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The venders of medicines advertised in eighteenth-century Bath newspapers.

The venders of medicines advertised in eighteenth-century Bath newspapers. THE VENDERS OF MEDICINES ADVERTISED IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BATH NEWSPAPERS by P. S. BROWN* century, Bath was well supplied with weekly FROM THE middle of the eighteenth and a in their was the advertisement of newspapers' prominent feature columns or In issues, these advertisements were patent proprietary medicines. the early of bold type in which the names of the medicines were conspicuous because the the device with which printed, and because they often reproduced pseudo-heraldic the second half of the century, advertisements the medicine was sealed. Throughout more than ten per cent for medicines occupied considerable space, frequently filling and cent. of the total column length, occasionally exceeding twenty per Many products the Bath Chronicle in 1790, for example, advertising 114 different were involved, some of them of medical treatment must medicines, repeatedly (Table 1). Many types available in Bath at this time, and superficial inspection of these advertise- have been that self-medication with or medicines made a ments suggests patent proprietary contribution to the total therapeutic effort. The advertisements in a significant of Bath from their first appearance in 1744 until the end of the sample2 newspapers century have, therefore, been studied in an attempt to estimate the importance of medicines sold in this way. Where available, issues of the Bath Journal, Bath Chronicle, Bath Register and Bath Herald have been examined throughout the first year of their publication, and the in issues for a year of at least one of these newspapers have been studied each decade. The Bath Advertiser was examined during its third year of publication as this allowed included in a more complete series. Other issues of some newspapers were the sample as in the case of Bath because the newspaper was under new ownership or, Farley's available. All and Journal and the Bath Gazette, because no other issues are patent offered for sale as distinct proprietary medicines were listed as long as they were of various advertised treatment items; no entries were made when practitioners types sale of a medicine. it in general terms without specifying the separate Occasionally was a cosmetic or a if a was difficult to decide whether a preparation medicine; in of the the was included. medicinal use was mentioned any advertisements, product Donna Maria's for example, was primarily cosmetic because it was "a Lotion,3 to former delicate Colour and Beautifyer and Restorer of relaxed Bosoms, their effectual in cases of if not but it is included because "it is sometimes Cancer, Shape" have been included in all cases because their too deeply rooted." Dental preparations was described as or as well as cosmetic. 302 function therapeutic preventive prepara- S. 65 Northover Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS9 3LQ. *P. Brown, B.A., B.M., M.R.C.P., Road, 352 The venders medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newspapers of tions were advertised in the sample and the present report deals primarily with the listed as these in Bath. persons selling preparations TABLE 1. ADVERTISEMENTS OF PROPRIETARY MEDICINES IN A SAMPLE OF BATH NEWSPAPERS. Newspaper Year sampled Number Total number Number of medicines Percentage of column starting: of issues of medicines advertised per issue length occupied by missing advertised Average Range of advertisements for during year over monthly medicines in first year averages issue of each month Average Range Bath Journal 5 0 27 5.4 0 -10.2 3.8 0 - 8.4 March 1744 1 January 1750 1 30 10.1 0 -21.8 1.5 0 - 5.8 1761 0 39 12.5 6.6-21.2 8.0 0 -15.5 5 January 3 3 38 7.2 2.0-10.9 4.5 0.3- 8.3 January 1780 1 January 1798 1 43 4.2 2.5- 5.8 6.1 2.5-10.4 Bath Chronicle 25 December 1760 1 49 7.3 0.7-14.2 5.9 3.0- 9.4 1770 0 80 20.3 14.5-28.8 12.2 3.3-17.5 4January 7 1790 0 114 24.4 21.0-28.0 10.6 6.7-18.4 January 3 1799 0 108 27.9 21.0-33.8 16.8 13.6-20.1 January Bath Advertiser 1 January 1757 3 46 28.7 25.0-37.5 9.4 0.2-21.1 Bath Register 3 1792 1 28 1.5 0 - 4.0 2.1 0 - 5.8 March Bath Herald 3 March 1792 0 40 4.1 1.2- 9.3 3.6 0.8- 9.4 1. THE ADVERTISEMENTS The advertisements took several forms. Sometimes a series of products was simply listed and a number of venders named; the printer of the newspaper was usually included among them. More commonly a product was named and at least one paragraph was devoted to extolling its virtues, often describing it as the most effectual, safe and pleasant cure yet discovered for several related or unrelated conditions. Another common form of advertisement was the testimonial letter, used widely by to of men- many advertisers. It might be appended the type advertisement already or it be without in columns where letters devoid of tioned, might printed heading advertising content would be found. Godbold was able to collect the signatures of but lords and ladies to recommend his Vegetable Balsam,4 few advertisers managed would and "Dr." Hammond of this. Clergymen sometimes oblige, Kingsdown, cases attested the rectors of St. John's and St. Bristol, published by Michael's, Bristol.6 The situation was reversed in the case of the Rev. Mr. Goodrick, Vicar of 353 P. S. Brown Somerset, who was the proprietor of a Powder for Rheumatism (and Kilmersdon, other ailments); he published many testimonials, some of which were from his parishioners.6 An advertisement for Scotch Pills, prepared by Robert Anderson of Bristol, sought reliable testimony by quoting a letter from Thomas Waring of Leo- "one of those respectable people called Quakers".7 minster, Occasionally advertisements were in verse. One ostentatious testimonial was in the form of "Lines addressed to N. Godbold . Proprietor of the celebrated Esq.... Vegetable Balsam, on seeing a print representing a view of his elegant Mansion at in Surrey. Written by a young Lady of the city of Bath as a small mark Godalming, of her gratitude for the restoration of her mother's health . . ."