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Physiological Changes Associated with Aging and Immobility

Physiological Changes Associated with Aging and Immobility Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Aging Research Volume 2012, Article ID 468469, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2012/468469 Editorial 1 1 2 3 Yamni Nigam, John Knight, Sharmila Bhattacharya, and Antony Bayer College of Human and Health Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK Biomodel Performance Laboratory, Space Biosciences Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff University, Penarth CF64 2XX, UK Correspondence should be addressed to Yamni Nigam, y.nigam@swansea.ac.uk Received 8 February 2012; Accepted 8 February 2012 Copyright © 2012 Yamni Nigam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Aging, an inevitable and extremely complex, multifactorial It was with the above in mind and with the hope of process, is characterised by the progressive degeneration collating research and knowledge examining the effects of of organ systems and tissues. It is largely determined by normal aging and immobility that we developed the call for genetics, and influenced by a wide range of environmental this special issue. factors, such as diet, exercise, exposure to microorganisms, Three of the seven papers in the Issue discuss physiologi- pollutants, and ionising radiation. This explains why two cal changes in muscle tissue: people of the same age may differ markedly in terms of (i) age-related loss of muscle strength is considered by both physical appearance and physiological state. Gender G. Goldspink, who pays special consideration to also plays a part and, in most developed countries, women declining levels of Mechano Growth Factor (MGF) typically outlive men by 7–10 years [1]. Recent research has with age and the positive effects seen on muscle cells also demonstrated that distant experiences such as childhood when this factor is externally administered; personality and education, as well as behavioural factors, also (ii) J. Alwood et al. describe how their study in mice contribute to longevity [2]. shows changes to the skeletal musculature follow- It is generally accepted that the aging process falls phys- ing low dose ionising gamma radiation changes iologically into three groups of changes that occur with which are normally seen in elderly patients prior to advancing age [3]. The first group encompass changes in the onset of age-related osteoporosis; cellular homeostatic mechanisms, for example, body tem- perature, blood, and extracellular fluid volumes; the second (iii) a quantitative review of age-related changes in strength/power and balance and the consequence of group are related to a decrease in organ mass; the third and falls risk assessment is presented by U. Granacher possibly the most important group of changes, in terms of their impact, involve a decline in and loss of the functional et al. reserve of the body’s systems. Loss of these functional Two papers in this special issue consider age-related reserves may impair an individual’s ability to cope with cardiac function: external challenges such as surgery or trauma. Maintaining (i) G. A. Maranhao Neto et al. discuss how low levels physiological function (health) in an aging population is of of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can be associated prime importance not only to the well-being of the aging with health problems in elderly patients; the authors individual, but also from a social perspective, helping to present a unique model of assessing levels of CRF, reduce the burden on medical services and systems [4]. negating the use of aerobic exercise which often It has also been long established that the physiological presents severe limitations as a test method; changes associated with normal aging are mirrored during periods of immobility, such as prolonged hospital bed rest, (ii) the study by S. Moodithaya and S. T. Avadhany high- or after a fractured limb or a fall. lights the findings that there are gender differences 2 Journal of Aging Research in age-related changes in cardiac autonomic control, suggesting that female sex hormones may play a part in cardiac autonomic modulation. Our penultimate paper by C. N. Ross et al. explores the potential for using translational research (using a popula- tion of nonhuman primates) to determine if certain body measurements and phenotypes are associated with age or increased mortality. Finally, R. Semprini et al. suggest a look at impaired cognition and apathy as markers for unsuccessful aging and frailty. The papers we present here certainly, in our minds, contribute to the further understanding of the physiological changes associated with aging and highlight the continued need to develop and expand our knowledge in this important field of research. Yamni Nigam John Knight Sharmila Bhattacharya Antony Bayer References [1] J. Knight and Y. Nigam, “The anatomy and physiology of age- ing. Part 1—the cardiovascular system,” Nursing Times, vol. 104, no. 31, pp. 26–27, 2008. [2] P. Martin, L. W. Poon, and B. Hagberg, “Behavioral factors of longevity,” Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2011, Article ID 197590, 2 pages, 2011. [3] C. Dodds, “Physiology of ageing,” Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 456–458, 2006. [4] G. C. Sieck, “Physiology of aging,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 1333–1334, 2003. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Aging Research Pubmed Central

