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A History of the Inductive Sciences

A History of the Inductive Sciences THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN MEDICAL REVIEW, FOR APRIL, 1838. PART FIRST. attfi <?rittcal Ifcebietog. analytical Art. I. A Rev. W. the Inductive Sciences. the m.a. History of By Whewell, Fellow and Tutor of President of the Trinity College, Cambridge; 1837. Three Vols. 8vo. Geological &c.?London, Society, pp.437, 534, The we would fain is now when attainments in time, hope,, gone by of not connected with medical kind, knowledge immediately prac- every and even of were looked on the the tice, by public, by many profession, with a and when the man of who devoted his science, suspicious eye; leisure hours to the combination of amusement and instruction afforded was on that account less his or his by laboratory study, thought worthy of confidence than the frivolous in Abetter partaker public gaieties. and on this is we could ground; feeling subject gradually gaining point individuals who have shewn that scientific to many distinguished pursuits are no means with eminence and professional reputa- by incompatible now our tion. The extended course of education required by corporate sufficient to no amount of bodies is of itself impart trifling general to those who avail themselves of its and, fully opportunities; knowledge influence of our on the tone how is the of knowing important profession at and how much it has the means of the taste improving society large, we for all classes of the cannot but anti- knowledge among community, in the estimate formed the of a still farther its public cipate change by requirements. of scientific We do not the attainment knowledge urge general merely we deem an with the as a matter of acquaintance principles expediency: who is not content with of science essential to one tread- every physical medical and who cherishes the the beaten of higher ing path practice, of its boundaries and its We diminishing perplexities. object extending it one whose life has well remember to have heard remarked, long by and diffusion of been in the professional knowledge, spent acquirement be disencumbered of theo- when and should that, pathology physiology vol. v. no. x. Inductive Sciences. the Whewell's [April, 318 History of be some of their there would which are hope ries impossible, physically accurate of in the It separation physical advancement. is, fact, only by to at that we can arrive in the from vital actions expect any living system and as will enable us to of the latter such classify generalize knowledge No one can with our notice. the to attempt this, presented phenomena with the laws ol who is not conversant of inorganic success, any prospect his of their who is not to and conception applica- matter, prepared carry from the eminence than he can discern to an extent still wider tion they the elevation and In to have hitherto attained. comprehen- proportion we find the boundaries which at of our do siveness generalizations, in as the divide the sciences aeronaut, enlarging disappear; just present divisions the art of man loses of the which his horizon, sight successively from each the hand of nature has to or other, estates, interposed separate and kingdoms. provinces that the It is evident to discriminating enquirer, phenomena quite every the sum constitutes what we know of are of a of which life, generally to that certain vital nature; organized complex properties peculiar very in the of most of structures are concerned them; essentially production the common of matter are also and that frequently physical properties into but that there is a class of in the brought operation: actions, pro- and and in the duction of which both vital physical properties partake, of It in which there is, is, fact, analysis consequently, great difficulty. one of the most in to determine how far problems important physiology, the results of laws can be modified the conditions physical supplied by by the of and it a mind not imbued, operations vitality; requires thoroughly with the of but also with that science, only principles general philoso- which alone can render the of to them spirit available, phical knowledge the with the of success. pursue enquiry probability It is not one of the least the afforded the culti- among advantages by vation of if it exercises a bene- general science, that, directed, properly ficial influence on those faculties of the the of which is mind, training essential to the successful of medical The same pursuit knowledge. acuteness of the same cautiousness of the same observation, inference, discrimination in the same in facts, them, classifying sagacity generalizing and the same skill in the of such developing application generalizations, are in the sciences of life as in those of inert required matter. It is far from our wish to that discursive encourage which, by spirit, its attention to too at the same is unable to directing many objects time, a distinct view of We feel gain convinced when once any. that, fully in the of his no one has a to devote engaged practice profession, right considerable of his any time to extraneous but even portion pursuits; if a then, foundation have been good laid in earlier we believe it to be life, in the of one to with power every the attainment of and keep pace laws, to the of acquire their not in one or two knowledge application, only of but in all to departments science, which his attention has originally been directed. be it For, remembered that in every step generalization is in an advance in reality and that law is the com- simplification, every of a prehensive vast number expression of which had to facts, previously be retained in the so individually whilst the and memory; that, ingenuity of scientific industiy are enquirers new and facts, constantly developing thus the apparently and extent of increasing of each branch complexity an Inductive Science. 319 1838.] Physiology these combined the talents of the knowledge, facts, by very philosopher with others conduct him to the of ascertained, previously discovery the which include not which laws, general only phenomena upon they were but to be their others and based, previously supposed beyond pale, which deductive to results hitherto unex- lead, by reasoning, simple pected.* To those who with the views in the remarks agree expressed preceding we can recommend the work of Mr. as much strongly Whewell, affording instruction in a useful and attractive form. A mere of history any science is to most and "flat, stale, persons unprofitable" performance; in as it the and effects of but, proportion developes origin, progress, successive the of successive discoveries on the subse- doctrines, bearing at in as it becomes a short, quent attempts generalization,?in proportion and does it become valuable. philosophical history, generally interesting The Mr. Whewell is to out the consecutive object proposed by point which the different sciences have the of induc- steps by arrived, by process at the elevations which have attained; tion, and, respective they already this definite end in he all the keeping view, disregards necessarily events which have no immediate it. As there have been few bearing upon of in without some foundation however, truth, systems philosophy, (most of them the result of a of a limited number being too-rapid generalization of each one of these has forward a certain facts,) brought prominently amount of which has in the end been serviceable towards the knowledge, of science. in a as are such we perfection Hence, history considering, the which have at different times exercised a hypothetical dogmas power- ful over the human are not and the most overlooked; sway intellect, correct estimate of value be formed the of each the may by considering effect which it has had in the boundaries of know- widening legitimate and in towards the establishment of the truth the ledge, contributing by overthrow of other still erroneous. The mode in which more the systems writer has executed the task he has for is such as himself, proposed might be from the station which he holds the expected distinguished among cultivators of science. If we should hereafter think it physical necessary to an to the disad of the dedicated freely express opinion vantage portion to we an shall do it with much that author of so Physiology, regret high and deserved a should have in it reputation degree disparaged any by to treat of the of a with whose details he is venturing philosophy subject not We think need not have conversant. that Mr. Whewell gone beyond the limits of his own in search of a writer to fully competent university assist in him his and we cannot but believe a ; that, plan although single mind into such a work of than could more may carry uniformity design We are in able to our remarks on this the au- happy being strengthen subject by of M. who in one of his recent I am so lectures, thority Magendie, says, strongly convinced the for the of of a of science knowledge comprehension necessity physical and of medical that I cannot the Not art, too practice strongly urge study upon you. that I that a man cannot be a without the of pretend good practitioner acquirements MM. but I that not to be unac- Thenard, Poisson, maintain, ought Arago, &c.; you with the of the exact alone can unveil a mass of sciences. quainted They principles of which the would otherwise be alone can phenomena, operation inexplicable; they assist it the science of medicine in itself from the trammels in which has been freeing confined and the sur les Phenomenes mania of by ignorance systematising."?Lemons de la tome ii. 17. Vie, Physiques p. Sciences. the Inductive Whew ell's [April, 320 of History be of a there be must, necessity, great inequalities possessed by plurality, execution. in the we shall Before this however, briefly topic, entering upon particular of his first two which are the volumes, follow our author subjects through statements will not we that our exact and devoted to the sciences; hope the article. the ultimate of irrelevant to be considered object present which con- be from the Our first shall introduction, general quotation as it to to the tains some us, applicable, appears thoughts peculiarly of study physiology. are facts and observa- "To the formation of science two ideas; things requisite: in sense and an inward effort of other tions of or, words, without, thought; things can constitute substantial and reason. Neither of these itself, elements, general by of unconnected some rational and The sense, by speculative knowledge. impressions with individual the can end in a objects; only practical acquaintance principle, on the other if allowed to on without a of the rational hand, faculties, go operations and barren constant reference to external can lead to abstraction things, only empty demands the combination of the two Real knowledge ingre- ingenuity. speculative and facts to reason It has been well that true reason, said, dients; right upon. of and thus it both the is the nature; requires interpreting knowledge interpretation mind and nature for its both the document and the to read it subject; ingenuity and connexion of are on the aright. Thus, invention, acuteness, thought necessary, one for the of on the other the hand, progress philosophical knowledge; and, hand, well and of these faculties to facts known and con- precise steady application clearly ceived. It is to to instances in which science has failed to advance in easy point of of the absence of one or other these far the indeed, consequence requisites: by of the course of the the of most times and most world, countries, greater part history exhibits a condition thus with to The the im- facts, stationary regard knowledge. on the on which the first senses, successful at pressions knowledge attempts physical as well were known before the time when were thus turned to proceeded, long they account as at that The motions of the and the of were effects period. stars, weight, familiar to man before the rise of the Greek and but the astronomy mechanics; diviner mind' was still the act of had not been which absent; exerted, thought by these facts were bound under the forms of laws and even together principles. And, at this the tribes of uncivilized and half-civilized man over the face of the earth day, have before their a vast of facts of the as with same nature those eyes body exactly which has built the fabric of her in almost Europe stately but, physical philosophy; other of the the of the intellect every earth, which these facts become part process by science is unknown. The scientific does not work. The scattered stones are faculty indeed but the builder's hand is there, we have no lack of wanting. And, again, that mere of is inefficient in real proof activity thought equally producing knowledge. Almost the whole of the career of the Greek of schools of the schoolmen philosophy, of in the middle of the Arabian and Indian shews us that Europe ages, philosophers, we have extreme and may invention and demonstration ingenuity subtilty, connexion, and and that out of method; these no yet science be germs physical may developed. e obtain such means and may by and even and logic metaphysics, geometry alge- but out of bra; such materials we shall never form mechanics and optics, chemistry and Ilow is physiology. the formation of these sciences without a con- impossible stant and careful reference to observation and how and experiment; rapid prosperous be their when may draw from progress such sources the materials on which the they mind of the philosopher the of employs itself; those branches of history knowledge for the last three hundred years teaches us." i. abundantly (Vol. p. 9.) as If, we shall endeavour to presently the true science of shew, is at in its physiology present the ends to be attained not infancy, gene- ar|d the most ers^0?d> means of them not satisfactory pursuing ? it its cultivators fully determined, cannot do better than take warning by an Inductive Science. 321 1838.] Physiology the which the of errors general history philosophy brings prominently before them. We this science as at regard present slowly undergoing and Newton that revolution which concurred to effect in Bacon, Galileo, the ruins of have so exploded general physics; systems clung pertinaci- around that not even the vast intellect and unwearied it, ously perseve- in true rance of Haller could succeed its form and developing proportions; disencumbered of their we until it is do not and, remains, entirely expect it will make decided advance. Some in the that of passages, any part Mr. Whewell's work which relates to the of the physical philosophy a alteration in be made, terms, Greeks, might by slight equally appli- of which is but cable to the school physiology just passing away. and fatal defect in the of the Greek "The radical physical speculations philosophi- cal schools had in their facts and the ideas that, was, though they possession ideas, to the There is no in were not distinct and facts. difficulty appropriate perceiving for each class of there is some set of means of which the that, facts, ideas, special by in scientific and that these which facts can be included general truths; ideas, may thus be termed must be with entire distinctness and appropriate, possessed clearness, in For one of the facts which order that be successfully applied. example: they may Aristotle endeavours to is when the sun's a this,?that, through explain light passes be the form of the the if formed at considera- whatever hole, hole, bright image, any ble distance from the is instead of the of the as hole, round, imitating hole, figure their We shall this to be a shadows resemble objects. easily perceive appearance if of the circular of the we conceive to be figure sun, light necessary consequence from the means of from diffused luminary by straight rays proceeding every point. of Aristotle to fact instead of this idea the But, rays, explain appropriate attempts by that the sun's has a circular which it tends to manifest. saying light nature, always of a circular instead of And this and loose the quality, vague conception employed distinct of which is Aristotle from conception rays really applicable, prevented giving true account even of this simple optical (P. 81.) very phenomenon." The causes which thus retarded the of science progress physical among have in down to the the Greeks been perpetuated physiology present time. There are still to the title of who are men, aspiring philosophers, life which content to refer all the of cannot operations tliey explain by to the "Vital a term which about as laws conveys physical Principle;" definite an idea as the circular nature" of instead of Aristotle; viewing whose action are them as the results of vital properties by they produced, of matter rise to its as the give physical changes,) (just physical properties and of which the characters and laws are as to as open investigation more difficult of attainment those of the more evident although qualities, of the combinations in which the results are to the owing complexity to our examination. presented claim of to be as an inductive In the regarded considering physiology believe we shall take occasion to out what we to be the science, point since there are who method of it; imagine that, legitimate pursuing many vital and distinct in the of physical phenomena, entirely investigation few who are aware how are to be and courses comparatively pursued, the which all affect- similar are the tracks in both; differences, perceive, than and the actual more the steps arrangements object ing preparatory In into the laws which or direction of the our regulate journey. enquiry of of the the rather, nature, (or, general expression complex phenomena our first is to collect a the conditions under which object they occur,) to one an obvious relation sufficient number of another, instances, having to all. with a view of the circumstances common These. determining the Inductive Sciences. Whew ell's [April, 32-2 History of where the to us observation; are furnished and, phenomena instances by are the that their antecedents same, are so uniformly they only simple for the mind number of times to be be associated a sufficient need to In of the relation. even of the however, satisfied general, constancy such an invariable antecedent and where a present consequent particular idea of several concurrent excites the causation, relation as necessarily at result so far first to circumstances influence the as, sight, give general and influence of each of and the value these it a of degree uncertainty; before we can our has to be determined circumstances regard knowledge as Still more of the of the conditions complete. phenomena frequently of several antecedent it is or it difficult, does that, phenomena, happen which an to fix the one invariable even upon single possesses impossible, of Here it with those which are the there- relation is, subjects analysis. of the of termed that the fore, production process artificial phenomena, so us to make new combinations of is useful, enabling experiment,* by in such a manner as to test condition which can the antecedents, every It is obvious that information thus affect the result. the attain- general that which is deficient in our able will be frequently precisely previous of and it will be found in as collection observations; that, proportion any science affords facilities for thus of the nature," "asking questions have in that will the of enquirer particular department greater probability her secrets. Another with circumstance on which becoming acquainted the attainment of in branch of science principles general any greatly is the or it in the of facility presents depends, difficulty comparison Where the in a number of individual phenomena. changes, occurring are so similar in character as to an of instances, evidently imply identity there is little in the law cause, comparatively difficulty deducing general of the in more where the of effects; but, complex instances, operation the real cause as it masked the influence of concurrent con- is, were, by or where often in the effects of the same ditions, (as happens physiology) cause are different to the instruments apparent totally according through which it it is obvious that there will be in the operates, great difficulty first of the inductive of the classification of stage process,?that pheno- that it be as one of the mena,?so indeed, great, may regarded principal obstacles to the advancement of those branches of science in which it itself. presents The of the and motion of phenomena equilibrium bodies, inorganic in the sciences of Statics and will comprehended illustrate Dynamics, the influence of in the of instances and in the facility comparison appli- cation of in to the of laws. The experiment, leading knowledge general which have been attained these means a.re principles so by comprehen- sive that a of deduction enables us to or process simple account predict ior all the which can phenomena the under which occur; only difficulty still labour in to them philosophers arises from their of regard ignorance 8re aware that this definition of does ? not couform either experiment altogether with its or with the sense etymology in which it is used. It is, however, commonly one which its limited designates in strictly application and we physical philosophy; shall hereafter out the of point a broad line in utility drawing research physiological between those cases in which it is our to ascertain as object phenomena they actually and and those in which normally occur, we endeavour to new for ob- produce subjects servation a in the conditions by change of the phenomena. an Inductive Science. 323 1838.] Physiology the molecular constitution of which renders the of bodies, application these laws to and aeriform media still somewhat uncertain and liquid difficult. The laws of statics and themselves be dynamics may compre- hended in still more and all the truths of both general expressions, sciences be deduced from a of whose may single analytical formula, ap- the law of extension of which from terrestrial matter plication gravity (the to the solar and more to the constitutes the system, recently universe, illustration of the inductive is but a instance.