."8 More amusing was a verse about Nicoll's Beaume de Vie which reads: Mr. a Complaint in his Stomach. On hearing of Wilkes's having thro' Britain's Pray'rs, Why is not Wilkes, free? From inward Pains and Bondage When gracious G ..... the sceptre bears, sells the Beaume de Vie.9 And NICOLL This verse may have been planned as an advertisement or merely intended to amuse, scarce in the advertisements. but it introduces a touch of topicality which is remarkably though in 1792 an advertise- They rarely reflect stirring events in the outside world, contained the following: "many ment for the Chevalier Ruspini's Balsamic Styptick and connections interested in in this must doubtless have relatives persons country the impending warfare.... To such persons a more valuable present could not be sent, than a quantity of this admirable Styptick, which may render them important service in the hour of calamity."'0 at ailing visitors who came for If the advertisements for medicines were aimed the to mention the Bath waters. Such references medical be expected purposes, they might reflects the fact rare in the earlier portion of the sample but this probably simply are that the texts of most advertisements were not composed locally but were supplied the Stomachic Lozenges supplied the central distributors of the medicines. By 1761, by Mr. Newbery were described as having an excellent effect in disorders of the by Bath and Tunbridge Waters, stomach and bowels "after other Remedies, and even the of the however, references to have been used in vain."" Towards the end century, We are told that British Pills are "a great the Bath waters were becoming frequent. Waters" ;12 that Stomach Pills are and necessary Auxillary to the Bath Speediman's a course of the Bath waters";4 that "the best medicine that can be taken during taken "after the Cheltenham and other Cox's Stomachic Pearl Seeds are to be Bath, ;13 that Pastilles Martiales de Montpellier, or Aromatic Lozenges Spa Waters" and the of which are offered to the public as an infallible remedy for impotency, and Steel, "have been lately those complaints incident to females of delicate constitutions, to be taken with the Bath Waters"."I recommended by a very learned Physician that those who came to take the waters were an important These references suggest for the advertisers. target advertisements were intended to catch the eye of If, as these examples suggest, the 354 Bath newspapers The venders of medicines advertised in 18th-century with the social season. the vistor to Bath, their frequency might be to vary expected The yearly samples of the Bath Journal and Bath Chronicle (excluding their first years of publication) have, therefore, been exaniined for seasonal fluctuations, and various figures for the Bath Journal of 1750 are shown in Figure 1. The weekly average of . 6 Do ;z p4 COLUMN SPACE FOR ADVERTS OF MEDICINES 0 I_ Ih__ aI____ I i MEDICINES ADVERTISED ARRIVALS ANNOUNCED 'n ADVERTS FOR DRESS FABRICS Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec month to month in the number of Figure 1. Histograms showing the variation from advertisements in the Bath Journal for 1750. The top row shows the percen- appearing of the total column space of the first issue of each month taken up by advertise- tage number of for medicines and the second row shows the average medicines ments each month. third and fourth rows show the advertised per issue in The average of arrivals noted and the number of advertisements for dress fabrics number average issue. per 355 P. S. Brown arrivals noticed in the newspaper shows two large peaks with a trough in June and July. The unfashionable character of these months was still apparent in 1780 when lodging-house charges which were lOs. Od. a week for the rest of the year were reduced to 7s. Od. a week for June, July and August: a similar differential persisted through the rest of the century.15 The average number of medicines advertised in an issue also fluctuated from month to month but in an opposite direction, so that as the number of arrivals fell, the advertisements for medicines increased and vice versa (Figure 1). The negative correlation between the two is not statistically significant (r=-0.48; d.f.-10), but a similar and significant negative relationship exists between the percentage of column length taken up by advertisements for medicines in the first issue of each month and the average weekly arrivals for that month (r=-0.58; P<0.05). This fall in advertisements for medicines during the social season is not simply caused by notices of social events leaving little space for any type of advertise- ments. Figure 1 also shows the average weekly number of advertisements for fabrics by silk mercers and linen drapers, and for other dress materials. Their number follows their positive correlation the same pattern as that of the average weekly arrivals, (r= +0.57; P'vr 0.05). Thus it seems that advertise- approaching statistical significance fashionable ones the ments for medicines had to make way for more during season, that advertising medicines was considered unim- but