Physiological Changes Associated with Aging and Immobility

Journal of Aging Research , Volume 2012 – May 3, 2012

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Publisher
Pubmed Central
Copyright
Copyright © 2012 Yamni Nigam et al.
ISSN
2090-2204
eISSN
2090-2212
DOI
10.1155/2012/468469
Publisher site
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Abstract

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Aging Research Volume 2012, Article ID 468469, 2 pages doi:10.1155/2012/468469 Editorial 1 1 2 3 Yamni Nigam, John Knight, Sharmila Bhattacharya, and Antony Bayer College of Human and Health Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK Biomodel Performance Laboratory, Space Biosciences Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff University, Penarth CF64 2XX, UK Correspondence should be addressed to Yamni Nigam, y.nigam@swansea.ac.uk Received 8 February 2012; Accepted 8 February 2012 Copyright © 2012 Yamni Nigam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Aging, an inevitable and extremely complex, multifactorial It was with the above in mind and with the hope of process, is characterised by the progressive degeneration collating research and knowledge examining the effects of of organ systems and tissues. It is largely determined by normal aging and immobility that we developed the call for genetics, and influenced by a wide range of environmental this special issue. factors, such as diet, exercise, exposure to microorganisms, Three of the seven papers in the Issue discuss physiologi- pollutants, and ionising radiation. This explains why two cal changes in muscle tissue: people of the same age may differ markedly in terms of (i) age-related loss of muscle strength is considered by both physical appearance and physiological state. Gender G. Goldspink, who pays special consideration to also plays a part and, in most developed countries, women declining levels of Mechano Growth Factor (MGF) typically outlive men by 7–10 years [1]. Recent research has with age and the positive effects seen on muscle cells also demonstrated that distant experiences such as childhood when this factor is externally administered; personality and education, as well as behavioural factors, also (ii) J. Alwood et al. describe how their study in mice contribute to longevity [2]. shows changes to the skeletal musculature follow- It is generally accepted that the aging process falls phys- ing low dose ionising gamma radiation changes iologically into three groups of changes that occur with which are normally seen in elderly patients prior to advancing age [3]. The first group encompass changes in the onset of age-related osteoporosis; cellular homeostatic mechanisms, for example, body tem- perature, blood, and extracellular fluid volumes; the second (iii) a quantitative review of age-related changes in strength/power and balance and the consequence of group are related to a decrease in organ mass; the third and falls risk assessment is presented by U. Granacher possibly the most important group of changes, in terms of their impact, involve a decline in and loss of the functional et al. reserve of the body’s systems. Loss of these functional Two papers in this special issue consider age-related reserves may impair an individual’s ability to cope with cardiac function: external challenges such as surgery or trauma. Maintaining (i) G. A. Maranhao Neto et al. discuss how low levels physiological function (health) in an aging population is of of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can be associated prime importance not only to the well-being of the aging with health problems in elderly patients; the authors individual, but also from a social perspective, helping to present a unique model of assessing levels of CRF, reduce the burden on medical services and systems [4]. negating the use of aerobic exercise which often It has also been long established that the physiological presents severe limitations as a test method; changes associated with normal aging are mirrored during periods of immobility, such as prolonged hospital bed rest, (ii) the study by S. Moodithaya and S. T. Avadhany high- or after a fractured limb or a fall. lights the findings that there are gender differences 2 Journal of Aging Research in age-related changes in cardiac autonomic control, suggesting that female sex hormones may play a part in cardiac autonomic modulation. Our penultimate paper by C. N. Ross et al. explores the potential for using translational research (using a popula- tion of nonhuman primates) to determine if certain body measurements and phenotypes are associated with age or increased mortality. Finally, R. Semprini et al. suggest a look at impaired cognition and apathy as markers for unsuccessful aging and frailty. The papers we present here certainly, in our minds, contribute to the further understanding of the physiological changes associated with aging and highlight the continued need to develop and expand our knowledge in this important field of research. Yamni Nigam John Knight Sharmila Bhattacharya Antony Bayer References [1] J. Knight and Y. Nigam, “The anatomy and physiology of age- ing. Part 1—the cardiovascular system,” Nursing Times, vol. 104, no. 31, pp. 26–27, 2008. [2] P. Martin, L. W. Poon, and B. Hagberg, “Behavioral factors of longevity,” Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2011, Article ID 197590, 2 pages, 2011. [3] C. Dodds, “Physiology of ageing,” Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 456–458, 2006. [4] G. C. Sieck, “Physiology of aging,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 1333–1334, 2003.

Journal

Journal of Aging ResearchPubmed Central

Published: May 3, 2012

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