* grandest philosophy,) single the In direct resemblance of certain of too, Chemistry, groups pheno- mena renders their classification to (the preparatory step induction) matter of little at the same the of difficulty; whilst, time, facility experi- ment enables us to fill the voids which observation alone would leave; up so that the of which its are facts simple quantitative expression usually and the of combinations of causes and so conditions capable, variety obtained have led to the of laws of a easily by experiment, discovery of which are themselves subordinate to high degree generality, probably others to be discovered. It is a remarkable of the yet consequence of which led to the establishment of the law of generalization rapidity definite that its subordinate which limit its laws,?those proportions, in which diminish the number of combinations cases, generality particular and restrain the indiscriminate mixture of ele- possible, abstractedly to be Since the researches of have ments,?remain discovered."f Faraday the of chemical and electrical it would seem proved attraction, identity that the science of can be as a dis- scarcely regarded having chemistry in tinct and that it must those of existence, ultimately merge electricity and which are themselves to be included in a dynamics, probably single general expression. In the sciences of and it is remarkable that the most recent Heat, Light and the views founded seem to do discoveries, them, general upon away with the idea of these as but distinct, altogether principles imponderable, material With to the fundamental doc- indeed, agents. respect light, trines of the now be as established; regarded undulatory theory may fully and it is in their to an immense mass of that only application phenomena to the laborious nature of the can take any delay place, owing process, and the intricate mathematical The reasoning required. undulatory of heat is found of all obvious and theory capable answering objections, as on its to be confirmed or modified future be trial, may regarded by and an of the laws of discoveries, enlarged knowledge especially by the of heat. polarization condition of the science of is inte- The Electricity present peculiarly to the The immense number of new and unexpected resting physiologist. in recent times the of detected en- phenomena by industry experimental have been made subservient to the of which laws, quirers, discovery general which but not include the facts were others at first founded, only upon they different character. In this manner not of an only voltaic, sight entirely and animal have been to be but forms of electricity proved atmospheric, but. even to result common from magnetic electricity; phenomena appear a of the same in other a or, words, peculiar application powers, peculiar effects manifestation of the same we have of a Here, then, properties. vol. ii. 121. f Herschell's Whewell, Preliminary Discourse, p. p. Sciences. the Inductive Wuewell's 324 [April, History of the results oi a common dissimilar as most necessary character, occurring we cannot but of and under a conditions; cause hope variety operating some future be effected at that a time, corresponding simplification may, of those vital in the properties science, comprehension physiological by facts whose laws cannot be said to which are at our ultimate (and present the be under one Moreover, expression. pro- yet established,) general other allied renders electrical and of in branches, science, gress discovery to be as a it that is no distinct, regarded electricity longer probable is rather but that it to be looked agent, material, though imponderable, of other and of like attraction on as a kinds; matter, general property the which are the actions we and that which witness, powers developed, of this to are more than the manifestation property, according nothing the material bodies concerned in them are the conditions in which placed. " " It cannot be Mr. that the of the Whewell, denied," says theory of but it electric fluids affords a facts; plausible explanation may fairly and the of and heat be whether it is light questioned necessary, analogy of the has done much to shake the (and latter,) especially polarization the of the electric fluids as a The most beauti- physical reality." theory seems ful of which this branch of science however, generalization, capable is that who has rendered it Mossoti, recently proposed by highly probable that the statics and with those of the molecular of phenomena dynamics, actions of and those of all the forms of electric be bodies, power, may included under the same general expression. If the views as to non-existence of a distinct electric here stated the and the of electric all should fluid, matter, possession properties by prove we cannot but consider them as a most correct, having important bearing on Our of the functions of physiological speculation. analysis living or of those whose sum constitutes their terminates beings, life, changes in them all to certain their referring properties possessed by component excited to action the relations in which are to structures, placed by they each other and to external Some of these we know to agents. properties be since are dead manifested and physical, they equally by living orga- nized others are of a tissues; different character, vital, being essentially and the of a which necessarily implying pre-existence living by system, matter has the of and in which inorganic undergone process organization, alone these can be of these manifested. The existence vital properties must for the be as our ultimate facts in properties present regarded phy- but we whence are derived. It is siology; may enquire reasonably they said that an in and commonly organized body, assimilating organizing the nutrient which the to its existence are matter, by changes necessary communicates or to at the same maintained, those it, time, superadds vital of which it was itself A properties logical previously possessed. be taken to exception this form of since we can might expression, scarcely that as communicable regard which has not a distinct if existence; and, we understand the term it the relation property aright, merely expresses between in some matter, form or and the mind. particular state, percipient this But, passing we into by consideration, may advantageously enquire the on which the view stated has been analogy often just supported. There is no more it has been in how vital difficulty, argued, conceiving be to properties may than in understand- superadded organized matter, how ing be magnetic communicated to iron : but the properties may an Inductive Science. 1838.] Physiology a nature different latter to be of from what is com- process appears really communication of The so-called magnetic monly supposed. properties to iron is more than the of a in the condi- production change nothing tion of the metal which the electric in by properties, previously existing in are and caused that as form of manifested, to rise matter, every give to A little consideration will shew that we cannot magnetic powers. become of of matter without some cognizant property change being any of or them either our effected, sense, directly upon organs upon through the medium its with some other material of action such body. Every certain without which the conditions, change, therefore, requires pro- form cannot be until of matter has been manifested; and, perty any in a the conditions to we placed requisite develope particular property, have no means of either of its or absence. It is presence per- judging correct to that matter exhibits itself to the mind in fectly say organized a and relation different from that of that matter, totally inorganic pro- manifested. But no one can assert new are perties apparently thereby that there does not in of the of matter, exist, particle capability every in in vital when the other conditions; exhibiting actions, placed requisite when the of made a of a words, process organiza- part living system by tion. It is the of the conditions to manifest it required only complexity which as a common our this of prevents recognizing capability property or at it which we know to matter, least of those forms of by experience enter into the of structures. composition organized Of all the branches of science whose are phenomena dependent upon is the most obscure that of and simple physical principles, Meteorology uncertain. the which become the apparently changes subjects Although of our observation are under the of notice, constantly occurring difficulty and the concerned in them controlling agents artificially combining pre- vents us from much assistance from whilst the com- deriving experiment; and the of the conditions under which similar effects occur, plexity variety of results which arise from modifications of the same slight may very render such a mode of cause, peculiarly necessary. enquiry When we turn to the from the world inorganic contemplate living king- doms of we at once avast difference in the of our nature, objects perceive this and we be led to that investigation; may perhaps suppose change that our should be varied in mode of accordance requires philosophising with it. But a little reflection must convince us that if the inductive be the human founded the relation between mind and system really upon the world in which man is it must be as to the disco- placed, applicable of laws in one as in and another; that, very general department although each of the modified different be to the steps may individually according character of the which our is the founded, reasoning general objects upon of the whole must be the in whatever channel our same, plan particular labours are directed. We have it on record that after Newton, the noblest effort of human reason that has conceived philosophy perpetuated, the idea that structure and of the laws the functions governing living be discovered the of their similar organisms might by comparison organs and the of the as were those of world the functions, inorganic by study of its dici de uniformitate ilia uniformity phenomena. (" Idemque possit est in of the Until, however, quae corporibus animalium.") principles induction the combi- are understood, philosophical thoroughly peculiar Inductive Sciences. Wuf.well's the 326 History of [April, themselves to our their in which vital notice, nations phenomena present we witness in the the which world from changes dissimilarity apparent lead obvious to us and their ends, around, adaptation particular might with to the into the of regard labyrinth unprofitable speculation astray are and the which governed; slightest by they presiding agencies convince us that the of will this has with acquaintance history physiology that in fact the case to a recent and been the period, legitimate up very true mode of them are now of and the investigation pursuing only objects to be understood. beginning our views on the of as an inductive We shall connect study physiology of this some criticisms on Mr. Whewell's branch of with science, history have before we cannot bestow on as we the which, hinted, philosophy, that is due to the of the work devoted to the same approbation portion The author has not to even a sciences. attempted give general physical he sketch of the of the as would suit science, such," progress says, and in the neither nor he remarks, my powers my purpose;" following his for the task. more grounds avoiding explains fully other ancient its career has been one of Like most sciences, though perpetual variable and as in so in each has those which had others, this, progress; step implied and cannot be understood we understand been them. made, aright,except previously the of this advance have been and the cultivators Moreover, steps very many diverse; of in been and the is one of have all numerous vast ages laborious; anatomy subject extent and almost has added to the current complexity; every generation something of its and of have been the knowledge details; general speculations physiologists and learned. It be difficult or for a subtle, bold, must, therefore, impossible person who has form not studied the science with and to professional diligence advantages, of the value of the discoveries of various and and to just judgments ages persons, them in their due relation to each other. To this we arrange add, that, may though all the discoveries which have been made with to functions or particular organ- respect izations are understood to be subordinate to one the of science, general philosophy the and doctrines of this nowhere exist in a life, science yet principles shape generally received and assented to and thus we have in this not, science, among physiologists; the which in some others the true direc- we have of advantage discerning possessed, tion of its first the to which of movements, tend; by knowing point they ultimately on the earlier and in the and discoveries, thus them running beyond face, looking their true features." iii. reading (Vol. p. 379.) that has as a science to not advanced the Fully admitting physiology same with level or or we cannot with astronomy, optics, agree electricity, Mr. Whewell as to the of the discoveries impossibility truly estimating and doctrines of times. We do not understand the past certainly fully value of insulated until are made the of facts, foundation they general but we laws; have a clear of their in may importance leading perception to such from various causes the laws them- inferences, although retarding selves have not been into view. Mr. Whewell has yet clearly brought remarked: subsequently very justly We are no means to confine by ourselves to the and all positive discovery, reject the less clear and certain To do this would be to lose most of the chances speculations. of ulterior for it our progress; that of the nature of though maybe conceptions organic life are not yet and to become the to induc- sufficiently precise steady guides positive tive the in truths, which these only way ideas can be made more peculiar physiological distinct and and thus precise, more into a scientific is this brought nearly form, by with our or struggle ignorance This is the lesson we have imperfect knowledge. learned from the of history and other sciences. We must strive physical astronomy to refer which are known and facts, to of which we can- understood, higher principles, an Inductive Science. 327 1838.] Physiology and of in some we can see the not doubt the which, however existence; degree, place, we have hitherto and be the been able to obtain of these dim shadowy may glimpses often fail in such but without the we can forms. We never attempts; attempt may succeed." different With to the which have regard physiological hypotheses, time of to the abounded from the the remark Pythagoras present epoch, made the various of we have is respecting already systems philosophy was each the of a applicable hypothesis consequence peculiarly hasty a number of and of limited was of use facts, generalization consequently facts forward so that whilst no one in those ; had a bringing prominently no one could be as futile. Now that solid foundation, regarded utterly that it is like other must sciences, universally acknowledged physiology, the materials observation and be built of that the up supplied by only, of the edifice must be the demolition of the ruins of erection preceded by the but unstable structures of former we cannot but con- times, showy to sider ourselves their since the merits, quite competent pronounce upon each to the final consummation will be made of the utility apparent by number and of the facts it has into view. Thus the che- variety brought of mical and mechanical the seventeenth have physiologies century long a natural but each sect contributed since died death; much to the advance of our of the animal and knowledge economy, many important in of their truths be adduced The sect of the might support propositions. doctrines less vitalists erroneous than originally promulgated scarcely those to which we have and have alluded; not just although physiologists in the boundaries of been able to and vital actions yet agree fixing physical in there are none who do not allow that the both mechanical living body, forces and chemical are in constant and extensive powers operation. in Nor do we feel the merits of the any greater difficulty estimating system who was the first to clear to of the truth Brown, give certainly expression that the actions of life the excitement of vital depend upon properties by but while this external is made the founda- stimuli; important principle of modern the which its tion author con- pathological system physiology, nected with has almost as as it was raised. it, disappeared rapidly Surely, all these and with to we are in doctrines, regard systems fully competent the to an and as to those of more recent day pronounce opinion; present we do not that will much date, apprehend any difficulty longer exist, since multitude of observers in the and everywhere engaged applying will disclose their true value. testing them, speedily treat the of to of as an inductive Declining general progress physiology Mr. Whewell has it sufficient to trace the establish- science, thought ment of some of its more limited but certain and with doctrines;" this intention he has a brief outline of the of the connexion of given discovery nerves and muscles as of Galen and other organs voluntary motion, by of the ancient and of the circulation anatomists; discovery by Harvey and his To these he adds a notice of the dis- predecessors. subsequently of the motion of the and of some of the theories of covery chyle, ; digestion an examination of the of remark on (his process reproduction which, that it offers to us laws and which include both the animal principles with and correctness be extended to vegetable kingdoms," might equal one of the and a sketch of the discoveries every organic functions), the nervous from the time of Galen to those of respecting system Bichat, Whew ell's the Inductive Sciences. of History [April, we treated in and None of these such are, conceive, Bell, Mayo. subjects idea of their real a manner as to a correct progress. give error into which Mr. W. to us to have is The appears fallen, principal one no means to and we shall take the more to him; peculiar pains by this are the as clear ideas on expose fallacy, subject peculiarly necessary of as an inductive science. The to the distinct conception physiology as Mr. W. terms of the circulation of the of the them, doctrines, blood, nerve motion of the of the connexion between and and of muscle, chyle, are not laws even of a low the functions of of nerves, particular degree but on which laws are to be founded. facts general generality, Physio- it is to be is the science of not the of the recollected, life; knowledge logy, functions of the human but the accumulated and classified body only, all the in amount of If we changes occurring organized living beings. with the structure and functions of were one acquainted perfectly any we should have a collection of to be included with those organism, facts the of other dissimilar in derived from study organisms, general expres- to be of real value as the foundation of sions, which, inductions, higher must be of universal be application. Every living being, therefore, may looked as a collection of each of which when upon phenomena, may, pro- contribute to the establishment of some law understood, perly general either the of the material structure or the func- governing development tional to which that structure is and it is obvious changes subservient; that until these are and phenomena correctly ascertained, certainly they be made cannot available for scientific any purpose, although hypotheses be erected the them, may occasionally advantageously upon conformity of whose results with known facts afford to the may support original sup- Now it is in the of facts and of position. difficulty ascertaining correctly that the true obstacle to the satisfactorily observing phenomena, progress of as a science is to be found. the structure of the physiology Though human has been and examined so thou- body carefully minutely by many sands of how are still and how much anatomists, uncertain, many points to be remains discovered! and this structure is but one of those yet yet of which be must collected from the hundred groups instances, many thousand of and animals the which naturalist believes to species plants exist on the surface of the before we can have sufficient data for globe, the establishment of the most and universal laws comprehensive regulating the of development living organisms. The difficulties which themselves in the observation of the facts present which it is the of the science of to ascertain and object anatomy gene- are as to those which beset the of the into ralize, nothing path enquirer the which and the whole changes living beings perform undergo during of their existence. These be divided into the period may practically normal and the former class abnormal, designated being usually physio- the latter It is obvious that this use of the term logical, pathological. is much more restricted sense in than the which we have physiological and it would be convenient to confine it already employed it; to perhaps its usual and to avail ourselves of the term to acceptation, biology signify the science of in life its most extended sense. It be how- surmised, may without that as well ever, as improbability, pathological physiological are referrible to the ultimate vital of tis- phenomena organized properties sues; and instead of that, a distinct set of laws for their requiring expla- an Inductive Science. 329 1838.] Physiology will to be results of these as neces- nation, they prove primary causes, as those of the which at first sary perturbations planetary system appear to interfere with the law of but which a more sight gravitation, enlarged that of the of law includes its inevitable conception application amongst The sum of all the which constitute the life consequences. phenomena of an is to be as a collection of of which organized being, regarded facts, each must be stated in a and concise before it can be made form, separate the of founded similar facts derived subject any general expression upon from the of other study living beings. There are a few laws of a low of which be degree generality might deduced from the of a thus the human study single organism: physio- infer that all fibre the muscular of logist might fairly possesses property because he is able to the existence of this in irritability, prove property one of the numerous fibres which enter into the structure of the every human remainder and his views to the of the animal body; extending he would find that wherever muscular fibre it kingdom, exists, probably the same of on the of a sti- possesses contracting application capability mulus. But were he to to still and to assert further, attempt generalize that tissue this the characteristic every manifesting property possesses structure of muscular tissue alone manifests it in man and fibre, (which the he would find himself from the truth; higher animals,) widely astray since a the of and of the lowest of animals knowledge anatomy vegetables shows that to the muscular structure exists in tissues nothing analogous which exhibit the We look for an cannot, therefore, distinctly property. this in law of the connexion of a of explanation property any particular function with a certain form of which will not include all the structure, in tissues found to be of it. Now the possessed great difficulty physio- of the combinations in results from the logical investigation complexity which vital and their themselves, dependence upon phenomena present their one another to a that almost degree entirely precludes separate we ascertain the examination. Were able to regarding facts changes which take in the interior of the as as the astro- living body easily place or chemist the nomer observes the of a the place planet, decomposition of a is no whatever to these facts there reason salt, prevent being genera- with of lized in the same manner and to the same those the degree phy- of to which of sical sciences. The when desirous chemist, ascertaining the in a mixture a effect is each due, ingredients particular places given the but the in the conditions to result; required produce phy- separately to insulate and reduce the finds that the organ, siologist attempt anyone it to definite necessa- experimental investigation, changes performed by those conditions under takes or alters which rily away considerably very its be and that he is alone functions can performed, normally totally and artificial unable to similar new combinations of produce changes by the when materials. too, changes they might elementary Frequently, otherwise be are of a kind to our means of ascertainable, imperceptible of the effects and as we know these observation; only by they produce on there must be considerable with to their others, uncertainty regard Thus we know the nervous nature and even their existence. of very only transmitted the motor its effects influence to be nerves, along by supposed these in in muscular as to the nature of contraction; changes producing the of the influence we nervous matter in which the consists, propagation Sciences. the Inductive Whewell's [April, 330 History of and the nervous influence form even a cannot