this does not necessarily imply lies in the fact that, as discussed below, the pro- portant. The explanation probably a of medicines. When silk mercers or prietor of the newspaper was also vender advertisements and their money were accepted: when others wished to advertise, their the advertised his own wares, outside advertisers were not forthcoming, printer medicines. which included of 1770, there was still significant In the Bath Journal of 1761 and the Bath Chronicle of medicines advertised in fluctuation from month to month in the average number not so clearly seasonal as in 1750. In subsequent an issue but the variations were fluctuations ceased to be statistically significant. samples of these two newspapers, the II. THE VENDERS 1. Newspaper proprietor/printer advertisements named venders in Bath from whom the With rare exceptions, the could be obtained. That many venders of patent medicines were book- medicines or printers is well known, and a logical explanation of this situation is offered sellers writing early in the next century. Speaking of nostrums or patent medicines by Gray virtues vaunted in he says "as most of these are largely advertised, and their posting- and the of their bills, a connection is hence formed between the preparers printers and are the usual advertisements, so that in many places the printers stationers considers this explanation venders of this class of medicines".16 Alden, however, The of all the venders in Bath mentioned more ingenious than plausable.'7 occupations in the sample of newspapers are listed in Table 2. wholesale and retail venders. In most cases were Newspaper proprietors important and the medicines advertised were available from the printer was also the proprietor, office and from the distributors of the The ramifications of the printing newspaper. and bookseller of this can be for example, when Charles Hewitt, printer system seen, 356 The venders of medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newspapers 2. OF PERSONS NAMED AS VENDERS OF ADVERTISED MEDICINES IN A TABLE OCCUPATIONS BATH NEWSPAPERS. SAMPLE OF NEWSPAPER (abbreviated as in reference2) and YEAR B.J.1744 F.B.J.1756 B.C.1768 B.J.1780 B.C.1790 B.J.1798 OCCUPATION B.A.1756-7 B.C.1770 S.M.1777 B.R.1792-3 B.C.1799 B.J.1750 B.J.1761 S.M.1779 B.H.1792-3 B.C.1760-1 B.G.1779 Newspaper printer/ 1 4 2 4 3 2 proprietor Bookseller, 2 2 8 6 9 11 stationer Perfumer, 2 2 5 2 8 3 toyman 1 3 3 1 4 2 Grocer Dentist 1 3 4 0 5 2 Apothecary, chymist, 0 1 2 4 5 8 druggist Others* 1 0 1 1 0 3 Notstated 8 2 2 3 2 4 *one one venders (Dr. Brodum and John broker, com-cutter, one cutler, two visiting medicine Gardner) and N. Brooke'. was an for the distribution of the Bath Chronicle. He Glastonbury, appointed agent announced"8 that he sent out hawkers to various towns, including Somerton, Lang- port, Ilchester, Street, Wedmore and Meare, and that persons residing in these might give their orders to the hawkers for the newspaper and for medicines parishes system of distribution as much as advertised therein. It may have been this efficient by Gray that made the newspaper proprietors successful the reasons put forward advertisement illustrating the wholesale and retail venders of medicines. A typical of Cornelius Pope, printer of the Bath Chronicle, for aspects of the business is that Jesuit Drops which were "to be had ... of C. Dr. Robert Walker's Patent Genuine at their Office, in Stall Street, Bath; and of the Distributors of this Pope and Comp. Sorts of Patent Medicines ... Paper. At the Printing Office aforesaid may be had, All may be supply'd Wholesale on the London Terms".19 where country Shopkeepers of Bath Journal announced similarly that "Good Allowance will be Boddely the made the said T. Boddely to those that take Quantities to sell again."20 by Bath Journal, from February Boddely was the first printer and publisher of the as a vender in most of the advertise- 1744. He was an active advertiser and was named 357 P. S. Brown ments for medicines that appeared in his paper. He also advertised in other publica- tions that he printed, for example the Bath and Bristol Guide2l which contained a list printer, and their prices. Subsequent printers of of thirty-one medicines sold by the to sell medicines but the information in Table 1 suggests that the Journal22 continued the of the Bath Chronicle. This paper they were not as active in this respect as printers on 25 December 1760 by Cornelius Pope; a note on the title page said was started Boddely and had managed the Bath Journal for that he had been apprenticed to Mr. five years. He clearly had access to the suppliers of medicines and in his the previous first year of publication was able to advertise a greater number of medicines than the spell in 1768 the title was Archer's Bath Chronicle and on Bath Journal. For a brief William was joined by Richard Cruttwell as senior partner. 