader’s response to literary works.22 At first, the reception did examine the reader’s role in literary works. As for the literary work itself, it is aimed at the interests of the reader – as connoisseurs and consumers of literary works. So, literary works can have value because the readers provide value. So, it can be concluded that this reception theory is a theory that discusses the role of the reader in welcoming literary works.23Starting from the above, if the reception is combined with the Quran, it can be understood that the reception of the Quran means the reader’s response to the presence of the Quran.24 The response can be in the form of 1) the community interpreting the verses, 2) the community implementing its moral teachings, and 3) the community positioning the Quran in their daily lives.As a science that initially examines the reader’s role in literary works, an important question that must be answered is, is the Quran a literary work so that this theory is compatible to be used? According to literary experts, to be more precise can be said to be a literary work if it contains three elements, including:25 1) Rhythm and rhythm aesthetics, 2) Defamiliarization, and 3) reinterpretation.Of the three elements presented above, the Holy Quran is full of these values. The first element, for example, is contained in surah al-Insyirah verses 1–8;اَلَمْ نَشْرَحْ لَكَ صَدْرَكَۙ ١ وَوَضَعْنَا عَنْكَ وِزْرَكَۙ ٢ الَّذِيْٓ اَنْقَضَ ظَهْرَكَۙ ٣ وَرَفَعْنَا لَكَ ذِكْرَكَۗ ٤ فَاِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْرًاۙ ٥ اِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْرًاۗ ٦ فَاِذَا فَرَغْتَ فَانْصَبْۙ ٧ وَاِلٰى رَبِّكَ فَارْغَبْ ٨Have We not enlarged your chest (Muḥammād PBUH)? (1) And We also have lowered your burden from you (2), that burdens your back (3), And We exalt your name (name) for you (4). So surely, with hardship, there is ease (5); certainly, with hardship, there is ease (6). So, when you have finished (from a matter), keep working hard (for other matters) (7), and only to your God do you hope (8).The characteristics of the beautiful and orderly language in conveying the message of meaning contained in it can cause a sense of awe in the psychology of readers and listeners.26 The second element, namely defamiliarization, is the psychological condition of the reader who experiences amazement after “consuming” the work. The event of amazement after listening to the Quran has been recorded by history. Sayyid Qutb referred to this amazing event with the term masḥūrun bi al-Qurʾān, which means bewitched by the Quran, as experienced by Umar bin Khattab.27 In the book Sejarah Tuhan by Karen Armstrong, the following story is told:28One day Umar found his sister, Fatimah, who had secretly converted to Islam, listening to a new sura’s recitation. “What nonsense is that?” he shouted as he burst into the house and threw his poor little brother to the ground. However, when he saw his sister bleeding, Umar probably felt guilty; the look on his face changed. He picked up the manuscript that had accidentally fallen out of fear – from the hand of the Quran reader that Fatimah had brought to the house. Since Umar was among the few Quraysh who could read and write, he began to read. Umar was recognized as having authority in matters of oral Arabic poetry. Poets often consulted him about the exact meaning of the language, but Umar had never encountered anything resembling the Quran. “How majestic and beautiful this sentence is!” he said in amazement, and at that moment, he converted to Islam.Apart from the two things above, the element of reinterpretation, or the reader’s curiosity to reinterpret literary works, is also evident in the Quran. Hundreds of books of interpretation of the Quran were born in the classical, middle, and contemporary periods with different styles and characteristics. Finally, from this explanation, reception theory has relevance in studying the public’s response to the presence of the Quran.The various meanings of the Quran and its manifestations in everyday life are socio-cultural events or phenomena that are the focus of this living Quran research.29 In Indonesia, this phenomenon, according to Shri Ahimsa, has received little attention from experts in Islamic universities.Viewing the Living al-Quran is viewing this phenomenon as a socio-cultural phenomenon, a symptom in the form of individual behavior patterns that emerge from their understanding of the Quran. With this perspective, the phenomenon that later becomes the object of study is no longer the Quran as a book but human treatment of the Quran and how patterns of behavior that are considered based on an understanding of the Quran are realized. The object of study here is how the various meanings of the Quran above are practiced in daily human life.3.2The Magic of the Quran in the Context of the Time of RevelationBy borrowing the theory of the creation of the Quran from the Mutazilah flow, Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd positions the Quran as an ordinary text like other texts in general.30 When the Quran is positioned as a creature or creation of God, then simultaneously, according to Nasr Hamid Abu Zaid, Muktazilah has the notion that the Quran is an act of God often related to reality. Because the Quran has been transformed into a profane text in worldly reality, it