supposed probable guess; of the some to be essential to nutrition, secretion, organic processes by exists between from the which &c. is evidently only suspected sympathy and certain states of the nervous these system. processes of the of life arises Another in the phenomena investigation difficulty with which the and from that in changes this; whilst, objects considering the external or we are able to connect the world us, inorganic presents which we know them characters of bodies with those evident properties to the latter from the to and thus former, possess, predicate by experience to follow the same course with to we are unable regard organized totally the to the differences in structures, extraordinary properties pos- owing sessed as far as our means of observation extend, tissues, which, present by Hence it is that we see so the same external characters. exactly many under circumstances the dissimilar occurring apparently same, phenomena and so of the same nature referrible to causes which would many changes seem so different. It is this which has to all the sciences of life a given we doubt that the laws of character of such cannot great uncertainty: nature the to which are are as living constantly regulating changes beings as those of dead but from the of matter; liable, apparent inapplicability ascertained laws to novel and the of cases, impossibility accurately ourselves with the conditions which our is acquainting upon application the and the medical are alike baffled founded, physiologist practitioner when to even the most common as the they predict attempt phenomena result of their operation. We cannot but that the of perceive, therefore, difficulty ascertaining in us to and facts physiology obliges frequently adopt opinions specula- tions as the foundations of our and that these are reasoning; opinions themselves to sources of a fact open peculiar Where, however, fallacy. the connexion of a with a function is regarding particular organ special it be classified with others of the same ascertained, definitely may fairly so as to serve as the foundation the inductive but of care nature, process; must be taken to include all the facts a relation to the in having subject, order that our induction be valid. It is a of this may really by process nature that the essential or structure of all elementary secreting organs is found to be a membrane reticulated with blood-vessels and minutely to the of the of mem- permeable fluid; surface this peculiar arrangement its convolution into the tubular structure of and the brane, glands, pre- sence of a reservoir and duct for the secreted all excretory fluid, being matters of not the result. secondary importance influencing general The mass of facts to the structure and of relating changes living which are collected the and of organisms, observers by sagacity ingenuity and must be classified and before experimental enquirers, arranged they can become subservient to the of and this is science; purposes object in different the of accomplished to laws which the ways according philo- is in search. Thus the whose aim it is to sopher discover the physiologist, ultimate vital of matter and the laws of their con- properties operation, siders the individual which in their make the life of an changes totality up them into termed organized being, and, functions ac- arranging groups to their with cording each other and their obvious similarity to tendency the same his end, into the nature and exercise of pursues enquiry each, all the forms of in through which it is manifested. The organized beings an Inductive Science. 1838.] Physiology is to of the on the other arrive at the laws which naturalist, hand, object combination and structure of the on the which the func- organs regulate tions and he each in its therefore, viewing organism depend; totality, under the same formed as the arranges similarly beings group, placing whole the in which character common to the and they points agree, leaving differences to be added to this common the subordinate in character, order to the of an individual. This classification express qualities into is that of the but a functions) (resembling physiological changes step the of laws which the towards establishment structure of the general by of nature is These the kingdoms regulated. laws, expressing organized manner in which are combined and to each the organs adapted other, the relative or of modifications which the each, development simplicity or forms of each to the undergo primary types elementary may according circumstances in which the is to be and various other con- being placed, ditions of its it is the of the naturalist to and ascertain; formation, object mode or which he is in of classification valuable any system may adopt as it the establishment of these laws in and view, facili- proportion keeps tates the accumulation of the which must be knowledge upon they two branches founded. The connexion between these of is investigation so intimate that neither can be with of with- pursued success, probability out considerable of the data and which the knowledge principles upon be the other is and he will most to arrive at the founded; evidently likely of truths in who includes the whole of either, discovery important general the of life in one extensive The refers to survey. physiologist phenomena is the naturalist for instances in which a function on the same performed but under a of as manifested circumstances, general plan, great variety the of the structure of the to the medium of exist- organ by adaptation the formation of the membrane into or ence, (e. g. respiratory lungs whilst the refers to the to assist him naturalist the gills;) physiologist by examination of the function and of an in development organ determining its its real to which the consideration of form and structure character, alone not lead him. The natural of affords a beau- botany might system tiful of this kind of and there can be little doubt, example investigation; some of the most from the advances that made, laws, recently important the structure of and the combination of their living beings regulating will be disclosed to view. organs, speedily of are twofold : to ascertain The the first, objects physiological enquiry in the and to living system; second, changes actually taking place and hence to determine the conditions of those arrive at the changes; of vital Both of these classes of we laws action. enquiry regard general as observation for their and the materials, principally dependent upon we much more inferences to be deduced from it definite are, conceive, and certain than those which but it will be seen that affords; experiment kinds of we under the former term which many investigation comprehend and that there are in are considered usually experimental, physiology circumstances which render a less many purely experimental enquiry branch of science. available than in other any The has for his first to determine observer, then, object physiological sum constitutes the life the nature of the series of of which the changes of His most and direct means of observation, simple any living system. obvious his unassisted inform him of those changes namely, senses, only 6 Inductive Sciences. Wiiewell's the 33*2 History of [April, mark the relations between the and the which in some instances being as the and in others are to be results of the external world, regarded Thus a within the content taking place system. physiologist, processes of a in its natural with the would situation, watching growth plant simply increase in size and the of see little its successive its development beyond from the soil its of nutriment or the atmos- different absorption parts: become would under to circumstances, him; not, ordinary apparent phere relations between the and in the obvious the fact, living and, only system be evinced the influence of and moisture external world would by light to and flowers. With observation the leaves animals, regard simple upon of the would exhibit to him not the results functions made organic only and of the but evident the increase those frame, by development bodily which connect them with the external the immediately world, changes of and the of excrementitious matter. He aliment, discharge ingestion animal would also the manifestations of the of perceive power locomotion, from the of his own actions that and infer sensations were might analogy and were rise to mental processes. These,'then, being produced, giving are all the means of information which unassisted observation can afford; we conceive them to be such as brutes and we can may possess, readily understand how small must be the real amount of to which knowledge can lead. they But the of man has enabled him to devise methods of ingenuity adding to this methods of more exact greatly meager outline, by contriving and of thus what would otherwise be observation, discovering impercep- tible to the senses. We will take for illustration one of the simplest of these aids. No on at a in active possible one, merely looking plant would that its leaves are a vegetation, suppose constantly exhaling large of fluid from their surface in tissue; but, quantity by holding polished their found with it is to become dimmed mois- neighbourhood, speedily ture. This it is leads to the observation, then, nothing more,) (for of the function of exhalation. a knowledge Again, plant vegetating under common circumstances would not be of suspected constantly a if be of fluid its roots; these taking but, up large quantity by placed in a limited of so that the loss is made earth, quantity damp perceptible, the moisture will be found to from the soil much faster than disappear by Here is another observation of the kind ordinary evaporation. simplest us to the of and of the function bringing knowledge absorption; though in such a case the alteration in the conditions for the observa- necessary tion cause the to be as an a might process experimental one, regarded little reflection will shew that the is not in the whose func- change body tions we are we are anxious to these unaltered,) examining, (for preserve but in the external conditions made favorable for our observations; just as the to observe the colour of a would transfer it from chemist, solution, an vessel to a one. opaque transparent arrived at then, the of these functions Having, knowledge by simple additions to our means of a further refinement of ordinary observation, our methods will add to our with them: to continue acquaintance thus, our former the of the balance will illustration, judicious employment enable us to determine the fluid and of absorbed quantity transpired by a and the it bears to its surface. The particular plant, proportion of researches Hales on this in like those of the subject, and, manner, an Inductive 333 Science. 1838.] Physiology various who have the physiologists investigated gaseous changes pro- duced have been denominated but by vegetables, usually experimental; it that the term is no more to to us them than to the appears applicable measurements of the altitudes and distances of the heavenly bodies, per- formed the astronomer. It is true in the latter the that, case, by objects are and aim is to the reach of the his his observer, entirely beyond adapt measurements and calculations to a correct idea of their true convey in the the are under his con- relations; whilst, former, objects certainly in but he endeavours to them as much as their trol, preserve possible natural effect on and to ascertain the conditions, simply changes they the fluid or aeriform the of surrounding media, measuring quantities by these media which are lost or added. Whenever in the any change conditions of the takes when a becomes living system place, (as plant from in a the observation becomes inclosure confined sickly atmosphere,) valueless for the it was intended to serve. purpose The observer other means of his physiological assisting may employ which he is enabled to detect without senses, by changes inappreciable such of for the aid. he avails himself the Thus, examining microscope and endeavours to the for circulation, place part employed capillary observation as as in its natural the relations; nearly possible avoiding and of the loss of fluid from influence of gravitation neighbouring divided both of which have an evident effect on the movement of vessels, means the nutritious in as well as animals. Other of fluid, plants mag- be otherwise of various which would kinds, nifying changes inappreciable, to: the use of the thermo-electric be referred thus, multiplier might easily has enabled MM. and Breschet to detect minute alterations Becquerel in which observation it was of muscular action; temperature during various from in the to errors arising change requisite guard against which have interfered with the correctness of the condition, might bodily to the statement of Mr. of result; and, according King,* multiplication of a lever enabled him to detect venous insensible motions means by even after for the disturbance which be occa- pulsation, allowing might We of all these as sioned a observations neighbouring artery. speak by because their is to ascertain the natural rather than experiments, object on in the under their normal and conditions; living body changes going to the means we of them senses any may employ rendering perceptible of the themselves as are the are as preparations just independent changes the made an astronomer to view and measure bodies, heavenly by by it fit for use his and its uncovering erecting telescope, rendering by as our methods of observation do affect the conditions As soon glasses. more or less of in of the the result is attended with uncertainty, change, aware of the extent and as we are or consequences proportion ignorant of the influence produced. not confine himself to the But the observer does simple physiological to his and which collection of notice, phenomena externally presented in the in the mere results of those which take are often, fact, place living examination of the interior of that he an endeavours, system system: by on which when to ascertain the nature of those the in a state of activity, successful in former are He will be more or less discovering dependent. vol.ii. 108. Hospital Reports, p Guy's VOIj.V. NO. X. the Inductive Sciences. Whewell's 334 [April, History of of the train of vital in the inverse to the these, proportion derangement the violence he is to actions which shall have been created compelled by examination of the normal since it is evident in the inflict; that, changes it is that the functions of the whole of one essential system any part, to that mutual shall on with as little disturbance as go possible, owing as one of the ob- of which we have greatest dependence already spoken It is in this manner that the stacles to absorption physiological enquiry. of motions of the heart and and various the the canal, alimentary chyle, and other of a similar have been interior kind, discovered; phenomena be denominated we think it evident that such researches cannot quite no conditions have been into since new brought action, experimental, ones are as far as circumstances will but the permit. original preserved We have remarked that there is a series of in the changes already with which no means of observation that we at living present pos- body, to those sess can make us of allude We, course, directly acquainted. in the nervous No one doubts that when a which take place system. either external or excites contraction in a stimulus, internal, voluntary it is the medium of an of some muscle, sort, through organic change the nervous cords. if we.examine the foundation But, propagated along of this we shall find it in with which the not opinion, any phenomena normal condition of the it is derived inference us; system presents by from that is to a in the relative conditions of experiment; change say, be nerve and effected the influence to muscle, supposed by intercepting the or a new influence various former, propagated along by exciting by stimuli to itself. We for the sake of applied directly might, argument, that these data are insufficient to a afford conclusion, object positive since the wound for the division of the nerve of itself necessary might the effect: it would be to a produce however, shew, by parallel easy, we that this is not the case in the instance. Still experiment, present could infer the transmission of nervous influence, only positively by it to act a to which it was not conducted; causing upon part previously an our to experiment obviously bring- beyond power perform, except by the two ends of a divided nerve. In another more- ing together case, the of in such a inference leaves us over, impossibility obtaining positive if we trust to of alone: we refer to the uncertainty experiment question the innervation some to be to the of nutri- supposed by conveyed organs tion and secretion. Here the of the are so complications experiment and so liable to affect the that we much doubt if great, result, any very conclusions can ever be drawn from it. satisfactory It will be that our of the in seen, then, knowledge changes occurring the is founded observation where we living system upon only; except cannot take of the and can infer cognizance changes themselves, only their existence from the inaction which ensues when the to which organs we attribute them are abstracted or insulated. We shall now enquire what is the most mode of the second branch of legitimate pursuing phy- siological conditions of these enquiry,?the changes. It is obvious that will be here more but even experiment available; here observation in a judicious of an effective may prove, cases, majority substitute for it. The first subdivision of this will investigation evidently be the examination of the of the vital functions external dependence upon a on which the researches of so agents; subject Dr. Edwards have shed much Yet we do not call the researches of Dr. Edwards light. entirely an Inductive Science. 1838.] Physiology since his aim in to determine the experimental, was, instances, many of the vital in with the usual regular sequence functions, conformity of &c. were whenever reason, the ani- changes age, They experimental mals were in new and means taken to observe conditions, placed entirely the influence of those and it in conditions; was these cases that the care was to in the greatest necessary guard against results, fallacy by the of a number of instances. It is in taking average large experiments of this kind that we can most imitate the chemist or me- successfully chanical in the conditions to a testing philosopher, necessary particular each in as when Dr. E. shewed that result, succession; the by excluding of in the is not essential to the presence oxygen atmosphere immediately excretion of carbonic acid from the and that the want of altera- lungs; tion in the of in air is due to usually perceived quantity nitrogen respired the between its and exhalation. There are some equality absorption in instances which the same mode of is to the condi- enquiry applicable tions of internal as when the first sound of the heart was shewn changes; to muscular the successive exclusion depend action, principally upon by of all the other causes.* in this it is to be observed suspected But, case, that the effect whose conditions were to be examined was a merely and imitated that these conditions could be physical one, closely by artificial means. Far different is it with to the conditions of the vital regard purely functions. to insulate of As we have before the remarked, attempt any and make it the of at once these, examination, destroys subject special the of its and we cannot imitate it new capability by any performance; combinations us little of matter. Hence can conduct experiment very farther in this than the determination of the of the enquiry dependence it functions one and we believe that all which has another; upon yet detected the functions of the nervous (especially regarding system,) may be reduced to this or the former in our classification. as we And, place liable have before of the results obtained from it are to hinted, many great which almost inevi- from the functional uncertainty, general derangement attends the of the out of tably operations, arising performance necessary the in the closeness of that bond of union which links together, higher animals all in the maintenance of the the concerned especially, changes of the In the lower classes of where this con- animals, vitality system. nexion it is still is much less and in where we decided, looser, vegetables, can insulate and the conditions of their actions particular organs, study to a favorable much and hence these are the most sub- extent; greater of research on the functions. jects experimental organic But the is not confined within these limits: the physiologist fortunately submits to forms which the of animated nature his ever-varying study him manifold combinations of causes and con- observation with present whilst the exhibit shew him the results of these currents, they phenomena avail himself of them combinations. He therefore, may, advantageously for the of what are the conditions essential to the ascertaining purpose or at most occurrence of and what are accidental, any particular change, have a it. The obstacle to his in influence chief progress secondary upon the thismode of arises from the of investigation difficulty correctly observing or laws is in since the of whose causes he search phenomena ; very change See ii. vol. v. vol. and Transactions of British Association, p. 598, Sciences. Whewell's the Inductive 336 [April, History of be of be essential for observation would liable circumstances which may is his to observe in to the train of vital which it derange actions, object the immense number their normal state. he is Moreover, perplexed by which are thus to his and and of the notice, presented variety phenomena an the of the effects which a in some instances very slight, dissimilarity This in the conditions produces. perplexity, inappreciable, change des and we is of the nature of the embarras richesses; agree however, with has been "that it must be the the observation which made, recently of of if we do not arrive at some definite fault our mode tolerably study conclusions" from these most abundant data. these data are to be when the method in which classified, Respecting we have entered once substantiated observation, accurately by already into some and we shall now conclude the one or two detail; subject by illustrations of what we as the of observation over ex- regard superiority in in and periment, elucidating disputed important questions physiology. It is that a has existed the well known controversy long regarding of the circulation on the heart's and the action; dependence capillary made to determine it have never been attempts experiment satisfactory by to either We shall see that we arrive at a definite party. may easily result In circulation of observation the vital by only. vegetables, (that the elaborated is and is without sap*) entirely capillary, kept up any central of and observation of the influence of organ light, impulsion; &c. on the of the foliaceous that the heat, development organs proves afflux of crude to them in the is the effect of the vital sap spring pro- cesses there In the animal lowest of the performed. kingdom possessed of a distinct such as the the is destitute circulation, Echinoderma, system of a central of and we find this evolved in to organ impulsion; ascending the articulated and molluscous tribes. It is difficult to observe the cir- culation in or in such Entomostraca as the Mono- insects, transparent culus to the a contractile without conclusion Pulex, that, coming though the movement of the fluid is of its cavity exists, pul- mainly independent sations. The we ascend in the animal the more do we f scale, higher observe the of centralization in its functions principle becoming apparent; and the in the we find the of Vertebrata, accordingly, power maintaining circulation less concentrated in diffused the and more through system, the heart. various1 to those not Still, however, indicate, phenomena to action has an indisposed appreciate them,1\that capillary independent even its nature not be and influence, understood; that, although may yet in the the heart. man, circulation is not altogether dependent upon has been the de- very analogous question long agitated regarding of the functions the of nerves. pendence organic upon ganglionic system The obstacles are endeavour to determine it attending any by experiment too obvious to need out what know- but we shall indication; briefly point we attain from have an ledge observation. In we may example vegetables, of the of all the functions without performance organic anything analogous to nervous since influence; all to the them prove possession by attempts of a nervous under these have and system, form, failed; any signally See vol. iv. 27. p. It + not that the of a distinct of appears improbable impul- non-development organ so sion, remarkable in the articulated be classes as with the compared Mollusca, may the natural to the of we be allowed counterpoise high degree capillarv power (if may the which is created the active nutritive of these classes. expression,) by very processes an Inductive Science. 