29 September 1768, Archer a of an and able family and from the time that he Cruttwell was member interesting sole in 1769 until his death in 1799 he was an active became proprietor October and vender of medicines.23 He sold the products of all the leading manu- advertiser facturers as indicated by an advertisement which listed "all the late Sir John Hill's . . . Dicey's, Newbery's, Wray's, Bayley's and Jackson's medicines and all Messrs His son, Richard junior, carried on this tradition at the Medicines, etc., etc...."24 end of the century. Advertiser was started by Stephen Martin in October 1755. In the year The Bath the number of medicines advertised in an issue was sampled (1757), the average for in any newspaper. As well as the main advertisements 28.7, the highest figure found a wholesale and retail vender,25 the front in the columns, which named Martin as listing about twenty-four medicines sold at the page regularly carried a footnote were responsible for the high average number of printing office. These footnotes advertised each week. Another newspaper which appeared at about the preparations was Bath Journal of which only two issues are known.'6 In both, same time Farley's Samuel the and proprietor, advertised medicines which were sold at Farley, printer office in the Market Place, Bath, and "by the Men who vend this the printing Journal". was J. at first associated with T. Sketchley. Salmon's Mercury printed by Salmon, its full which at first was Salmon's and General Advertiser, Despite title, Mercury most of the available at least as do not contain advertisements. issues, they survive, shows that the was also a vender of medicines as One issue in 1777, however, printer it was announced that Montpellier Pectoral Drops might be had of J. Salmon, printer in Another of 1779, advertised fourteen medicines sold Stall Street."7 issue, probably at about the same time but is represented by the printer.28 The Bath Gazette appeared issue.29 It was printed by J. Watts, who leaves no doubt of his by only one known as a of medicines that Pills, Dr. Anderson's status vender by announcing Leyden Scots Pills and Genuine Patent Medicines of every kind are "sold at J. Watt's Medicine of their premises as and Stationary Warehouse, St. James's Parade". The description later in the century, as medicinal warehouses was used by newspaper proprietors mentioned below. first on the same The Bath Herald and the Bath Register were published day, Bath to have a and 3 March 1792. The Herald was the first newspaper separate printer Robert Paddock and William Both dealt publisher: these were Meyler respectively. 358 The venders medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newvspapers of in medicines. Paddock, as well as being a printer, advertised for sale bibles, prayer books, every kind of writing, printing and drawing papers, wholesale and retail, Riley's and Reeve's colours and "Genuine Patent Medicine".-" Dr. Waite's celebrated Worm Medicine was "sold in Bath only by the Printer of this Paper"..3' Meyler was a bookseller in the Grove who operated a circulating library described in an advertise- In ran a state ment which also listed "all kinds of Patent Medicines".2 addition, he described in a directory of 1800 as a printer.34 lottery office- and was under discussion in that The Bath Register is the exception among the newspapers its printer, J. Johnson, was not apparently involved in selling patent medicines. This for the relatively small amount of advertisement for such items presumably accounts For three months, however, the paper in his paper (see Table 1). approximately of during this time only, it was published was associated with venders medicines for, or J. at the circulating library in by Messrs. Campbell and Gainsborough by Campbell the familiar that medicines "may be Burton Street, and advertisements used phrase it was both and had of the Newsmen".35 After this period, again printed published the Bath Herald in October 1793. by Johnson until it was absorbed by was not an occa- It appears, therefore, that selling proprietary medicines merely sional side-line for the printers and publishers of newspapers. In eighteenth-century Bath it seems to have been regularly associated with the printing of seven out of the Even in the one case where it was not, there was a brief period when eight newspapers. the was published by a vender of medicines, and this newspaper only achieved paper to an independent existence for nineteen months. The importance attached the selling in the case of the Bath Gazette where the of medicines has already been suggested and Warehouse". The second Richard printer wrote of his "Medicine Stationary over his father's used a similar Cruttwell, a few months after taking business, St. Street",36 phrase and began to advertise from the "Medicinal Warehouse, James for a in each of the three In 1799 a Mr. John Jeffreys inserted advertisements property bills for the are preserved.37 Bath newspapers and fortunately the receipted advertising Journal and Herald respectively, read The three bill-heads, from the Bath Chronicle, and at his Medicine as follows: "Dr. to Richard Cruttwell, Printer Stationer, Patent "Dr to Printers at their Patent Medicine Warehouse, St. James Street, Bath."; Keenes, and "To William Warehouse, King's Mead Street, Bath"; Meyler, Bookseller, and Medicines." These bill- Stationer and Orange Grove. Patent Approved Printer, of trade in medicines to news- heads leave little doubt as to the importance the these paper proprietors. 2. Circulating libraries of were the of libraries Another prominent group venders proprietors circulating in the social life of Bath was considerable. and the importance of these institutions John Wood described how it was for the master of a family arriving in customary "to for which he is Bath to pay various subscriptions, including one the Bookseller, his ... The Ladies too subscribe to have what Books he pleases to read at lodgings; Oliver Goldsmith in his Richard Nash to the Bookseller".38 Later, Life of (1762) Wood's In Thicknesse wrote that "Men of simply re-used description. 