can be studied through various approaches like other texts.31According to Aksin Wijaya, there was an intimate relationship between the revelation phenomenon and the reality of Arab culture at that time.32 Arab society – especially poets and shamans pre-Islam, has been accustomed to dealing with the figure of jinn and spirits created by God.33In the process of seeking inspiration, they depend on the jinn because the latter are believed to be able to capture natural phenomena, the unseen realities of the sky, so that writers and shamans can provide certain information that cannot be captured by the five senses of related to events that someone in the future will experience.34 This belief implies the existence of three elements of belief in pre-Islamic Arab society, namely 1) belief in the charisma of poets and kāhin figures, 2) that of mediators, and 3) that of supernatural messages. These three elements are accommodated and modified by Islam, with the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH as a charismatic figure, Jibril as a mediator, and revelation as a magical message.35Not only in terms of the existential relationship that the Quran accommodates but also in terms of the actual contents it carries. The magical power of šiʿr and kahānah is inherent in the Quran. As explained earlier, the magical power of the Quran often fills the historical space of Islam during the revelation period. The conversion of Umar bin Khatab to Islam because of masḥūrun bi al-Qurʾān (bewitched by the Quran) or even the practices of using verses of the Quran because they are considered to have magical powers, neatly recorded by history.36The explanation above confirms that the Quran was not born in space – ahistorically, but in historical spatial order. The Quran often engages in dialogue with the traditional teachings of early Arab Islamic society, both existentially and essentially. Precisely the Quran will lose its magical power and relevance if it is present in a foreign face from a developing cultural reality,37 because since the Quranic era – to borrow Toshihiko Isutzu’s term – even though Muslims have carried out various creative processes in understanding and receiving information related to the magical power of the Quran, such as making the Quran a medicine,38 protection from supernatural beings,39 Protection from poverty, and so forth. This creative process was later understood and practiced by later generations and has existed and been institutionalized to the present day.403.3Overview of Gentasari, Kroya, CilacapGentasari is one of the villages located in the administrative area of Kroya sub-district, Cilacap, Central Java Province. This village is approximately 2 km from Kroya District and 32 km from the district city, with an area of about 264.53 hectares (Ha). Geographically, this village is bordered by Nusajati Village in the west, Kedawung Village in the south, Mujur Village in the north, and Grujugan Village in the east.41In terms of demography, this village has a total population of 6991 people with details of 3539 men and 3452 women. Most of the residents of this village work as farmers and farm laborers. One thousand six hundred sixty-two villagers work as farmers, while 838 villagers work as farm laborers.42Here are some of the potentials in Gentasari village:3.3.1Natural ResourcesNatural resources owned by the village of Gentasari, Kroya, Cilacap includes rice fields, rivers, plantations, vacant land for livestock use, and fish farming.3.3.2Human ResourcesApart from the available natural resources, Gentasari, Kroya, Cilacap village has adequate human resources. Good human resources can be seen from the number of people with an education above the average in SMA/SMK (Senior High School).3.3.3Social ResourcesThe potential of social resources owned by Gentasari village is the number of institutions that are found in the community. These institutions or communities include Gapoktan, Kelompok Pengajian (Study Groups), Arisan Groups, Posyandu, Karang Taruna (Youth Organizations), and Pokdakan.3.4The Magic of the Quran in the Present Context: A Study on the Reception of the Quran in Gentasari3.4.1Al-Quran as a Medicinal MediaThe collaborative practice of the Gentasari Village community as a response to the presence of the Quran, which functions as a magical and healing medium, is present in the reading of Istiġaṯsah at the mosques of the local community. The local community performs this routine on Saturday night after performing the Isha prayer congregation.This activity begins with reading some awrād – recitation of religious formulae – by the congregation while waiting for the Imam to come to the assembly. The awrād include 1) the statement of monotheism – lā ilāha illallāh, 2) the attributes of Allah – al-mālik, al-haqq, al-mubīn, 3) the creed of the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH (Muḥammādun rasulullāh), and 4) the attributes of the Prophet – ṣādiq al waʾd al-amīn.43After the Imam joins the assembly, istiġaṯsah proceeds with the reading of tawassul, ḥaḍara, aḏkar, Quranic verses, and selected chapters and ends with the reading of prayers. As for the selected verses, they include 1) the first verse of the Surah al-Iḫlāṣ, 2) kun fayakūn pronunciation – found in Surah al-Maryām: 35; Surah Yāsin: 82; Surah al-Muʾmin: 68; and Surah Ali Imrān: 47, 3) qadīran