1838.] Physiology were excited an obvious remnant of attempts by indisposition (the only former to admit the of vital actions inde- dogmas) possibility any being of As the this to existence of a nervous in the pendent system. system lowest we shall not make since the animals, positive statements, any difficulties which attend the minute examination of their tissues are much than those which the anatomist encounters. The sim- greater vegetable form of nervous which we meet with to be connected plest system appears rather with the locomotive than the nutritive and it is now apparatus; admitted that the double nervous cord of the and Articulata, universally the of the the Mollusca, cyclo-ganglionic system represent cerebro-spinal of the and that these classes the system Vertebrata; possess separate rudiments of a distinct visceral of nerves. that the system Believing office of the latter is to harmonize and connect the different organic functions more than can be effected the completely by circulating appa- which is their bond of union in and to them ratus, into only plants, bring relation also with the functions of animal we should to find it life, expect in to the concentration and developed proportion general specialization of the and to the and of the ani- functions, development predominance and so it is. on the other the mality; If, hand, accordingly organic functions had been we should have that it it, dependent upon expected should have been to their which developed according predominance; observation contradicts. absolutely We must now return to Mr. Whewell's from which we shall draw book, one or two illustrations of the views which we have been propounding. the of the the of circulation of the motion By classing blood, knowledge of the &c. "the more limited but certain doctrines of chyle, among phy- Mr. W. to us in "clear ideas" as to the true siology," appears wanting of these discoveries. To who followed us those have the import through we think it will be evident that the of the preceding remarks, knowledge circulation of in the blood in man holds the same rank as just physiology the fact that a stone falls the in to unsupported ground, general physics. In its the former fact is of the practical applications, highest importance; as to the establishment of it is value- but, general law, contributing any less until combined with shall that others. VVe who suppose Harvey, established the existence of a circulation in the general higher animals, and who so the same in function Hales, ingeniously investigated plants, had thence inferred that was a function common to all circulation orga- nized and to their would have commit- beings, necessary existence,?they ted the common a limited error of induction; generalizing falsely upon for a more extensive with and acquaintance comparative anatomy physi- would have informed them that the of the circulation ology object being to the absorbed nutriment to the and merely organs convey respiratory to the tissues it is to there is no occasion for motion of maintain, any fluid in those of which occur both in the animal and (some beings vege- table which absorb from the whole and which surface, kingdoms,) equally no In the of possess fact, special respiratory apparatus. development the and the of its bear a strict function, circulating system, complexity relation with the of of the absorbent in surface, or, degree specialization other with confinement of the absorbent to some the words, power par- ticular of the or of its internal or external part general surface, prolongations. Mr. Whewell has cited the laws of vegetable morphology very properly the Inductive Sciences. 338 Whewell's History of [April, facts are sus- as illustrative of the of which generalization physiological the terms and and he that remarks, metamorphosis justly ceptible; ideas different which are here convey entirely development, employed, have led us in our from of those to which the sciences physical pre- any or vious and in short, physiological are, genuine organical survey; of life." There is no real elements of the ideas; philosophy certainly more need of definite terms than science which has physiology, involving and is as it does so abstract ideas and there speculative opinions; many retarded the of senses none which has been more by variety assuredly to same word different authors. It is which have been attached the by that the of this and extensive much to be desired explorers important could fix a set of definite the aid of which land-marks, domain, by upon to each other could render their discoveries and they prospects intelligible What the state of and to their followers. respective present chemistry would have been without a settled nomenclature not be might altogether an and we do not consider that such speculation; although unprofitable for che- a reform is needed in as that which Lavoisier effected physiology be no room for hesi- it is desirable that there should mistry, particularly tation as to the to be attached to received terms in meaning commonly instance. any particular The last of Mr. Whewell's work consists of an of chapter exposition the author's views on the of final causes in employment physiological and he the research; we are to find that considers surprised philosophical of as inconsistent with the of their value. pursuit physiology recognition But whilst the of final causes is of value in to surely, study great leading these the the search after laws to be based on discovery of facts, general facts advance in must be of and the we them; totally independent higher the attainment of the more our ideas exalted necessarily generalizations, become of that mind which and the organized designing planned adapted as well as the creation. The of Mr. Whewell's ideas inorganic vagueness his the nature of has discoveries, regarding physiological pervaded opi- nions on the use with a of final and he has looked causes; consequently all to of them. suspicious eye upon attempts philosophise independently Now we shall from no less an in science than quote, authority physical Mr. value W. what we as a estimate of their himself, regard very proper in that we cannot dis- of and we confess that department investigation; cover distinct line between and that necessitates any physics physiology, such a variation in the mode of research. Final causes are to be excluded that we are not to is, from 'physical enquiry; assume that we know the of the Creator's and this assumed objects design, put pur- in the of a cause. We are not think it a sufficient account of pose to place physical the clouds that are for or the take Bacon's that they watering earth, (to examples,) the solidness of the earth is for the station and mansion of creatures." The living has it for his business to trace clouds to the laws of physical philosopher evaporation and to determine the and mode of action of the forces of condensation; magnitude cohesion and which the solid and materials of the earth are made crystallization, by firm. This he no use of the notion of final causes: and it is does, making precisely because he has thus established his theories an end, independently of any assumption of that the when all end, it returns him and cannot be becomes an irre- after upon evaded, sistible evidence an use of He finds that the of which the intelligent legislator. effects, is are the most and and when he obvious, produced by laws; simple comprehensive has obtained this he is struck with the of refined and view, the the beauty means, by skilful manner in which the useful effects are different from about; brought points those to which his researches were directed." Treatise, 353.) (Bridgwater p. an Inductive Science. 339 1838.] Physiology It from Mr. Whewell's of that he appears History Physiology regards means as the of to ends so a characteristic of adaptation prominent orga- nized that he considers no into the laws of their beings investigation structure can to be successful which does not this doctrine hope keep But in view. we would ask with all whe- him, steadily possible respect, ther of his Treatise was not to the demonstrate the har- Bridgwater object of means and ends in the structure of the and thence to universe, mony the existence of a mind? He has shown prove designing successfully is than that of the that this not less of a adaptation complete parts single to one another. And would he not not- being organized totally disregard, the of final causes in for the laws of which that withstanding, study seeking is the the observation of the adaptation necessary consequence, although facts which he establishes these laws have been upon might suggested, and the themselves to the of this brought light phenomena by perception and We cannot to a clearer instance general harmony adaptation? point of in the of a similar course than that necessity physiological investigation the which has been effected in afforded mor- by generalization vegetable the laws of which Mr. Whewell allows to be established firmly phology, and What would have been the situation of this science at recognized. the if the botanist had the final moment, present philosophic adopted cause or function of the several of the flower as his in investi- parts guide the laws of their instead of that structure structure, gating tracing its and forms with a total of all its disregard through regular irregular function? In the laws of the we have considering vegetable kingdom, abundant of how both in their forms diversified, opportunities observing and which the same rudiments are the various uses, assume; types may and that even when these rudiments as the undeveloped, appear necessary results of these and assist man in the attainment and laws, comprehension of to be them. No to affirm one, therefore, enough ought presumptuous he has discovered an evident in a struc- that, though purpose particular there not be some less but more ture, other, obvious, may really impor- at fault as to the for which when he is some tant; nor, altogether design useless have been has he to created, part may any right apparently say that no was to be fulfilled it. object by see for the with We which cannot, therefore, indignation any ground Mr. W. the of M. St. on account Hilaire, regards speculations Geoffroy to consider the end of of their of what he seems neglect physiological than the means. We do not to know what rather research, pretend may be the of that author with to the wisdom and private opinions regard of that the idea the but we do Creator; assert, power legitimate conveyed his "I ascribe no intention to for I mistrust the God, by expression, feeble of reason?I observe facts and no powers my merely, go further," no than the we have has more above passage quoted irreligious tendency from Mr. W.'s Treatise. We and assert that the further, Bridgwater go laws the of and more the structure animals higher general regulating which the can the more will the mind attain, contemplative physiologist in be struck with the vastness of that Mind, which, designing originally such and could them, harmony adaptation amongst ordaining produce use their innumerable results. To another forcible of very expression Mr. of and end is transferred the re- the notion Whewell's, design by that searches of not from the domain of our to of our science, knowledge of facts to that of laws." but from the ignorance, merely region Sciences. Wiiewell's the Inductive History of [April, misunderstood in these we think it To avoid all chance of views, being in illustration of one of the most obvi- will be sufficient to them, adduce, in the ous and structure of everywhere presented simple adaptations skeleton. We in of the muscles to the find, animals,?that constantly for the attachment our anatomical that, advantageous pursuing enquiries, is of to some form of the latter and muscles bones, provided; particular direction is a where much or a consider- that, particular required, power of attachment. The able is to the prominence given point teleologist that each of the was in- would with truth, bony processes say, apparent tended for attachment of a and would thus be led to infer the muscle; of extinct the form and direction of certain muscles from the animals, on their bones. He which existed and might further, prominences go of the is occasioned the that the formation existence prominence by say of the and in of his the well-known muscle; view, might allege, support fact that the osseous of attachment are in those points strongly developed much exercised their muscular On who have the other persons system. the the hand, anatomist, philosophic fully acknowledging adaptation between the osseous and muscular would it for the disregard systems, whilst for the laws the of these time, seeking regulating development which laws he would seek to deduce from the observation of all systems; the forms of both normal and abnormal. he would find that each, Thus, each of the in the human skeleton exists as a processes important separate bone in some of the inferior and that the muscular animals; complicated of man itself as he descends towards less system gradually simplifies spe- cialized that the has succeeded in organisms. Supposing physiologist such laws of of an that establishing end, independently any assumption when after all it returns and cannot be becomes end, upon him, evaded, an irresistible evidence of an For we would fear- intelligent Legislator." ask the of candid and whether it does lessly opinion any reflecting person, not a far of Creative and Power to Wisdom imply higher degree suppose in the establishment of the laws of and that, (them- osteology myology, selves subordinate to some all the results of probably higher principle,) each were foreseen and so that in harmonized, muscle, every developed accordance with the laws find in the of its should an attachment system, osseous from the action of the laws of its process resulting system,?than that the formation and of each muscle and each indi- adaptation separate vidual a distinct effort of creative skill? process required We shall this a on to close with a few observations the bring subject most mode of the science whose state and advantageous studying present we have been It is but too in conse- true, that, considering. prospects of the limited amount of which it has quence physiological knowledge been hitherto to in of the medical communicate most thought necessary institutions of this few but have country, acquired university graduates view of the and of these no small any comprehensive science; proportion have been satisfied with the and information to them, receiving imparted those which felt to or believed retaining be portions only they interesting to be Recent made in some of the practically important. changes, schools, the that will now rank metropolitan encourage hope physiology no as an and therefore branch of medical longer unimportant neglected and that the of the functions of the human in education, knowledge body health will henceforth be as a to the regarded necessary preliminary an Inductive Science. 1838.] Physiology it of the which in disease. To the stu- investigation changes undergoes dent who seeks to himself with what is known in acquaint merely already this branch of we have little advice to since the offer; science, perusal of the numerous works to which he has will afford him as access, ready much as he will and a deal remember, more than he will knowledge great be to But we that all of the are profit hope rising generation likely by. not of that and that there be them class; may many amongst earnestly in the advance of a in desirous of science aiding unsurpassed interest, rivalled in and almost illimitable in the extent of the scarcely importance, field it for cultivation. presents It is evident that no one can commence the quite advantageously study of a of human without physiology tolerably complete knowledge anatomy, both and Those which are general special. details, however, peculiarly connected with inference be not physiological may perhaps improperly deferred until the time when their tends to them on application implant the or the of Either the with, to, memory. conjointly subsequently study human we recommend that a of organism, general knowledge comparative be and the of the task alarm anatomy acquired; though magnitude may the he will find that if he avoids much attention to student, devoting details of external and endeavours to make himself with form, acquainted the of each the will be as well general development system, pursuit easy as will not be to at the same a know- It amiss time delightful. acquire of the structure of not because we find there ledge vegetables; only in another and a the anatomical facts form, expressed frequently simpler is difficult in but because the attainment of the which it to trace animals, laws of in and their extension morphology flowering plants, progressive to the serve as our in the more cryptogamia, may advantageously guide in the animal We intricate of similar pursuit generalizations kingdom. have stated our belief that a of the of knowledge principles already is essential to the successful cultivation of general physics physiological all have been the stu- and when these science; taken, preparatory steps dent will enter its with no small upon advantages. study of Whatever be of the the may thought expediency commencing study of the structure of the a simplest organisms, anatomy by investigating which has we are of that this plan advocates, decidedly opinion many in the student who it will course is essential and that physiology, adopts be saved the of erroneous notions which he unlearning necessity many would imbibe from the of the human func- unavoidably premature study of he will learn what are the tions. In the pursuit general physiology essential conditions of he will see the to its life; changes indispensable and he will be able manifested in their circumstances; to support simplest ascertain what structures are to their and what necessary performance, suit the additions and modifications these to various may undergo pur- He will the of of their existence. acquire, also, great advantage poses observation a substitute for the former means, making experiment; in wherever it can be employed physiology being decidedly preferable, we we have both in the (as hope successfully demonstrated,) certainty which be drawn from and nature of the conclusions it, satisfactory may mind must and in its freedom from those which humane objections every endowed with feel to the infliction of tortures unnecessary upon beings sensations as acute as our own. to the of We have in the of this article, alluded, early part difficulty Sciences. Whew ell's the Inductive History of [April, vital and and this we can- the of laws; distinguishing operation physical but as a to be determined before the laws not regard question completely established. To the vital can be of satisfactorily analyze purely phenomena under conditions in which laws are acting physical supplied phenomena trace the diversities from their usual mode of vital and to by processes, the existence of those to us action occasioned conditions, appears by method of to be at the most obvious the therefore present advancing that the would ter- science. We cannot but believe enquiry ultimately vital actions to as connected minate in all essentially referring properties form of matter which we call as are the with that organized, ordinary with matter. inorganic physical properties then is it that the One more would remain: possible question physical of which are at our ultimate facts or and vital matter, properties present be hereafter included within a more axioms, may general expression common to both? On this we can but the subject only speculate; pro- in We the affirmative. have remarked bability appears decidedly already of in the ren- the sciences, upon rapid progress generalization physical it that before one formula shall long dering probable simple comprehend all the of the and it is not too much world; inorganic perhaps phenomena in to for a the laws of the hope corresponding simplification organized is the this retarded obstacles creation, although necessarily by many which the nature of the to the subject presents philosophical enquirer. In to our attainment of such we rise from the proportion generalizations, domain of our to that of our at succes- for, ignorance knowledge; every are to new sive we able relations between facts that step, comprehend seemed confused and new for what for- insulated; previously objects destitute of merly appeared utility. which we take in the of must Every step, then, path generalization our increase admiration of the of the and the beauty adaptation, action of the of the laws we a and discover; harmony beauty harmony in which the mind to the wisdom contemplative delights recognize and beneficence of the Divine Author of the universe. If we can conceive that the same which created matter out of no- Almighty fiat it one which should the law, thing, impressed upon simple regulate association of its masses into of almost illimitable con- extent, systems their the times of the commencement and movements, trolling fixing cessation and of each each other the world, balancing against perturbing influences to which its own actions be the cause not rise,?should give only of the but of the of their general conditions, uniformity particular variety the in the form and structure of each individual governing changes globe an existence of countless and the protracted through centuries, adjusting alternation of" seasons and and months and times, years,"?should people all these worlds with of endless of living beings nature, diversity pro- for their their their mutual viding support, happiness, reliance, ordaining their constant and succession not as individuals but as decay merely and them in races, minute to the conditions of adapting every particular their should harmonize and blend all the innume- dwelling,?and together rable multitude of these their sources actions, making very perturbations of new our is advanced to com- powers;?when knowledge sufficiently these then shall we be led to a far and nobler prehend things, higher of the Divine Mind than we have at the means of conception present forming. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The British and Foreign Medical Review Pubmed Central

A History of the Inductive Sciences