1778, Philip to and Kite has described the will find Libraries always open them",39 Reading 359 P. S. Brown proliferation of circulating libraries towards the end of the century.40 Among ficti- tious characters, Lydia Languish in Sheridan's The Rivals (1775) made use of the libraries run by Mr. Bull and Mr. Frederick, and Smollett's Miss Melford in The expedition of Humphry Clinker (1771) considered them "charming places of resort". The non-fictitious diarist, Elizabeth Collett, used them extensively.4" James Leake is the best known of the Bath booksellers who operated circulating libraries and was probably lending books well before the publication of the first Bath newspaper.4243 He was the first person to advertise medicines independently, and not in association with the printer, in the Bath Journal.44 This advertisement was for Inglish's Dr. Anderson's Scots Pills: he also sold Dr. Hill's and John Newbery's medicines,45 and others. His son, who succeeded him, advertised a similar range of medicines and was named as the Bath vender of Ward's medicines for prepared Fielding and Dingley." In 1770, Lewis Bull took over Leake's library on the Lower Walks but announced that "The and at his in the Jewellery Toy Trades, Shop Grove, will be carried on in the usual extensive Manner".'7 He continued to sell the main of medicines and advertised his new wares and groups library, books, stationery medicines all in the same advertisement.'8 In his son John at first patent 1792, Bull, associated with John took over the business.49 His advertisements in our Hensley, to the end of the were for various medicines of Francis sample up century Newbery.50 Another well-known circulating library was that of William Frederick,51'52 who advertised various of Newbery's medicines as well as Dr. Hill's.53 This library in The at first in association Grove was later taken over William with by Meyler, Joseph of Sheldon." Meyler has already been mentioned as the publisher the Bath Herald A advertisement listed and a vender of medicines. ladies' comprehensive almanacks, court and in a of new and and gentlemen's pocket-books, city registers, etc., variety and sold at "where as elegant bindings, just published Meyler's Circulating Library, and Publication is to a extensive New very Collection, every Entertaining constantly as available for included seven London added".55 The listed newspapers reading three each from Bath and papers "and the Reviews", and country papers, Bristol, and and one each from Birmingham, Chester, Exeter, Gloucester, Oxford, Salisbury Dublin Post. The advertisement ends York, The Edinburgh Gazette and Evening by the Patirosa that "All Fuller's announcing Approved Medicines; particularly Lozenges celebrated Pearls and may be had here. Likewise the Gloucester Seeds, prepared by of Patent Medicines from the Warehouses of Messrs. Mr. D. Cox-and all Kinds etc." Newbery, Wye, other libraries must be summarized In The evidence concerning briefly. 1768, in Milsom Street was advertised in with various William Bally's library conjunction and a note was added that would be educated as usual at a patent medicines, youth in for that in Lane.56 the house fitted up purpose Parsonage Subsequently present were mentioned as various M. and later J. sample, Bally Bally selling medicines, not with advertisement of the There were numerous though in conjunction library.57 of run first in Milsom Street and later in Bond mentions the library by Joseph Barrett, for sold numerous other advertisements were medicines him.58 Street; by Campbell as of the Bath for a short and have been mentioned Gainsborough publishers Register were often advertised as sold at their medicines time; proprietary circulating library.59 360 The venders of medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newspapers There were many advertisements for the sale of medicines by W. Taylor, bookseller in Street.60 He was Church presumably the William Taylor, proprietor of the circulating library in Church Street,6" but records in the 1760s must be interpreted cautiously as there was then a W. Taylor described as grocer,62 and one described as a cutler,63 both of whom sold medicines. Edward Russell's circulating library was advertised in as as the same context various medicines,"' was the library run successively by Pratt and Clinch6'566 and James Marshall.67 The latter had been started by Andrew for Tennant68 whose advertisements medicines were frequent, a few referring also to his Thomas who a in library.69 Mills, started circulating library Kingsmead Street,70 sold Dr. Radcliffe's and a for the Drops powder cleaning teeth.7' When his library was taken over Samuel Hazard and moved to it a by Cheap Street, became very active for sale of a wide of centre the range proprietary medicines72'73 and an advertisement Dentifrice referred to its sale at "Mr. for Walkey's Vegetable Hazard's Circulating Library and Medicinal Warehouse".7' At the end of the Thomas century, Gibbons established a "at one half the of other in Bath".75 library charge any library This was run from his shop in Street where he was Bridge already selling patent medicines.76 the J. Brown who sold various medicines of & in Finally, Dicey Co.77 1799 was probably the John Brown who ran a in circulating library Edgar Building.78 this the Clearly, socially important institution, circulating library, was very strongly linked with the sale of proprietary medicines. The well-known only library not identi- fied as medicines in the is that of selling present sample Theophilus Shrimpton;79 he did not do or he did not advertise the perhaps so, perhaps simply fact. Lesser-known libraries that do not appear in the sample as places where medicines were sold are those of Mathews and nor does that of David who Benjamin Thomas Loggan,80 Evans stated his intention of a but who is not listed opening library8l by Kite.82 With these relatively minor exceptions, however, we