pronunciation – found in Surah al-Qiyāmat: 3, and the pronunciation of Abadā – found in Surah al-Bayyināt: 8. the selected Quranic chapters include: 1) Surah Al-Muʾawwiḏatain – read seven times.44In this activity, several people brought water in many bottles and placed them in front of the istiġaṯsah Imam to seek blessings and treat their sick families.45 In medical studies, the practice of medicine can be carried out if it fulfills three elements, the sick person, the person who treats, and the means of treatment.46 In this context, it can be understood that the Imam has a position as a person who treats, while istiġaṯsah and water are media and means of treatment.The people of Gentasari Village are mostly farmers,47 and only some of them can speak Arabic. This situation seems to confirm the opinion conveyed by Sam D. Gill that in non-Arab communities, the existence of texts in the everyday life of a Muslim has a more important position than the meaning and content of the text itself.48 So that the potential for treating the Quran in its performative function will be much more common.The same emphasis was expressed by Kyai Zulfikar Rofi Usmani as the istiġaṯsah Imam when the researcher questioned how he interpreted the Quran. He says the Quran is God’s word, a guide for human life. Therefore, it is obligatory for humans to “believe” these instructions to be safe in this world and the hereafter. Among these instructions, Zulfikar mentions that the Quran informs and declares itself to us as šifā, which means medicine for humans.Quoting Heddy Shri Ahimsa, people have two understandings in interpreting the Quran as šifā, namely in the meaning of maǧazi (metaphor) and the ḥaqiqi meaning (actually).49 In this context, the Quran as a medicine in the istiġaṯsah of Yamisda al-Ihsan manifests the society’s interpretation of the pharmacy of the Quran in its essential meaning. According to Ahimsa, the functioning of the Quran does not refer to an understanding of its textual message. Still, it is based on the belief in the existence of faḍīlah from certain units of the Quran, as shown in various other Islamic kinds of literature, such as the book of Faḍāʾil Qurʾān wa Maʿālimuhu wa Adābuhu, and so on.3.4.2Al-Quran as a Media for Protection from Unseen CreaturesThe Quran is the social reality of the Gentasari Village community; apart from being a medium of treatment, it also has a position as a medium of protection from supernatural beings.50 For example, is the Quran or the part of the Quran used as an anti-theft talisman – repel reinforcements – which is placed on the door of their house? An amulet can be understood as an object in the form of a piece of paper, a precious stone, an iron plate, or so on, which some people believe to have supernatural powers for certain interests and purposes.51From the interviews, Mad Kurdi said he and several other villagers often experienced theft – losing money. This initiated him to ask for help from “dukun – smart people” to provide solutions to the problems he was experiencing. Then from the meeting, he was trusted to read the Surah Al-Fātihah and Ayat Kursi (Surah Al-Baqarah: 255), each read seven times a day and given a piece of paper containing the tattoo. Ayat Kursi be placed above the house door as a medium for rejecting reinforcements – an evil spirit.52According to J. G. Frazer, people who use amulets face problems that are rationally difficult to deal with.53 Humans usually look for solutions to various life problems based on the ability of reason and science. However, in reality, reason and science have a limited nature. Therefore, life problems that cannot be solved through reason will be solved with something irrational (as an alternative). In this regard, religion emerges as a solution because it has a system that affirms supra-rational powers.54Apart from that – about the Quran as a medium of protection against demonic disturbances or evil spirits – in the concept of thinking of the people of Gentasari Village, certain verses in the Quran, such as the Ayat Kursi are also believed to be able to protect their readers from interference or harassment of evil spirits.Relating to the above, we have read a hadith about one of the companions of the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH – Abu Hurairah Ra., who was assigned to guard the ḏakat assets of Muslims. For two consecutive nights, Abu Hurairah managed to catch the thief of the treasury (Bayt al-Māl). Still, whenever he was caught, this thief always asked for mercy not to be reported to the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH because he was poor and always promised not to steal again. However, these theft attempts still existed until, on the third night, the thief was caught again and asked to be released. He promised to tell the friend – Abu Hurairah Ra. – about something that would benefit him. When released, this thief said that if someone reads of Ayat Kursi before going to sleep, he will be protected from the devil’s evil.55The public’s belief in the magical power of the Quran is very visible in this reception pattern. The people of Gentasari Village presented the Quran as a medium of protection from supernatural beings. Objectively, this reception can also represent the connecting symbol between the servant and Khaliq. The servant represents himself as something