The British and Foreign Medical Review , Volume 5 (10) – Apr 1, 1838

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THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN MEDICAL REVIEW, FOR APRIL, 1838. PART FIRST. attfi <?rittcal Ifcebietog. analytical Art. I. A Rev. W. the Inductive Sciences. the m.a. History of By Whewell, Fellow and Tutor of President of the Trinity College, Cambridge; 1837. Three Vols. 8vo. Geological &c.?London, Society, pp.437, 534, The we would fain is now when attainments in time, hope,, gone by of not connected with medical kind, knowledge immediately prac- every and even of were looked on the the tice, by public, by many profession, with a and when the man of who devoted his science, suspicious eye; leisure hours to the combination of amusement and instruction afforded was on that account less his or his by laboratory study, thought worthy of confidence than the frivolous in Abetter partaker public gaieties. and on this is we could ground; feeling subject gradually gaining point individuals who have shewn that scientific to many distinguished pursuits are no means with eminence and professional reputa- by incompatible now our tion. The extended course of education required by corporate sufficient to no amount of bodies is of itself impart trifling general to those who avail themselves of its and, fully opportunities; knowledge influence of our on the tone how is the of knowing important profession at and how much it has the means of the taste improving society large, we for all classes of the cannot but anti- knowledge among community, in the estimate formed the of a still farther its public cipate change by requirements. of scientific We do not the attainment knowledge urge general merely we deem an with the as a matter of acquaintance principles expediency: who is not content with of science essential to one tread- every physical medical and who cherishes the the beaten of higher ing path practice, of its boundaries and its We diminishing perplexities. object extending it one whose life has well remember to have heard remarked, long by and diffusion of been in the professional knowledge, spent acquirement be disencumbered of theo- when and should that, pathology physiology vol. v. no. x. Inductive Sciences. the Whewell's [April, 318 History of be some of their there would which are hope ries impossible, physically accurate of in the It separation physical advancement. is, fact, only by to at that we can arrive in the from vital actions expect any living system and as will enable us to of the latter such classify generalize knowledge No one can with our notice. the to attempt this, presented phenomena with the laws ol who is not conversant of inorganic success, any prospect his of their who is not to and conception applica- matter, prepared carry from the eminence than he can discern to an extent still wider tion they the elevation and In to have hitherto attained. comprehen- proportion we find the boundaries which at of our do siveness generalizations, in as the divide the sciences aeronaut, enlarging disappear; just present divisions the art of man loses of the which his horizon, sight successively from each the hand of nature has to or other, estates, interposed separate and kingdoms. provinces that the It is evident to discriminating enquirer, phenomena quite every the sum constitutes what we know of are of a of which life, generally to that certain vital nature; organized complex properties peculiar very in the of most of structures are concerned them; essentially production the common of matter are also and that frequently physical properties into but that there is a class of in the brought operation: actions, pro- and and in the duction of which both vital physical properties partake, of It in which there is, is, fact, analysis consequently, great difficulty. one of the most in to determine how far problems important physiology, the results of laws can be modified the conditions physical supplied by by the of and it a mind not imbued, operations vitality; requires thoroughly with the of but also with that science, only principles general philoso- which alone can render the of to them spirit available, phical knowledge the with the of success. pursue enquiry probability It is not one of the least the afforded the culti- among advantages by vation of if it exercises a bene- general science, that, directed, properly ficial influence on those faculties of the the of which is mind, training essential to the successful of medical The same pursuit knowledge. acuteness of the same cautiousness of the same observation, inference, discrimination in the same in facts, them, classifying sagacity generalizing and the same skill in the of such developing application generalizations, are in the sciences of life as in those of inert required matter. It is far from our wish to that discursive encourage which, by spirit, its attention to too at the same is unable to directing many objects time, a distinct view of We feel gain convinced when once any. that, fully in the of his no one has a to devote engaged practice profession, right considerable of his any time to extraneous but even portion pursuits; if a then, foundation have been good laid in earlier we believe it to be life, in the of one to with power every the attainment of and keep pace laws, to the of acquire their not in one or two knowledge application, only of but in all to departments science, which his attention has originally been directed. be it For, remembered that in every step generalization is in an advance in reality and that law is the com- simplification, every of a prehensive vast number expression of which had to facts, previously be retained in the so individually whilst the and memory; that, ingenuity of scientific industiy are enquirers new and facts, constantly developing thus the apparently and extent of increasing of each branch complexity an Inductive Science. 319 1838.] Physiology these combined the talents of the knowledge, facts, by very philosopher with others conduct him to the of ascertained, previously discovery the which include not which laws, general only phenomena upon they were but to be their others and based, previously supposed beyond pale, which deductive to results hitherto unex- lead, by reasoning, simple pected.* To those who with the views in the remarks agree expressed preceding we can recommend the work of Mr. as much strongly Whewell, affording instruction in a useful and attractive form. A mere of history any science is to most and "flat, stale, persons unprofitable" performance; in as it the and effects of but, proportion developes origin, progress, successive the of successive discoveries on the subse- doctrines, bearing at in as it becomes a short, quent attempts generalization,?in proportion and does it become valuable. philosophical history, generally interesting The Mr. Whewell is to out the consecutive object proposed by point which the different sciences have the of induc- steps by arrived, by process at the elevations which have attained; tion, and, respective they already this definite end in he all the keeping view, disregards necessarily events which have no immediate it. As there have been few bearing upon of in without some foundation however, truth, systems philosophy, (most of them the result of a of a limited number being too-rapid generalization of each one of these has forward a certain facts,) brought prominently amount of which has in the end been serviceable towards the knowledge, of science. in a as are such we perfection Hence, history considering, the which have at different times exercised a hypothetical dogmas power- ful over the human are not and the most overlooked; sway intellect, correct estimate of value be formed the of each the may by considering effect which it has had in the boundaries of know- widening legitimate and in towards the establishment of the truth the ledge, contributing by overthrow of other still erroneous. The mode in which more the systems writer has executed the task he has for is such as himself, proposed might be from the station which he holds the expected distinguished among cultivators of science. If we should hereafter think it physical necessary to an to the disad of the dedicated freely express opinion vantage portion to we an shall do it with much that author of so Physiology, regret high and deserved a should have in it reputation degree disparaged any by to treat of the of a with whose details he is venturing philosophy subject not We think need not have conversant. that Mr. Whewell gone beyond the limits of his own in search of a writer to fully competent university assist in him his and we cannot but believe a ; that, plan although single mind into such a work of than could more may carry uniformity design We are in able to our remarks on this the au- happy being strengthen subject by of M. who in one of his recent I am so lectures, thority Magendie, says, strongly convinced the for the of of a of science knowledge comprehension necessity physical and of medical that I cannot the Not art, too practice strongly urge study upon you. that I that a man cannot be a without the of pretend good practitioner acquirements MM. but I that not to be unac- Thenard, Poisson, maintain, ought Arago, &c.; you with the of the exact alone can unveil a mass of sciences. quainted They principles of which the would otherwise be alone can phenomena, operation inexplicable; they assist it the science of medicine in itself from the trammels in which has been freeing confined and the sur les Phenomenes mania of by ignorance systematising."?Lemons de la tome ii. 17. Vie, Physiques p. Sciences. the Inductive Whew ell's [April, 320 of History be of a there be must, necessity, great inequalities possessed by plurality, execution. in the we shall Before this however, briefly topic, entering upon particular of his first two which are the volumes, follow our author subjects through statements will not we that our exact and devoted to the sciences; hope the article. the ultimate of irrelevant to be considered object present which con- be from the Our first shall introduction, general quotation as it to to the tains some us, applicable, appears thoughts peculiarly of study physiology. are facts and observa- "To the formation of science two ideas; things requisite: in sense and an inward effort of other tions of or, words, without, thought; things can constitute substantial and reason. Neither of these itself, elements, general by of unconnected some rational and The sense, by speculative knowledge. impressions with individual the can end in a objects; only practical acquaintance principle, on the other if allowed to on without a of the rational hand, faculties, go operations and barren constant reference to external can lead to abstraction things, only empty demands the combination of the two Real knowledge ingre- ingenuity. speculative and facts to reason It has been well that true reason, said, dients; right upon. of and thus it both the is the nature; requires interpreting knowledge interpretation mind and nature for its both the document and the to read it subject; ingenuity and connexion of are on the aright. Thus, invention, acuteness, thought necessary, one for the of on the other the hand, progress philosophical knowledge; and, hand, well and of these faculties to facts known and con- precise steady application clearly ceived. It is to to instances in which science has failed to advance in easy point of of the absence of one or other these far the indeed, consequence requisites: by of the course of the the of most times and most world, countries, greater part history exhibits a condition thus with to The the im- facts, stationary regard knowledge. on the on which the first senses, successful at pressions knowledge attempts physical as well were known before the time when were thus turned to proceeded, long they account as at that The motions of the and the of were effects period. stars, weight, familiar to man before the rise of the Greek and but the astronomy mechanics; diviner mind' was still the act of had not been which absent; exerted, thought by these facts were bound under the forms of laws and even together principles. And, at this the tribes of uncivilized and half-civilized man over the face of the earth day, have before their a vast of facts of the as with same nature those eyes body exactly which has built the fabric of her in almost Europe stately but, physical philosophy; other of the the of the intellect every earth, which these facts become part process by science is unknown. The scientific does not work. The scattered stones are faculty indeed but the builder's hand is there, we have no lack of wanting. And, again, that mere of is inefficient in real proof activity thought equally producing knowledge. Almost the whole of the career of the Greek of schools of the schoolmen philosophy, of in the middle of the Arabian and Indian shews us that Europe ages, philosophers, we have extreme and may invention and demonstration ingenuity subtilty, connexion, and and that out of method; these no yet science be germs physical may developed. e obtain such means and may by and even and logic metaphysics, geometry alge- but out of bra; such materials we shall never form mechanics and optics, chemistry and Ilow is physiology. the formation of these sciences without a con- impossible stant and careful reference to observation and how and experiment; rapid prosperous be their when may draw from progress such sources the materials on which the they mind of the philosopher the of employs itself; those branches of history knowledge for the last three hundred years teaches us." i. abundantly (Vol. p. 9.) as If, we shall endeavour to presently the true science of shew, is at in its physiology present the ends to be attained not infancy, gene- ar|d the most ers^0?d> means of them not satisfactory pursuing ? it its cultivators fully determined, cannot do better than take warning by an Inductive Science. 321 1838.] Physiology the which the of errors general history philosophy brings prominently before them. We this science as at regard present slowly undergoing and Newton that revolution which concurred to effect in Bacon, Galileo, the ruins of have so exploded general physics; systems clung pertinaci- around that not even the vast intellect and unwearied it, ously perseve- in true rance of Haller could succeed its form and developing proportions; disencumbered of their we until it is do not and, remains, entirely expect it will make decided advance. Some in the that of passages, any part Mr. Whewell's work which relates to the of the physical philosophy a alteration in be made, terms, Greeks, might by slight equally appli- of which is but cable to the school physiology just passing away. and fatal defect in the of the Greek "The radical physical speculations philosophi- cal schools had in their facts and the ideas that, was, though they possession ideas, to the There is no in were not distinct and facts. difficulty appropriate perceiving for each class of there is some set of means of which the that, facts, ideas, special by in scientific and that these which facts can be included general truths; ideas, may thus be termed must be with entire distinctness and appropriate, possessed clearness, in For one of the facts which order that be successfully applied. example: they may Aristotle endeavours to is when the sun's a this,?that, through explain light passes be the form of the the if formed at considera- whatever hole, hole, bright image, any ble distance from the is instead of the of the as hole, round, imitating hole, figure their We shall this to be a shadows resemble objects. easily perceive appearance if of the circular of the we conceive to be figure sun, light necessary consequence from the means of from diffused luminary by straight rays proceeding every point. of Aristotle to fact instead of this idea the But, rays, explain appropriate attempts by that the sun's has a circular which it tends to manifest. saying light nature, always of a circular instead of And this and loose the quality, vague conception employed distinct of which is Aristotle from conception rays really applicable, prevented giving true account even of this simple optical (P. 81.) very phenomenon." The causes which thus retarded the of science progress physical among have in down to the the Greeks been perpetuated physiology present time. There are still to the title of who are men, aspiring philosophers, life which content to refer all the of cannot operations tliey explain by to the "Vital a term which about as laws conveys physical Principle;" definite an idea as the circular nature" of instead of Aristotle; viewing whose action are them as the results of vital properties by they produced, of matter rise to its as the give physical changes,) (just physical properties and of which the characters and laws are as to as open investigation more difficult of attainment those of the more evident although qualities, of the combinations in which the results are to the owing complexity to our examination. presented claim of to be as an inductive In the regarded considering physiology believe we shall take occasion to out what we to be the science, point since there are who method of it; imagine that, legitimate pursuing many vital and distinct in the of physical phenomena, entirely investigation few who are aware how are to be and courses comparatively pursued, the which all affect- similar are the tracks in both; differences, perceive, than and the actual more the steps arrangements object ing preparatory In into the laws which or direction of the our regulate journey. enquiry of of the the rather, nature, (or, general expression complex phenomena our first is to collect a the conditions under which object they occur,) to one an obvious relation sufficient number of another, instances, having to all. with a view of the circumstances common These. determining the Inductive Sciences. Whew ell's [April, 32-2 History of where the to us observation; are furnished and, phenomena instances by are the that their antecedents same, are so uniformly they only simple for the mind number of times to be be associated a sufficient need to In of the relation. even of the however, satisfied general, constancy such an invariable antecedent and where a present consequent particular idea of several concurrent excites the causation, relation as necessarily at result so far first to circumstances influence the as, sight, give general and influence of each of and the value these it a of degree uncertainty; before we can our has to be determined circumstances regard knowledge as Still more of the of the conditions complete. phenomena frequently of several antecedent it is or it difficult, does that, phenomena, happen which an to fix the one invariable even upon single possesses impossible, of Here it with those which are the there- relation is, subjects analysis. of the of termed that the fore, production process artificial phenomena, so us to make new combinations of is useful, enabling experiment,* by in such a manner as to test condition which can the antecedents, every It is obvious that information thus affect the result. the attain- general that which is deficient in our able will be frequently precisely previous of and it will be found in as collection observations; that, proportion any science affords facilities for thus of the nature," "asking questions have in that will the of enquirer particular department greater probability her secrets. Another with circumstance on which becoming acquainted the attainment of in branch of science principles general any greatly is the or it in the of facility presents depends, difficulty comparison Where the in a number of individual phenomena. changes, occurring are so similar in character as to an of instances, evidently imply identity there is little in the law cause, comparatively difficulty deducing general of the in more where the of effects; but, complex instances, operation the real cause as it masked the influence of concurrent con- is, were, by or where often in the effects of the same ditions, (as happens physiology) cause are different to the instruments apparent totally according through which it it is obvious that there will be in the operates, great difficulty first of the inductive of the classification of stage process,?that pheno- that it be as one of the mena,?so indeed, great, may regarded principal obstacles to the advancement of those branches of science in which it itself. presents The of the and motion of phenomena equilibrium bodies, inorganic in the sciences of Statics and will comprehended illustrate Dynamics, the influence of in the of instances and in the facility comparison appli- cation of in to the of laws. The experiment, leading knowledge general which have been attained these means a.re principles so by comprehen- sive that a of deduction enables us to or process simple account predict ior all the which can phenomena the under which occur; only difficulty still labour in to them philosophers arises from their of regard ignorance 8re aware that this definition of does ? not couform either experiment altogether with its or with the sense etymology in which it is used. It is, however, commonly one which its limited designates in strictly application and we physical philosophy; shall hereafter out the of point a broad line in utility drawing research physiological between those cases in which it is our to ascertain as object phenomena they actually and and those in which normally occur, we endeavour to new for ob- produce subjects servation a in the conditions by change of the phenomena. an Inductive Science. 323 1838.] Physiology the molecular constitution of which renders the of bodies, application these laws to and aeriform media still somewhat uncertain and liquid difficult. The laws of statics and themselves be dynamics may compre- hended in still more and all the truths of both general expressions, sciences be deduced from a of whose may single analytical formula, ap- the law of extension of which from terrestrial matter plication gravity (the to the solar and more to the constitutes the system, recently universe, illustration of the inductive is but a instance.