can say that the circulating libraries in Bath sold proprietary medicines. Hamlyn83 quotes a in the Bodleian pamphlet Library which that libraries were not remunerative but that their suggests circulating highly profits required augmentation with some other business. The sale of a medicines seems natural choice for Bath, and other associated businesses have already been noted in this sample. Despite the sale of James Marshall became one of medicines, bankrupt; the announcements in the Bath referred to him as a dealer and newspapers bookseller, chapman.84 was a of At least one circulating library source medical information as well as of A of Hazard's medicines. claimed to list about surviving catalogue library 10,000 100 of on and volumes.85 Nearly these were medical topics represented a compre- hensive collection ranging from two-volume works on The practice of physic to medicine. William Buchan's Domestic 3. and Perfumers toy-men Further evidence that the advertised medicines were the inclined bought by socially visitors is provided by the number of perfumers and listed as venders toy-men (Table 2). for a The two traders are grouped together as probably catering similar public. Three were described as both trades86 and Lewis Bull combined the advertisers following toy trade with a The need for is circulating library.87 perfumers strongly suggested by 361 P. S. Brown Smollett's description in The expedition of Humphry Clinker (1771) of the odours at a ball, and the toy-man seems to have had a place in the arising from the throng polite round. Wood says that "From the Pump Room, the Ladies from time to time withdraw to a neighbouring Toy Shop, amusing themselves there with Reading the Miss Melford tells her correspondent that "From the Bookseller's News".88 Smollett's a tour the milliners and toy men". shop we make through If perfumers sold medicines, why were they not also sold in the milliners' shops the and the lace warehouses? Francis Bennett, in the Church Yard, who sold linen and woollen drapery, mercery, and haberdashery goods also sold all sorts of teas, coffees, chocolate and sugar, and other things including fine snuffs.'9 Mary Sellen, milliner in also sold powders and Hungary water."° Neither appears to have sold Pierpoint Street, medicines. It is likely that a good proportion of the purchasers of patent medicines of the medicines were designed for women. Restorative were women: many specifically Salo Pills, sold by Cruttwell, were for all obstructions and irregularities;91 Welch's Pills were sold both by Cruttwell and Meyler and performed a similar function, being suitable for complaints peculiar to virgins;92 Dr. Sibley's Lunar Tincture was especially adapted to treatment of the female but it would be "extremely improper" to enumer- ate the particular cases;93 and there were many others. One might think that the milliners' shops would be ideal for marketing them and, in the next century, Morrison's sold three female in Bath: two of the three are listed in Pills were at one time by agents the this information as dressmakers." A possible another section of directory giving explanation for the apparent exclusion of milliners, drapers and such like from the ranks of medicine venders in eighteenth-century Bath may have been that their trade weaver and mercer on the for instance, announced was too seasonal. Ferry, Parade, that stocks would be returned to London on 16 April 1744 and that the shop would on or before 20 September for the winter season.95 Perhaps an adequate re-open reward for selling medicines required not merely the seasonal trade but also a steady turn-over for the rest of the year. Alternatively, the shops frequented by the ladies may have sold "female pills" but may have considered it unnecessary or indelicate to the fact in the advertise newspapers. 4. booksellers, stationers Printers, and 2 include one who are listed as printers, booksellers stationers in Table Venders and stationers not mentioned as of one bookseller two already printers printer, newspapers or proprietors of circulating libraries. In 1784 and 1792 general direc- for and Pendred's has a list for the city.'7 tories were published Bath,'6 directory name seventeen individuals or businesses classed as Between them they printers, or stationers: all but three one stationer and booksellers (one printer, Theophilus identified as advertisers of medicines in the newspapers Shrimpton) can be proprietary The two directories list sixteen perfumers of whom seven advertised sampled. general sale of medicines in our the sample. and 5. Grocers dentists of venders listed in Table 2 must be mentioned only briefly. The grocers Two classes of but one business deserves individual mention. did not form a advertisers, large group 362 The venders medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newspapers of It was run by various members of the family of Lambe, at India House, opposite the Three Tuns Inn in Stall Street, and had the distinction of being the most persistent advertiser in the sample, apart from the printers of the Bath Journal, advertising from 1744 to the end of the The other to be mentioned only regularly century.'8 group briefly was composed of a very varied collection of dental practitioners. One example was John Goldstone who arrived from London to bleed, draw teeth and cut corns. He settled in Bath and became an "operator for the teeth", selling dental preparations and various patent medicines.99 A very different example was the distinguished surgeon- dentist, the Chevalier Ruspini, who had a fashionable practice in both London and Bath and sold his own dental