limited and God as an absolute being – overall power.3.4.3Al-Quran as a Media to Facilitate Affairs3.4.3.1Ease during Sakārat al-Mawt (Nearing Death)Death is something real to come,56 and sakārat al-mawt is the initial process of death itself.57 Chapter Yāsin is one of the most popular chapters of the Quran among the people of Gentasari Village. This chapter, known as qalb al-Qurʾān (heart of the Quran), is usually read by Gentasari Village’s people to residents facing or after death.58 This reception was expressed by the people of Gentasari Village as a request to Allah SWT. so that a person is given ease in the time of death.59In addition to facilitating the process leading up to the sakārat al-mawt, several chapters of the Quran are also read as an expression of asking for protection against torment after death. Many, maybe even the majority of Muslims, believe that certain verses or chapters in the Quran can provide benefits in the form of protection for their readers from the torments that may be received in the grave. The chapter that is known to protect from the torment of the grave to those who diligently read it is al-Mulk.The companion of Abdullah bin ʿAbbas said that the Messenger of Allah has said – which means, “Indeed in the Quran, I found a chapter containing thirty verses.” Whoever reads it while he is going to sleep, thirty good deeds are written for him, thirty faults are removed from him, raised for him to thirty degrees, and Allah Swt – sent one of the angels to spread his wings over him, guarding him against (disruption) everything until he wakes up. That’s the chapter that filed a lawsuit in defense of people who always read it later in the grave, namely the chapter Tabārak – Al-Mulk.603.4.3.2Application for the Manifestation of the Ideal Baby, as Well as the Ease of Giving BirthJavanese society – including the people of Gentasari Village, known for their rich tradition and various traditional rite passage ceremonies, locally called slametan.61 One of the traditions that exist in the community of Gentasari Village is the Ngapati tradition, or the slametan ceremony for a four-month-old pregnancy.62Ngapati tradition begins with the reading of the Surah Yusuf, Surah Maryām, Surah Muḥammād, Surah Luqman, and Surah al-Takasur, continued by reading awrād – hamdallāh and ṣalawat and closed with a prayer. The selection of these chapters is expressed with a certain motivation and purpose.63 The reading of Surah Yūsuf is based on the hope that if the fetus is a male, he can inherit the characteristics of the Prophet Yusuf, who is handsome, firm, fair, and wise.64Reading of Surah Maryām is oriented so that if the fetus is female, she can inherit Maryām’s traits of being patient, tough, and qaniʾah.65 Reading of Surah Muḥammād is a tafāʾul so that the fetus can inherit the traits of the Prophet Muḥammād PBUH, who is honest, intelligent, and trustworthy. Reading of Surah Luqman aims that the fetus when it is born into the world, can become a person who is obedient to parents – in their terms, njunjung duwur mendhem jero – enhance or highlight the strengths and improve the family and overcome the shortcomings or families, and reciting Surah al-Takāṯur in the hope of being given the ease in the delivery process.664ConclusionFrom the explanation above, it can be concluded that a Gentasari Village Community positions the Quran as an entity with magical powers. The implications of this view are implemented in various practices of their reception – living – of the Quran.The variety of living Quran practices found in the community structure of Gentasari Village, including 1) Al-Quran is used as a medium of treatment, as a medium of protection from evil spirits, and repel reinforcements (tolak bala), 2) Al-Quran is used as a medium to facilitate life’s problems – such as those during the agony of death (sakārat al-mawt) or delivery, ease of processing childbirth, and 3) Al-Quran is positioned as a medium for requesting the birth of an ideal baby, which inherits the characteristics of figures in the Quran, such as Prophet Yunus, Prophet Muḥammād PBUH, and Maryām.The Quran as a treatment medium is found in the Istiġaṯsah tradition, carried out in mosques in Gentasari Village; Community members normally bring along the water as an instrument for the treatment. The Quran as a medium to facilitate affairs can be found in reading the Surah Yāsin before one’s death, and the Quran is positioned as a medium for implementing requests in the tradition of reading a selected chapter of the Quran – such as reading the Surah Maryām is an expression of hope for a beautiful baby girl “inside and out” as the figure of Maryām – the mother of Prophet Isa as., reading of Surah Yusuf is the hope of a handsome and pious baby boy as the figure of the Prophet Yusuf.This research studies the various living Quran practices in the Gentasari Village, Kroya, Cilacap; besides being receptive to the Quran in various forms above, several components of society also have a living practice of hadith texts. Thus, the next researcher can continue research on the traditions received by the Gentasari Village community through other approaches that are determined by the researcher’s interest.

Journal

Al-Bayan Journal of Qur’an and Hadith StudiesBrill

Published: Jul 19, 2023

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