* grandest philosophy,) single the In direct resemblance of certain of too, Chemistry, groups pheno- mena renders their classification to (the preparatory step induction) matter of little at the same the of difficulty; whilst, time, facility experi- ment enables us to fill the voids which observation alone would leave; up so that the of which its are facts simple quantitative expression usually and the of combinations of causes and so conditions capable, variety obtained have led to the of laws of a easily by experiment, discovery of which are themselves subordinate to high degree generality, probably others to be discovered. It is a remarkable of the yet consequence of which led to the establishment of the law of generalization rapidity definite that its subordinate which limit its laws,?those proportions, in which diminish the number of combinations cases, generality particular and restrain the indiscriminate mixture of ele- possible, abstractedly to be Since the researches of have ments,?remain discovered."f Faraday the of chemical and electrical it would seem proved attraction, identity that the science of can be as a dis- scarcely regarded having chemistry in tinct and that it must those of existence, ultimately merge electricity and which are themselves to be included in a dynamics, probably single general expression. In the sciences of and it is remarkable that the most recent Heat, Light and the views founded seem to do discoveries, them, general upon away with the idea of these as but distinct, altogether principles imponderable, material With to the fundamental doc- indeed, agents. respect light, trines of the now be as established; regarded undulatory theory may fully and it is in their to an immense mass of that only application phenomena to the laborious nature of the can take any delay place, owing process, and the intricate mathematical The reasoning required. undulatory of heat is found of all obvious and theory capable answering objections, as on its to be confirmed or modified future be trial, may regarded by and an of the laws of discoveries, enlarged knowledge especially by the of heat. polarization condition of the science of is inte- The Electricity present peculiarly to the The immense number of new and unexpected resting physiologist. in recent times the of detected en- phenomena by industry experimental have been made subservient to the of which laws, quirers, discovery general which but not include the facts were others at first founded, only upon they different character. In this manner not of an only voltaic, sight entirely and animal have been to be but forms of electricity proved atmospheric, but. even to result common from magnetic electricity; phenomena appear a of the same in other a or, words, peculiar application powers, peculiar effects manifestation of the same we have of a Here, then, properties. vol. ii. 121. f Herschell's Whewell, Preliminary Discourse, p. p. Sciences. the Inductive Wuewell's 324 [April, History of the results oi a common dissimilar as most necessary character, occurring we cannot but of and under a conditions; cause hope variety operating some future be effected at that a time, corresponding simplification may, of those vital in the properties science, comprehension physiological by facts whose laws cannot be said to which are at our ultimate (and present the be under one Moreover, expression. pro- yet established,) general other allied renders electrical and of in branches, science, gress discovery to be as a it that is no distinct, regarded electricity longer probable is rather but that it to be looked agent, material, though imponderable, of other and of like attraction on as a kinds; matter, general property the which are the actions we and that which witness, powers developed, of this to are more than the manifestation property, according nothing the material bodies concerned in them are the conditions in which placed. " " It cannot be Mr. that the of the Whewell, denied," says theory of but it electric fluids affords a facts; plausible explanation may fairly and the of and heat be whether it is light questioned necessary, analogy of the has done much to shake the (and latter,) especially polarization the of the electric fluids as a The most beauti- physical reality." theory seems ful of which this branch of science however, generalization, capable is that who has rendered it Mossoti, recently proposed by highly probable that the statics and with those of the molecular of phenomena dynamics, actions of and those of all the forms of electric be bodies, power, may included under the same general expression. If the views as to non-existence of a distinct electric here stated the and the of electric all should fluid, matter, possession properties by prove we cannot but consider them as a most correct, having important bearing on Our of the functions of physiological speculation. analysis living or of those whose sum constitutes their terminates beings, life, changes in them all to certain their referring properties possessed by component excited to action the relations in which are to structures, placed by they each other and to external Some of these we know to agents. properties be since are dead manifested and physical, they equally by living orga- nized others are of a tissues; different character, vital, being essentially and the of a which necessarily implying pre-existence living by system, matter has the of and in which inorganic undergone process organization, alone these can be of these manifested. The existence vital properties must for the be as our ultimate facts in properties present regarded phy- but we whence are derived. It is siology; may enquire reasonably they said that an in and commonly organized body, assimilating organizing the nutrient which the to its existence are matter, by changes necessary communicates or to at the same maintained, those it, time, superadds vital of which it was itself A properties logical previously possessed. be taken to exception this form of since we can might expression, scarcely that as communicable regard which has not a distinct if existence; and, we understand the term it the relation property aright, merely expresses between in some matter, form or and the mind. particular state, percipient this But, passing we into by consideration, may advantageously enquire the on which the view stated has been analogy often just supported. There is no more it has been in how vital difficulty, argued, conceiving be to properties may than in understand- superadded organized matter, how ing be magnetic communicated to iron : but the properties may an Inductive Science. 1838.] Physiology a nature different latter to be of from what is com- process appears really communication of The so-called magnetic monly supposed. properties to iron is more than the of a in the condi- production change nothing tion of the metal which the electric in by properties, previously existing in are and caused that as form of manifested, to rise matter, every give to A little consideration will shew that we cannot magnetic powers. become of of matter without some cognizant property change being any of or them either our effected, sense, directly upon organs upon through the medium its with some other material of action such body. Every certain without which the conditions, change, therefore, requires pro- form cannot be until of matter has been manifested; and, perty any in a the conditions to we placed requisite develope particular property, have no means of either of its or absence. It is presence per- judging correct to that matter exhibits itself to the mind in fectly say organized a and relation different from that of that matter, totally inorganic pro- manifested. But no one can assert new are perties apparently thereby that there does not in of the of matter, exist, particle capability every in in vital when the other conditions; exhibiting actions, placed requisite when the of made a of a words, process organiza- part living system by tion. It is the of the conditions to manifest it required only complexity which as a common our this of prevents recognizing capability property or at it which we know to matter, least of those forms of by experience enter into the of structures. composition organized Of all the branches of science whose are phenomena dependent upon is the most obscure that of and simple physical principles, Meteorology uncertain. the which become the apparently changes subjects Although of our observation are under the of notice, constantly occurring difficulty and the concerned in them controlling agents artificially combining pre- vents us from much assistance from whilst the com- deriving experiment; and the of the conditions under which similar effects occur, plexity variety of results which arise from modifications of the same slight may very render such a mode of cause, peculiarly necessary. enquiry When we turn to the from the world inorganic contemplate living king- doms of we at once avast difference in the of our nature, objects perceive this and we be led to that investigation; may perhaps suppose change that our should be varied in mode of accordance requires philosophising with it. But a little reflection must convince us that if the inductive be the human founded the relation between mind and system really upon the world in which man is it must be as to the disco- placed, applicable of laws in one as in and another; that, very general department although each of the modified different be to the steps may individually according character of the which our is the founded, reasoning general objects upon of the whole must be the in whatever channel our same, plan particular labours are directed. We have it on record that after Newton, the noblest effort of human reason that has conceived philosophy perpetuated, the idea that structure and of the laws the functions governing living be discovered the of their similar organisms might by comparison organs and the of the as were those of world the functions, inorganic by study of its dici de uniformitate ilia uniformity phenomena. (" Idemque possit est in of the Until, however, quae corporibus animalium.") principles induction the combi- are understood, philosophical thoroughly peculiar Inductive Sciences. Wuf.well's the 326 History of [April, themselves to our their in which vital notice, nations phenomena present we witness in the the which world from changes dissimilarity apparent lead obvious to us and their ends, around, adaptation particular might with to the into the of regard labyrinth unprofitable speculation astray are and the which governed; slightest by they presiding agencies convince us that the of will this has with acquaintance history physiology that in fact the case to a recent and been the period, legitimate up very true mode of them are now of and the investigation pursuing only objects to be understood. beginning our views on the of as an inductive We shall connect study physiology of this some criticisms on Mr. Whewell's branch of with science, history have before we cannot bestow on as we the which, hinted, philosophy, that is due to the of the work devoted to the same approbation portion The author has not to even a sciences. attempted give general physical he sketch of the of the as would suit science, such," progress says, and in the neither nor he remarks, my powers my purpose;" following his for the task. more grounds avoiding explains fully other ancient its career has been one of Like most sciences, though perpetual variable and as in so in each has those which had others, this, progress; step implied and cannot be understood we understand been them. made, aright,except previously the of this advance have been and the cultivators Moreover, steps very many diverse; of in been and the is one of have all numerous vast ages laborious; anatomy subject extent and almost has added to the current complexity; every generation something of its and of have been the knowledge details; general speculations physiologists and learned. It be difficult or for a subtle, bold, must, therefore, impossible person who has form not studied the science with and to professional diligence advantages, of the value of the discoveries of various and and to just judgments ages persons, them in their due relation to each other. To this we arrange add, that, may though all the discoveries which have been made with to functions or particular organ- respect izations are understood to be subordinate to one the of science, general philosophy the and doctrines of this nowhere exist in a life, science yet principles shape generally received and assented to and thus we have in this not, science, among physiologists; the which in some others the true direc- we have of advantage discerning possessed, tion of its first the to which of movements, tend; by knowing point they ultimately on the earlier and in the and discoveries, thus them running beyond face, looking their true features." iii. reading (Vol. p. 379.) that has as a science to not advanced the Fully admitting physiology same with level or or we cannot with astronomy, optics, agree electricity, Mr. Whewell as to the of the discoveries impossibility truly estimating and doctrines of times. We do not understand the past certainly fully value of insulated until are made the of facts, foundation they general but we laws; have a clear of their in may importance leading perception to such from various causes the laws them- inferences, although retarding selves have not been into view. Mr. Whewell has yet clearly brought remarked: subsequently very justly We are no means to confine by ourselves to the and all positive discovery, reject the less clear and certain To do this would be to lose most of the chances speculations. of ulterior for it our progress; that of the nature of though maybe conceptions organic life are not yet and to become the to induc- sufficiently precise steady guides positive tive the in truths, which these only way ideas can be made more peculiar physiological distinct and and thus precise, more into a scientific is this brought nearly form, by with our or struggle ignorance This is the lesson we have imperfect knowledge. learned from the of history and other sciences. We must strive physical astronomy to refer which are known and facts, to of which we can- understood, higher principles, an Inductive Science. 327 1838.] Physiology and of in some we can see the not doubt the which, however existence; degree, place, we have hitherto and be the been able to obtain of these dim shadowy may glimpses often fail in such but without the we can forms. We never attempts; attempt may succeed." different With to the which have regard physiological hypotheses, time of to the abounded from the the remark Pythagoras present epoch, made the various of we have is respecting already systems philosophy was each the of a applicable hypothesis consequence peculiarly hasty a number of and of limited was of use facts, generalization consequently facts forward so that whilst no one in those ; had a bringing prominently no one could be as futile. Now that solid foundation, regarded utterly that it is like other must sciences, universally acknowledged physiology, the materials observation and be built of that the up supplied by only, of the edifice must be the demolition of the ruins of erection preceded by the but unstable structures of former we cannot but con- times, showy to sider ourselves their since the merits, quite competent pronounce upon each to the final consummation will be made of the utility apparent by number and of the facts it has into view. Thus the che- variety brought of mical and mechanical the seventeenth have physiologies century long a natural but each sect contributed since died death; much to the advance of our of the animal and knowledge economy, many important in of their truths be adduced The sect of the might support propositions. doctrines less vitalists erroneous than originally promulgated scarcely those to which we have and have alluded; not just although physiologists in the boundaries of been able to and vital actions yet agree fixing physical in there are none who do not allow that the both mechanical living body, forces and chemical are in constant and extensive powers operation. in Nor do we feel the merits of the any greater difficulty estimating system who was the first to clear to of the truth Brown, give certainly expression that the actions of life the excitement of vital depend upon properties by but while this external is made the founda- stimuli; important principle of modern the which its tion author con- pathological system physiology, nected with has almost as as it was raised. it, disappeared rapidly Surely, all these and with to we are in doctrines, regard systems fully competent the to an and as to those of more recent day pronounce opinion; present we do not that will much date, apprehend any difficulty longer exist, since multitude of observers in the and everywhere engaged applying will disclose their true value. testing them, speedily treat the of to of as an inductive Declining general progress physiology Mr. Whewell has it sufficient to trace the establish- science, thought ment of some of its more limited but certain and with doctrines;" this intention he has a brief outline of the of the connexion of given discovery nerves and muscles as of Galen and other organs voluntary motion, by of the ancient and of the circulation anatomists; discovery by Harvey and his To these he adds a notice of the dis- predecessors. subsequently of the motion of the and of some of the theories of covery chyle, ; digestion an examination of the of remark on (his process reproduction which, that it offers to us laws and which include both the animal principles with and correctness be extended to vegetable kingdoms," might equal one of the and a sketch of the discoveries every organic functions), the nervous from the time of Galen to those of respecting system Bichat, Whew ell's the Inductive Sciences. of History [April, we treated in and None of these such are, conceive, Bell, Mayo. subjects idea of their real a manner as to a correct progress. give error into which Mr. W. to us to have is The appears fallen, principal one no means to and we shall take the more to him; peculiar pains by this are the as clear ideas on expose fallacy, subject peculiarly necessary of as an inductive science. The to the distinct conception physiology as Mr. W. terms of the circulation of the of the them, doctrines, blood, nerve motion of the of the connexion between and and of muscle, chyle, are not laws even of a low the functions of of nerves, particular degree but on which laws are to be founded. facts general generality, Physio- it is to be is the science of not the of the recollected, life; knowledge logy, functions of the human but the accumulated and classified body only, all the in amount of If we changes occurring organized living beings. with the structure and functions of were one acquainted perfectly any we should have a collection of to be included with those organism, facts the of other dissimilar in derived from study organisms, general expres- to be of real value as the foundation of sions, which, inductions, higher must be of universal be application. Every living being, therefore, may looked as a collection of each of which when upon phenomena, may, pro- contribute to the establishment of some law understood, perly general either the of the material structure or the func- governing development tional to which that structure is and it is obvious changes subservient; that until these are and phenomena correctly ascertained, certainly they be made cannot available for scientific any purpose, although hypotheses be erected the them, may occasionally advantageously upon conformity of whose results with known facts afford to the may support original sup- Now it is in the of facts and of position. difficulty ascertaining correctly that the true obstacle to the satisfactorily observing phenomena, progress of as a science is to be found. the structure of the physiology Though human has been and examined so thou- body carefully minutely by many sands of how are still and how much anatomists, uncertain, many points to be remains discovered! and this structure is but one of those yet yet of which be must collected from the hundred groups instances, many thousand of and animals the which naturalist believes to species plants exist on the surface of the before we can have sufficient data for globe, the establishment of the most and universal laws comprehensive regulating the of development living organisms. The difficulties which themselves in the observation of the facts present which it is the of the science of to ascertain and object anatomy gene- are as to those which beset the of the into ralize, nothing path enquirer the which and the whole changes living beings perform undergo during of their existence. These be divided into the period may practically normal and the former class abnormal, designated being usually physio- the latter It is obvious that this use of the term logical, pathological. is much more restricted sense in than the which we have physiological and it would be convenient to confine it already employed it; to perhaps its usual and to avail ourselves of the term to acceptation, biology signify the science of in life its most extended sense. It be how- surmised, may without that as well ever, as improbability, pathological physiological are referrible to the ultimate vital of tis- phenomena organized properties sues; and instead of that, a distinct set of laws for their requiring expla- an Inductive Science. 329 1838.] Physiology will to be results of these as neces- nation, they prove primary causes, as those of the which at first sary perturbations planetary system appear to interfere with the law of but which a more sight gravitation, enlarged that of the of law includes its inevitable conception application amongst The sum of all the which constitute the life consequences. phenomena of an is to be as a collection of of which organized being, regarded facts, each must be stated in a and concise before it can be made form, separate the of founded similar facts derived subject any general expression upon from the of other study living beings. There are a few laws of a low of which be degree generality might deduced from the of a thus the human study single organism: physio- infer that all fibre the muscular of logist might fairly possesses property because he is able to the existence of this in irritability, prove property one of the numerous fibres which enter into the structure of the every human remainder and his views to the of the animal body; extending he would find that wherever muscular fibre it kingdom, exists, probably the same of on the of a sti- possesses contracting application capability mulus. But were he to to still and to assert further, attempt generalize that tissue this the characteristic every manifesting property possesses structure of muscular tissue alone manifests it in man and fibre, (which the he would find himself from the truth; higher animals,) widely astray since a the of and of the lowest of animals knowledge anatomy vegetables shows that to the muscular structure exists in tissues nothing analogous which exhibit the We look for an cannot, therefore, distinctly property. this in law of the connexion of a of explanation property any particular function with a certain form of which will not include all the structure, in tissues found to be of it. Now the possessed great difficulty physio- of the combinations in results from the logical investigation complexity which vital and their themselves, dependence upon phenomena present their one another to a that almost degree entirely precludes separate we ascertain the examination. Were able to regarding facts changes which take in the interior of the as as the astro- living body easily place or chemist the nomer observes the of a the place planet, decomposition of a is no whatever to these facts there reason salt, prevent being genera- with of lized in the same manner and to the same those the degree phy- of to which of sical sciences. The when desirous chemist, ascertaining the in a mixture a effect is each due, ingredients particular places given the but the in the conditions to result; required produce phy- separately to insulate and reduce the finds that the organ, siologist attempt anyone it to definite necessa- experimental investigation, changes performed by those conditions under takes or alters which rily away considerably very its be and that he is alone functions can performed, normally totally and artificial unable to similar new combinations of produce changes by the when materials. too, changes they might elementary Frequently, otherwise be are of a kind to our means of ascertainable, imperceptible of the effects and as we know these observation; only by they produce on there must be considerable with to their others, uncertainty regard Thus we know the nervous nature and even their existence. of very only transmitted the motor its effects influence to be nerves, along by supposed these in in muscular as to the nature of contraction; changes producing the of the influence we nervous matter in which the consists, propagation Sciences. the Inductive Whewell's [April, 330 History of and the nervous influence form even a cannot