medicines.Y°° Several other dental practitioners in Bath sold their own dental tinctures and dentifrices. prepared and chemists and 6. Apothecaries, druggists final to be considered is formed the The group by combining apothecaries, chemists and An increasing number of such persons advertised medicines during the druggists. course of the century. The earlier advertisers called themselves apothecaries, or apothecaries and chemists. The designation, "chynaist", was sometimes added with the passage of time as in the case of Thomas Horton. The municipal records show that he to the freedom in 1778 as an but when was admitted apothecary, an apprentice of his was admitted in Horton was described as an and 1799, apothecary chemist. In the 1790s, four chemists and druggists appeared as advertisers, forming a small group distinct from the apothecaries. Such a distinction was not always apparent in the city records early in the next century: William Hayden, for example, was admitted to the freedom in 1837 having served seven years' apprenticeship to Charles Webb "to trade or of a and learn the art, mystery, profession surgeon apothecary and chymist and druggist". Kett concluded from a study of Newcastle and Ipswich newspapers that apothecaries did not deal in patent medicines in these areas.101 The first advertisements for an apothecary selling such medicines in the present sample, however, suggests that selling these medicines may not necessarily be equated with advertising their sale. These advertisements were for the letting of apartments or tenements by Mr. William and at the next door to the Three Cups in Street, Apothecary Chymist, Phoenix, Bath. made the main Northgate Street, Having announcement, the advertisement that Street and wholesale and stated "truly prepares sells, retail, drugs, chemicals, and as as in London. He also virtue of other medicines, cheap sells, by the King's Letters Dr. James's Powders and other Patent Medicines"'.102 Patent, many It seems that the for was the and the mention of his other reason advertising letting, wares was second- the fact that he was an and chemist made it ary. Probably apothecary unnecessary for to advertise medicines. The would seek him out when re- him normally public they Such a situation would account for the that lack of advertisements quired commodity. in Kett's even if were in fact selling patent medicines. by apothecaries sample, they himself an in that were William Hawes, apothecary, writing 1774, suggests they doing London. He of James's Powders that "this Medicine is in such so in says general vogue is to it". 110 almost that every Apothecary obliged keep of medicines advertised in the Many the proprietary present sample were produced D P. S. Brown by apothecaries. For example, Thomas Greenough prepared, among other items, two widely-advertised dental tinctures in Snow Hill, London.04 Nearer Bath, Joseph Dalby, apothecary of Malmesbury, Wiltshire, prepared a Carminative Mixture,105 and, in Bath itself, Messrs. Breuer & Co., chymists and apothecaries, in Broad Street, prepared and sold a Vegetable Lotion for the Itch, though the manufacture may have been carried out at their laboratories in Park Street, Grosvenor Square, London.106 Many other local apothecaries probably had their nostrums. Two were associated with proprietary medicines but do not appear as venders in the present sample of advertisements, nor were their products advertised by other venders. One was P. Page himself as a and of who described "chymist apothecary" Bath when, in 1772, he a that announced in Marlborough newspaper he had appointed the printer of the paper in Wiltshire for his Balsamic of the sole agent Lozenges Tolu.107 The other was of who his William Tickell, apothecary Bath, patented Anodyne Aetherial Spirit in 1786.108 By so doing he came under attack from Dr. James Makittrick Adair who "I shall leave it to Mr. T to determine how far he can wrote, reconcile his pretensions as a to his credit as a .. .".109 nostrum-monger, regular practitioner Tickell, however, not without allies the as one of the was apparently among faculty cases he described in of his nostrum was communicated to him Dr. with writing by Lysons, permission for its 0 publication." If apothecaries did not need to advertise the sale of proprietary medicines, the same reasons to the chemists and Like the probably applied druggists. apothecaries, had their nostrums. Thomas chemist and of many probably Howe, druggist Milsom and Fleet sold Howe's Pectoral of Street, Bath, Street, London, Lozenges Horehound of continued and for coughs, asthma, spitting blood, cough consumption."' This he and had in one of the sixteen prepared patented 1786,112 being chemists or druggists who the of medicines in the appear among eighty patentees eighteenth century whose or status is noted in a index of This occupation chronological patentees."13 number with fourteen described as as or chemists in compares apothecaries (some surgeons and with fourteen described as addition) surgeons. Ill. LITERARY REFERENCES The with which the of and of frequency proprietors newspapers circulating libraries advertised were also venders of medicines that the sale of the latter was an suggests of their business. The of important part occupations the venders make it clear that the an for visitors to Bath formed important market these medicines no though, doubt, the and the they were not only advertisements in were not the purchasers, papers only which medicines were introduced to The of means by them. sections English society medicines in also did so when which the to their bought Bath, probably they dispersed homes. We