supposed probable guess; of the some to be essential to nutrition, secretion, organic processes by exists between from the which &c. is evidently only suspected sympathy and certain states of the nervous these system. processes of the of life arises Another in the phenomena investigation difficulty with which the and from that in changes this; whilst, objects considering the external or we are able to connect the world us, inorganic presents which we know them characters of bodies with those evident properties to the latter from the to and thus former, possess, predicate by experience to follow the same course with to we are unable regard organized totally the to the differences in structures, extraordinary properties pos- owing sessed as far as our means of observation extend, tissues, which, present by Hence it is that we see so the same external characters. exactly many under circumstances the dissimilar occurring apparently same, phenomena and so of the same nature referrible to causes which would many changes seem so different. It is this which has to all the sciences of life a given we doubt that the laws of character of such cannot great uncertainty: nature the to which are are as living constantly regulating changes beings as those of dead but from the of matter; liable, apparent inapplicability ascertained laws to novel and the of cases, impossibility accurately ourselves with the conditions which our is acquainting upon application the and the medical are alike baffled founded, physiologist practitioner when to even the most common as the they predict attempt phenomena result of their operation. We cannot but that the of perceive, therefore, difficulty ascertaining in us to and facts physiology obliges frequently adopt opinions specula- tions as the foundations of our and that these are reasoning; opinions themselves to sources of a fact open peculiar Where, however, fallacy. the connexion of a with a function is regarding particular organ special it be classified with others of the same ascertained, definitely may fairly so as to serve as the foundation the inductive but of care nature, process; must be taken to include all the facts a relation to the in having subject, order that our induction be valid. It is a of this may really by process nature that the essential or structure of all elementary secreting organs is found to be a membrane reticulated with blood-vessels and minutely to the of the of mem- permeable fluid; surface this peculiar arrangement its convolution into the tubular structure of and the brane, glands, pre- sence of a reservoir and duct for the secreted all excretory fluid, being matters of not the result. secondary importance influencing general The mass of facts to the structure and of relating changes living which are collected the and of organisms, observers by sagacity ingenuity and must be classified and before experimental enquirers, arranged they can become subservient to the of and this is science; purposes object in different the of accomplished to laws which the ways according philo- is in search. Thus the whose aim it is to sopher discover the physiologist, ultimate vital of matter and the laws of their con- properties operation, siders the individual which in their make the life of an changes totality up them into termed organized being, and, functions ac- arranging groups to their with cording each other and their obvious similarity to tendency the same his end, into the nature and exercise of pursues enquiry each, all the forms of in through which it is manifested. The organized beings an Inductive Science. 1838.] Physiology is to of the on the other arrive at the laws which naturalist, hand, object combination and structure of the on the which the func- organs regulate tions and he each in its therefore, viewing organism depend; totality, under the same formed as the arranges similarly beings group, placing whole the in which character common to the and they points agree, leaving differences to be added to this common the subordinate in character, order to the of an individual. This classification express qualities into is that of the but a functions) (resembling physiological changes step the of laws which the towards establishment structure of the general by of nature is These the kingdoms regulated. laws, expressing organized manner in which are combined and to each the organs adapted other, the relative or of modifications which the each, development simplicity or forms of each to the undergo primary types elementary may according circumstances in which the is to be and various other con- being placed, ditions of its it is the of the naturalist to and ascertain; formation, object mode or which he is in of classification valuable any system may adopt as it the establishment of these laws in and view, facili- proportion keeps tates the accumulation of the which must be knowledge upon they two branches founded. The connexion between these of is investigation so intimate that neither can be with of with- pursued success, probability out considerable of the data and which the knowledge principles upon be the other is and he will most to arrive at the founded; evidently likely of truths in who includes the whole of either, discovery important general the of life in one extensive The refers to survey. physiologist phenomena is the naturalist for instances in which a function on the same performed but under a of as manifested circumstances, general plan, great variety the of the structure of the to the medium of exist- organ by adaptation the formation of the membrane into or ence, (e. g. respiratory lungs whilst the refers to the to assist him naturalist the gills;) physiologist by examination of the function and of an in development organ determining its its real to which the consideration of form and structure character, alone not lead him. The natural of affords a beau- botany might system tiful of this kind of and there can be little doubt, example investigation; some of the most from the advances that made, laws, recently important the structure of and the combination of their living beings regulating will be disclosed to view. organs, speedily of are twofold : to ascertain The the first, objects physiological enquiry in the and to living system; second, changes actually taking place and hence to determine the conditions of those arrive at the changes; of vital Both of these classes of we laws action. enquiry regard general as observation for their and the materials, principally dependent upon we much more inferences to be deduced from it definite are, conceive, and certain than those which but it will be seen that affords; experiment kinds of we under the former term which many investigation comprehend and that there are in are considered usually experimental, physiology circumstances which render a less many purely experimental enquiry branch of science. available than in other any The has for his first to determine observer, then, object physiological sum constitutes the life the nature of the series of of which the changes of His most and direct means of observation, simple any living system. obvious his unassisted inform him of those changes namely, senses, only 6 Inductive Sciences. Wiiewell's the 33*2 History of [April, mark the relations between the and the which in some instances being as the and in others are to be results of the external world, regarded Thus a within the content taking place system. physiologist, processes of a in its natural with the would situation, watching growth plant simply increase in size and the of see little its successive its development beyond from the soil its of nutriment or the atmos- different absorption parts: become would under to circumstances, him; not, ordinary apparent phere relations between the and in the obvious the fact, living and, only system be evinced the influence of and moisture external world would by light to and flowers. With observation the leaves animals, regard simple upon of the would exhibit to him not the results functions made organic only and of the but evident the increase those frame, by development bodily which connect them with the external the immediately world, changes of and the of excrementitious matter. He aliment, discharge ingestion animal would also the manifestations of the of perceive power locomotion, from the of his own actions that and infer sensations were might analogy and were rise to mental processes. These,'then, being produced, giving are all the means of information which unassisted observation can afford; we conceive them to be such as brutes and we can may possess, readily understand how small must be the real amount of to which knowledge can lead. they But the of man has enabled him to devise methods of ingenuity adding to this methods of more exact greatly meager outline, by contriving and of thus what would otherwise be observation, discovering impercep- tible to the senses. We will take for illustration one of the simplest of these aids. No on at a in active possible one, merely looking plant would that its leaves are a vegetation, suppose constantly exhaling large of fluid from their surface in tissue; but, quantity by holding polished their found with it is to become dimmed mois- neighbourhood, speedily ture. This it is leads to the observation, then, nothing more,) (for of the function of exhalation. a knowledge Again, plant vegetating under common circumstances would not be of suspected constantly a if be of fluid its roots; these taking but, up large quantity by placed in a limited of so that the loss is made earth, quantity damp perceptible, the moisture will be found to from the soil much faster than disappear by Here is another observation of the kind ordinary evaporation. simplest us to the of and of the function bringing knowledge absorption; though in such a case the alteration in the conditions for the observa- necessary tion cause the to be as an a might process experimental one, regarded little reflection will shew that the is not in the whose func- change body tions we are we are anxious to these unaltered,) examining, (for preserve but in the external conditions made favorable for our observations; just as the to observe the colour of a would transfer it from chemist, solution, an vessel to a one. opaque transparent arrived at then, the of these functions Having, knowledge by simple additions to our means of a further refinement of ordinary observation, our methods will add to our with them: to continue acquaintance thus, our former the of the balance will illustration, judicious employment enable us to determine the fluid and of absorbed quantity transpired by a and the it bears to its surface. The particular plant, proportion of researches Hales on this in like those of the subject, and, manner, an Inductive 333 Science. 1838.] Physiology various who have the physiologists investigated gaseous changes pro- duced have been denominated but by vegetables, usually experimental; it that the term is no more to to us them than to the appears applicable measurements of the altitudes and distances of the heavenly bodies, per- formed the astronomer. It is true in the latter the that, case, by objects are and aim is to the reach of the his his observer, entirely beyond adapt measurements and calculations to a correct idea of their true convey in the the are under his con- relations; whilst, former, objects certainly in but he endeavours to them as much as their trol, preserve possible natural effect on and to ascertain the conditions, simply changes they the fluid or aeriform the of surrounding media, measuring quantities by these media which are lost or added. Whenever in the any change conditions of the takes when a becomes living system place, (as plant from in a the observation becomes inclosure confined sickly atmosphere,) valueless for the it was intended to serve. purpose The observer other means of his physiological assisting may employ which he is enabled to detect without senses, by changes inappreciable such of for the aid. he avails himself the Thus, examining microscope and endeavours to the for circulation, place part employed capillary observation as as in its natural the relations; nearly possible avoiding and of the loss of fluid from influence of gravitation neighbouring divided both of which have an evident effect on the movement of vessels, means the nutritious in as well as animals. Other of fluid, plants mag- be otherwise of various which would kinds, nifying changes inappreciable, to: the use of the thermo-electric be referred thus, multiplier might easily has enabled MM. and Breschet to detect minute alterations Becquerel in which observation it was of muscular action; temperature during various from in the to errors arising change requisite guard against which have interfered with the correctness of the condition, might bodily to the statement of Mr. of result; and, according King,* multiplication of a lever enabled him to detect venous insensible motions means by even after for the disturbance which be occa- pulsation, allowing might We of all these as sioned a observations neighbouring artery. speak by because their is to ascertain the natural rather than experiments, object on in the under their normal and conditions; living body changes going to the means we of them senses any may employ rendering perceptible of the themselves as are the are as preparations just independent changes the made an astronomer to view and measure bodies, heavenly by by it fit for use his and its uncovering erecting telescope, rendering by as our methods of observation do affect the conditions As soon glasses. more or less of in of the the result is attended with uncertainty, change, aware of the extent and as we are or consequences proportion ignorant of the influence produced. not confine himself to the But the observer does simple physiological to his and which collection of notice, phenomena externally presented in the in the mere results of those which take are often, fact, place living examination of the interior of that he an endeavours, system system: by on which when to ascertain the nature of those the in a state of activity, successful in former are He will be more or less discovering dependent. vol.ii. 108. Hospital Reports, p Guy's VOIj.V. NO. X. the Inductive Sciences. Whewell's 334 [April, History of of the train of vital in the inverse to the these, proportion derangement the violence he is to actions which shall have been created compelled by examination of the normal since it is evident in the inflict; that, changes it is that the functions of the whole of one essential system any part, to that mutual shall on with as little disturbance as go possible, owing as one of the ob- of which we have greatest dependence already spoken It is in this manner that the stacles to absorption physiological enquiry. of motions of the heart and and various the the canal, alimentary chyle, and other of a similar have been interior kind, discovered; phenomena be denominated we think it evident that such researches cannot quite no conditions have been into since new brought action, experimental, ones are as far as circumstances will but the permit. original preserved We have remarked that there is a series of in the changes already with which no means of observation that we at living present pos- body, to those sess can make us of allude We, course, directly acquainted. in the nervous No one doubts that when a which take place system. either external or excites contraction in a stimulus, internal, voluntary it is the medium of an of some muscle, sort, through organic change the nervous cords. if we.examine the foundation But, propagated along of this we shall find it in with which the not opinion, any phenomena normal condition of the it is derived inference us; system presents by from that is to a in the relative conditions of experiment; change say, be nerve and effected the influence to muscle, supposed by intercepting the or a new influence various former, propagated along by exciting by stimuli to itself. We for the sake of applied directly might, argument, that these data are insufficient to a afford conclusion, object positive since the wound for the division of the nerve of itself necessary might the effect: it would be to a produce however, shew, by parallel easy, we that this is not the case in the instance. Still experiment, present could infer the transmission of nervous influence, only positively by it to act a to which it was not conducted; causing upon part previously an our to experiment obviously bring- beyond power perform, except by the two ends of a divided nerve. In another more- ing together case, the of in such a inference leaves us over, impossibility obtaining positive if we trust to of alone: we refer to the uncertainty experiment question the innervation some to be to the of nutri- supposed by conveyed organs tion and secretion. Here the of the are so complications experiment and so liable to affect the that we much doubt if great, result, any very conclusions can ever be drawn from it. satisfactory It will be that our of the in seen, then, knowledge changes occurring the is founded observation where we living system upon only; except cannot take of the and can infer cognizance changes themselves, only their existence from the inaction which ensues when the to which organs we attribute them are abstracted or insulated. We shall now enquire what is the most mode of the second branch of legitimate pursuing phy- siological conditions of these enquiry,?the changes. It is obvious that will be here more but even experiment available; here observation in a judicious of an effective may prove, cases, majority substitute for it. The first subdivision of this will investigation evidently be the examination of the of the vital functions external dependence upon a on which the researches of so agents; subject Dr. Edwards have shed much Yet we do not call the researches of Dr. Edwards light. entirely an Inductive Science. 1838.] Physiology since his aim in to determine the experimental, was, instances, many of the vital in with the usual regular sequence functions, conformity of &c. were whenever reason, the ani- changes age, They experimental mals were in new and means taken to observe conditions, placed entirely the influence of those and it in conditions; was these cases that the care was to in the greatest necessary guard against results, fallacy by the of a number of instances. It is in taking average large experiments of this kind that we can most imitate the chemist or me- successfully chanical in the conditions to a testing philosopher, necessary particular each in as when Dr. E. shewed that result, succession; the by excluding of in the is not essential to the presence oxygen atmosphere immediately excretion of carbonic acid from the and that the want of altera- lungs; tion in the of in air is due to usually perceived quantity nitrogen respired the between its and exhalation. There are some equality absorption in instances which the same mode of is to the condi- enquiry applicable tions of internal as when the first sound of the heart was shewn changes; to muscular the successive exclusion depend action, principally upon by of all the other causes.* in this it is to be observed suspected But, case, that the effect whose conditions were to be examined was a merely and imitated that these conditions could be physical one, closely by artificial means. Far different is it with to the conditions of the vital regard purely functions. to insulate of As we have before the remarked, attempt any and make it the of at once these, examination, destroys subject special the of its and we cannot imitate it new capability by any performance; combinations us little of matter. Hence can conduct experiment very farther in this than the determination of the of the enquiry dependence it functions one and we believe that all which has another; upon yet detected the functions of the nervous (especially regarding system,) may be reduced to this or the former in our classification. as we And, place liable have before of the results obtained from it are to hinted, many great which almost inevi- from the functional uncertainty, general derangement attends the of the out of tably operations, arising performance necessary the in the closeness of that bond of union which links together, higher animals all in the maintenance of the the concerned especially, changes of the In the lower classes of where this con- animals, vitality system. nexion it is still is much less and in where we decided, looser, vegetables, can insulate and the conditions of their actions particular organs, study to a favorable much and hence these are the most sub- extent; greater of research on the functions. jects experimental organic But the is not confined within these limits: the physiologist fortunately submits to forms which the of animated nature his ever-varying study him manifold combinations of causes and con- observation with present whilst the exhibit shew him the results of these currents, they phenomena avail himself of them combinations. He therefore, may, advantageously for the of what are the conditions essential to the ascertaining purpose or at most occurrence of and what are accidental, any particular change, have a it. The obstacle to his in influence chief progress secondary upon the thismode of arises from the of investigation difficulty correctly observing or laws is in since the of whose causes he search phenomena ; very change See ii. vol. v. vol. and Transactions of British Association, p. 598, Sciences. Whewell's the Inductive 336 [April, History of be of be essential for observation would liable circumstances which may is his to observe in to the train of vital which it derange actions, object the immense number their normal state. he is Moreover, perplexed by which are thus to his and and of the notice, presented variety phenomena an the of the effects which a in some instances very slight, dissimilarity This in the conditions produces. perplexity, inappreciable, change des and we is of the nature of the embarras richesses; agree however, with has been "that it must be the the observation which made, recently of of if we do not arrive at some definite fault our mode tolerably study conclusions" from these most abundant data. these data are to be when the method in which classified, Respecting we have entered once substantiated observation, accurately by already into some and we shall now conclude the one or two detail; subject by illustrations of what we as the of observation over ex- regard superiority in in and periment, elucidating disputed important questions physiology. It is that a has existed the well known controversy long regarding of the circulation on the heart's and the action; dependence capillary made to determine it have never been attempts experiment satisfactory by to either We shall see that we arrive at a definite party. may easily result In circulation of observation the vital by only. vegetables, (that the elaborated is and is without sap*) entirely capillary, kept up any central of and observation of the influence of organ light, impulsion; &c. on the of the foliaceous that the heat, development organs proves afflux of crude to them in the is the effect of the vital sap spring pro- cesses there In the animal lowest of the performed. kingdom possessed of a distinct such as the the is destitute circulation, Echinoderma, system of a central of and we find this evolved in to organ impulsion; ascending the articulated and molluscous tribes. It is difficult to observe the cir- culation in or in such Entomostraca as the Mono- insects, transparent culus to the a contractile without conclusion Pulex, that, coming though the movement of the fluid is of its cavity exists, pul- mainly independent sations. The we ascend in the animal the more do we f scale, higher observe the of centralization in its functions principle becoming apparent; and the in the we find the of Vertebrata, accordingly, power maintaining circulation less concentrated in diffused the and more through system, the heart. various1 to those not Still, however, indicate, phenomena to action has an indisposed appreciate them,1\that capillary independent even its nature not be and influence, understood; that, although may yet in the the heart. man, circulation is not altogether dependent upon has been the de- very analogous question long agitated regarding of the functions the of nerves. pendence organic upon ganglionic system The obstacles are endeavour to determine it attending any by experiment too obvious to need out what know- but we shall indication; briefly point we attain from have an ledge observation. In we may example vegetables, of the of all the functions without performance organic anything analogous to nervous since influence; all to the them prove possession by attempts of a nervous under these have and system, form, failed; any signally See vol. iv. 27. p. It + not that the of a distinct of appears improbable impul- non-development organ so sion, remarkable in the articulated be classes as with the compared Mollusca, may the natural to the of we be allowed counterpoise high degree capillarv power (if may the which is created the active nutritive of these classes. expression,) by very processes an Inductive Science. 1838.] Physiology were excited an obvious remnant of attempts by indisposition (the only former to admit the of vital actions inde- dogmas) possibility any being of As the this to existence of a nervous in the pendent system. system lowest we shall not make since the animals, positive statements, any difficulties which attend the minute examination of their tissues are much than those which the anatomist encounters. The sim- greater vegetable form of nervous which we meet with to be connected plest system appears rather with the locomotive than the nutritive and it is now apparatus; admitted that the double nervous cord of the and Articulata, universally the of the the Mollusca, cyclo-ganglionic system represent cerebro-spinal of the and that these classes the system Vertebrata; possess separate rudiments of a distinct visceral of nerves. that the system Believing office of the latter is to harmonize and connect the different organic functions more than can be effected the completely by circulating appa- which is their bond of union in and to them ratus, into only plants, bring relation also with the functions of animal we should to find it life, expect in to the concentration and developed proportion general specialization of the and to the and of the ani- functions, development predominance and so it is. on the other the mality; If, hand, accordingly organic functions had been we should have that it it, dependent upon expected should have been to their which developed according predominance; observation contradicts. absolutely We must now return to Mr. Whewell's from which we shall draw book, one or two illustrations of the views which we have been propounding. the of the the of circulation of the motion By classing blood, knowledge of the &c. "the more limited but certain doctrines of chyle, among phy- Mr. W. to us in "clear ideas" as to the true siology," appears wanting of these discoveries. To who followed us those have the import through we think it will be evident that the of the preceding remarks, knowledge circulation of in the blood in man holds the same rank as just physiology the fact that a stone falls the in to unsupported ground, general physics. In its the former fact is of the practical applications, highest importance; as to the establishment of it is value- but, general law, contributing any less until combined with shall that others. VVe who suppose Harvey, established the existence of a circulation in the general higher animals, and who so the same in function Hales, ingeniously investigated plants, had thence inferred that was a function common to all circulation orga- nized and to their would have commit- beings, necessary existence,?they ted the common a limited error of induction; generalizing falsely upon for a more extensive with and acquaintance comparative anatomy physi- would have informed them that the of the circulation ology object being to the absorbed nutriment to the and merely organs convey respiratory to the tissues it is to there is no occasion for motion of maintain, any fluid in those of which occur both in the animal and (some beings vege- table which absorb from the whole and which surface, kingdoms,) equally no In the of possess fact, special respiratory apparatus. development the and the of its bear a strict function, circulating system, complexity relation with the of of the absorbent in surface, or, degree specialization other with confinement of the absorbent to some the words, power par- ticular of the or of its internal or external part general surface, prolongations. Mr. Whewell has cited the laws of vegetable morphology very properly the Inductive Sciences. 338 Whewell's History of [April, facts are sus- as illustrative of the of which generalization physiological the terms and and he that remarks, metamorphosis justly ceptible; ideas different which are here convey entirely development, employed, have led us in our from of those to which the sciences physical pre- any or vious and in short, physiological are, genuine organical survey; of life." There is no real elements of the ideas; philosophy certainly more need of definite terms than science which has physiology, involving and is as it does so abstract ideas and there speculative opinions; many retarded the of senses none which has been more by variety assuredly to same word different authors. It is which have been attached the by that the of this and extensive much to be desired explorers important could fix a set of definite the aid of which land-marks, domain, by upon to each other could render their discoveries and they prospects intelligible What the state of and to their followers. respective present chemistry would have been without a settled nomenclature not be might altogether an and we do not consider that such speculation; although unprofitable for che- a reform is needed in as that which Lavoisier effected physiology be no room for hesi- it is desirable that there should mistry, particularly tation as to the to be attached to received terms in meaning commonly instance. any particular The last of Mr. Whewell's work consists of an of chapter exposition the author's views on the of final causes in employment physiological and he the research; we are to find that considers surprised philosophical of as inconsistent with the of their value. pursuit physiology recognition But whilst the of final causes is of value in to surely, study great leading these the the search after laws to be based on discovery of facts, general facts advance in must be of and the we them; totally independent higher the attainment of the more our ideas exalted necessarily generalizations, become of that mind which and the organized designing planned adapted as well as the creation. The of Mr. Whewell's ideas inorganic vagueness his the nature of has discoveries, regarding physiological pervaded opi- nions on the use with a of final and he has looked causes; consequently all to of them. suspicious eye upon attempts philosophise independently Now we shall from no less an in science than quote, authority physical Mr. value W. what we as a estimate of their himself, regard very proper in that we cannot dis- of and we confess that department investigation; cover distinct line between and that necessitates any physics physiology, such a variation in the mode of research. Final causes are to be excluded that we are not to is, from 'physical enquiry; assume that we know the of the Creator's and this assumed objects design, put pur- in the of a cause. We are not think it a sufficient account of pose to place physical the clouds that are for or the take Bacon's that they watering earth, (to examples,) the solidness of the earth is for the station and mansion of creatures." The living has it for his business to trace clouds to the laws of physical philosopher evaporation and to determine the and mode of action of the forces of condensation; magnitude cohesion and which the solid and materials of the earth are made crystallization, by firm. This he no use of the notion of final causes: and it is does, making precisely because he has thus established his theories an end, independently of any assumption of that the when all end, it returns him and cannot be becomes an irre- after upon evaded, sistible evidence an use of He finds that the of which the intelligent legislator. effects, is are the most and and when he obvious, produced by laws; simple comprehensive has obtained this he is struck with the of refined and view, the the beauty means, by skilful manner in which the useful effects are different from about; brought points those to which his researches were directed." Treatise, 353.) (Bridgwater p. an Inductive Science. 339 1838.] Physiology It from Mr. Whewell's of that he appears History Physiology regards means as the of to ends so a characteristic of adaptation prominent orga- nized that he considers no into the laws of their beings investigation structure can to be successful which does not this doctrine hope keep But in view. we would ask with all whe- him, steadily possible respect, ther of his Treatise was not to the demonstrate the har- Bridgwater object of means and ends in the structure of the and thence to universe, mony the existence of a mind? He has shown prove designing successfully is than that of the that this not less of a adaptation complete parts single to one another. And would he not not- being organized totally disregard, the of final causes in for the laws of which that withstanding, study seeking is the the observation of the adaptation necessary consequence, although facts which he establishes these laws have been upon might suggested, and the themselves to the of this brought light phenomena by perception and We cannot to a clearer instance general harmony adaptation? point of in the of a similar course than that necessity physiological investigation the which has been effected in afforded mor- by generalization vegetable the laws of which Mr. Whewell allows to be established firmly phology, and What would have been the situation of this science at recognized. the if the botanist had the final moment, present philosophic adopted cause or function of the several of the flower as his in investi- parts guide the laws of their instead of that structure structure, gating tracing its and forms with a total of all its disregard through regular irregular function? In the laws of the we have considering vegetable kingdom, abundant of how both in their forms diversified, opportunities observing and which the same rudiments are the various uses, assume; types may and that even when these rudiments as the undeveloped, appear necessary results of these and assist man in the attainment and laws, comprehension of to be them. No to affirm one, therefore, enough ought presumptuous he has discovered an evident in a struc- that, though purpose particular there not be some less but more ture, other, obvious, may really impor- at fault as to the for which when he is some tant; nor, altogether design useless have been has he to created, part may any right apparently say that no was to be fulfilled it. object by see for the with We which cannot, therefore, indignation any ground Mr. W. the of M. St. on account Hilaire, regards speculations Geoffroy to consider the end of of their of what he seems neglect physiological than the means. We do not to know what rather research, pretend may be the of that author with to the wisdom and private opinions regard of that the idea the but we do Creator; assert, power legitimate conveyed his "I ascribe no intention to for I mistrust the God, by expression, feeble of reason?I observe facts and no powers my merely, go further," no than the we have has more above passage quoted irreligious tendency from Mr. W.'s Treatise. We and assert that the further, Bridgwater go laws the of and more the structure animals higher general regulating which the can the more will the mind attain, contemplative physiologist in be struck with the vastness of that Mind, which, designing originally such and could them, harmony adaptation amongst ordaining produce use their innumerable results. To another forcible of very expression Mr. of and end is transferred the re- the notion Whewell's, design by that searches of not from the domain of our to of our science, knowledge of facts to that of laws." but from the ignorance, merely region Sciences. Wiiewell's the Inductive History of [April, misunderstood in these we think it To avoid all chance of views, being in illustration of one of the most obvi- will be sufficient to them, adduce, in the ous and structure of everywhere presented simple adaptations skeleton. We in of the muscles to the find, animals,?that constantly for the attachment our anatomical that, advantageous pursuing enquiries, is of to some form of the latter and muscles bones, provided; particular direction is a where much or a consider- that, particular required, power of attachment. The able is to the prominence given point teleologist that each of the was in- would with truth, bony processes say, apparent tended for attachment of a and would thus be led to infer the muscle; of extinct the form and direction of certain muscles from the animals, on their bones. He which existed and might further, prominences go of the is occasioned the that the formation existence prominence by say of the and in of his the well-known muscle; view, might allege, support fact that the osseous of attachment are in those points strongly developed much exercised their muscular On who have the other persons system. the the hand, anatomist, philosophic fully acknowledging adaptation between the osseous and muscular would it for the disregard systems, whilst for the laws the of these time, seeking regulating development which laws he would seek to deduce from the observation of all systems; the forms of both normal and abnormal. he would find that each, Thus, each of the in the human skeleton exists as a processes important separate bone in some of the inferior and that the muscular animals; complicated of man itself as he descends towards less system gradually simplifies spe- cialized that the has succeeded in organisms. Supposing physiologist such laws of of an that establishing end, independently any assumption when after all it returns and cannot be becomes end, upon him, evaded, an irresistible evidence of an For we would fear- intelligent Legislator." ask the of candid and whether it does lessly opinion any reflecting person, not a far of Creative and Power to Wisdom imply higher degree suppose in the establishment of the laws of and that, (them- osteology myology, selves subordinate to some all the results of probably higher principle,) each were foreseen and so that in harmonized, muscle, every developed accordance with the laws find in the of its should an attachment system, osseous from the action of the laws of its process resulting system,?than that the formation and of each muscle and each indi- adaptation separate vidual a distinct effort of creative skill? process required We shall this a on to close with a few observations the bring subject most mode of the science whose state and advantageous studying present we have been It is but too in conse- true, that, considering. prospects of the limited amount of which it has quence physiological knowledge been hitherto to in of the medical communicate most thought necessary institutions of this few but have country, acquired university graduates view of the and of these no small any comprehensive science; proportion have been satisfied with the and information to them, receiving imparted those which felt to or believed retaining be portions only they interesting to be Recent made in some of the practically important. changes, schools, the that will now rank metropolitan encourage hope physiology no as an and therefore branch of medical longer unimportant neglected and that the of the functions of the human in education, knowledge body health will henceforth be as a to the regarded necessary preliminary an Inductive Science. 1838.] Physiology it of the which in disease. To the stu- investigation changes undergoes dent who seeks to himself with what is known in acquaint merely already this branch of we have little advice to since the offer; science, perusal of the numerous works to which he has will afford him as access, ready much as he will and a deal remember, more than he will knowledge great be to But we that all of the are profit hope rising generation likely by. not of that and that there be them class; may many amongst earnestly in the advance of a in desirous of science aiding unsurpassed interest, rivalled in and almost illimitable in the extent of the scarcely importance, field it for cultivation. presents It is evident that no one can commence the quite advantageously study of a of human without physiology tolerably complete knowledge anatomy, both and Those which are general special. details, however, peculiarly connected with inference be not physiological may perhaps improperly deferred until the time when their tends to them on application implant the or the of Either the with, to, memory. conjointly subsequently study human we recommend that a of organism, general knowledge comparative be and the of the task alarm anatomy acquired; though magnitude may the he will find that if he avoids much attention to student, devoting details of external and endeavours to make himself with form, acquainted the of each the will be as well general development system, pursuit easy as will not be to at the same a know- It amiss time delightful. acquire of the structure of not because we find there ledge vegetables; only in another and a the anatomical facts form, expressed frequently simpler is difficult in but because the attainment of the which it to trace animals, laws of in and their extension morphology flowering plants, progressive to the serve as our in the more cryptogamia, may advantageously guide in the animal We intricate of similar pursuit generalizations kingdom. have stated our belief that a of the of knowledge principles already is essential to the successful cultivation of general physics physiological all have been the stu- and when these science; taken, preparatory steps dent will enter its with no small upon advantages. study of Whatever be of the the may thought expediency commencing study of the structure of the a simplest organisms, anatomy by investigating which has we are of that this plan advocates, decidedly opinion many in the student who it will course is essential and that physiology, adopts be saved the of erroneous notions which he unlearning necessity many would imbibe from the of the human func- unavoidably premature study of he will learn what are the tions. In the pursuit general physiology essential conditions of he will see the to its life; changes indispensable and he will be able manifested in their circumstances; to support simplest ascertain what structures are to their and what necessary performance, suit the additions and modifications these to various may undergo pur- He will the of of their existence. acquire, also, great advantage poses observation a substitute for the former means, making experiment; in wherever it can be employed physiology being decidedly preferable, we we have both in the (as hope successfully demonstrated,) certainty which be drawn from and nature of the conclusions it, satisfactory may mind must and in its freedom from those which humane objections every endowed with feel to the infliction of tortures unnecessary upon beings sensations as acute as our own. to the of We have in the of this article, alluded, early part difficulty Sciences. Whew ell's the Inductive History of [April, vital and and this we can- the of laws; distinguishing operation physical but as a to be determined before the laws not regard question completely established. To the vital can be of satisfactorily analyze purely phenomena under conditions in which laws are acting physical supplied phenomena trace the diversities from their usual mode of vital and to by processes, the existence of those to us action occasioned conditions, appears by method of to be at the most obvious the therefore present advancing that the would ter- science. We cannot but believe enquiry ultimately vital actions to as connected minate in all essentially referring properties form of matter which we call as are the with that organized, ordinary with matter. inorganic physical properties then is it that the One more would remain: possible question physical of which are at our ultimate facts or and vital matter, properties present be hereafter included within a more axioms, may general expression common to both? On this we can but the subject only speculate; pro- in We the affirmative. have remarked bability appears decidedly already of in the ren- the sciences, upon rapid progress generalization physical it that before one formula shall long dering probable simple comprehend all the of the and it is not too much world; inorganic perhaps phenomena in to for a the laws of the hope corresponding simplification organized is the this retarded obstacles creation, although necessarily by many which the nature of the to the subject presents philosophical enquirer. In to our attainment of such we rise from the proportion generalizations, domain of our to that of our at succes- for, ignorance knowledge; every are to new sive we able relations between facts that step, comprehend seemed confused and new for what for- insulated; previously objects destitute of merly appeared utility. which we take in the of must Every step, then, path generalization our increase admiration of the of the and the beauty adaptation, action of the of the laws we a and discover; harmony beauty harmony in which the mind to the wisdom contemplative delights recognize and beneficence of the Divine Author of the universe. If we can conceive that the same which created matter out of no- Almighty fiat it one which should the law, thing, impressed upon simple regulate association of its masses into of almost illimitable con- extent, systems their the times of the commencement and movements, trolling fixing cessation and of each each other the world, balancing against perturbing influences to which its own actions be the cause not rise,?should give only of the but of the of their general conditions, uniformity particular variety the in the form and structure of each individual governing changes globe an existence of countless and the protracted through centuries, adjusting alternation of" seasons and and months and times, years,"?should people all these worlds with of endless of living beings nature, diversity pro- for their their their mutual viding support, happiness, reliance, ordaining their constant and succession not as individuals but as decay merely and them in races, minute to the conditions of adapting every particular their should harmonize and blend all the innume- dwelling,?and together rable multitude of these their sources actions, making very perturbations of new our is advanced to com- powers;?when knowledge sufficiently these then shall we be led to a far and nobler prehend things, higher of the Divine Mind than we have at the means of conception present forming.

Journal

The British and Foreign Medical ReviewPubmed Central

Published: Apr 1, 1838

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