to find some comments on own might, therefore, expect the taking of these medicines in and in this we are not contemporary literature, disappointed. of The widespread sale proprietary medicines, even if some had therapeutic value, the must have and the of medication angered regular practitioners, danger unsupervised non-medical writers. The extreme fostered was recognized by many view, probably by the medical was that all sold regular practitioners, preparations by irregular practi- if in tioners were worthless not lethal. Laurence a sermon on murder actually Sterne, 364 Bath The venders of medicines advertised in 18th-century newspapers (Sermons, 1769), wrote: "There is another species of this crime . . . and that is, where the life of our neighbour is shortened, and often taken away as directly as by a weapon, by the empirical sale of nostrums and quack medicines, which avarice and ignorance blend." Early in the next century, George Crabbe wrote in The Borough (1810); But now our quacks are gamesters, and they play With craft and skill to ruin and betray; With monstrous promise they delude the mind, And thrive on all that tortures human-kind. Void of all honour, avaricious, rash, The daring tribe compound their boasted trash- Tincture or syrup, lotion, drop or pmll; the All tempt the sick to trust lying bill; Several writers about Bath in the eighteenth century made their comments on proprietary medicines with less venom and more humour. Tobias Smollett, himself ridiculed Hill's Essence of Water Dock in The expedition of medically qualified, Humphry Clinker (1771) by attributing its use to the absurd Tabitha Bramble and linking it with her dog's laxative. Her curiously spelled letter to her housekeeper reads: "William may bring over my bum-daffee, and the viol with the easings of Dr. Hill's dock-water, and Choders lacksitif. The poor creature has been terribly constuprated ever since we left huom." Christopher Anstey, in a similar vein in The New Bath Guide (1766) also alluded to two of Hill's preparations which were taken by Tabby Runt, the maid who was "the queerest animal in nature". She has to be treated by the doctor: He gives little Tabby a great many Doses, For he says the poor Creature has got the Chlorosis, so on the Or a ravenous Pica, brought Vapours Stuff has read in the Papers; By swallowing she And I she so much Money often marvell'd spent In Water-Dock Essence and Balsam ofHoney; Pills I Such Tinctures, Elixirs, such have seen, I her Face was so never could wonder green. Some of the most ridicule of advertised medicines and nostrums is entertaining contained in two of Oliver Goldsmith's Lettersfrom The Citizen of the World (1762). and the of They mock both the gullibility of the public ignorance the proprietors, three was of whom are selected for personal ridicule. Goldsmith probably medically quali- his it also adds to a fied and this would have coloured outlook; point circumstance is arising during his final illness. It reported that, despite contrary advice from his he in James's a much-advertised apothecary and a physician, persisted taking Powders, medicine.114 The attitude in his satirical writing apparently did not patent expressed would have claimed apply in the stress of his own illness: but he probably that Dr. medicines. also James's preparation was an exception among patent Henry Fielding the aid of celebrated nostrums his final illness when he wrote in The sought during a of Joshua Ward a to Lisbon that he had become patient and journal of voyage (1755) want indeed no unfair of mine to that "the powers of Mr. Ward's remedies puffs give 365 P. S. Brown These sentiments are not quite in line with those of a in Tom them credit." passage cannot be wholely serious: of "interest" he tells Jones (1749) which speaking us: "This is indeed a most excellent medicine, and, like Ward's pill, flies at once to the particular part of the body on which you desire to operate, whether it be the the or tongue, hand, where it scarce ever fails of the any other member, immediately producing desired effect." Despite the complaints of the regular such as Dr. Adair of who practitioners, Bath, wrote an essay on quacks and quack medicines,115 the public seems to have been very to buy proprietary medicines. Their allowed medicine venders like willing support Joshua Ward'16 to flourish and even achieve Royal earlier in the patronage just as, century, Mrs. Joanna Stephens had received powerful support resulting in a of grant £5000 from Parliament to reveal the secrets of her medicines for the stone."17 It seems clear that advertisement could bring considerable success to the vender of medicines, and the words of the anonymous author of the Pharmacopoeia in Empirica, published the Gentleman's Magazine, may be a fair summary of the situation. He listed 202 proprietary medicines and may not have been entirely disinterested in so: the doing view that he expressed in his introduction to the list was that: Indeed the rich and will great (generally speaking) seek relief, secundum artem, from the regular physician, and true-bred apothecary; for whom provision is made in the college dispensary.-But the majority of mankind (in hopes of saving charges, and on a presumtion of surer are help) apt to resort to men of experience, as they are called, whose remedies they are induced to from think, their advertisements (so often repeated, and at so great expense) have been successful in the cure of the several distempers for which they are calculated.-I cannot but think, that therefore, by pub- lishing the list of nostrums you will herewith receive, you will do a favor not only to the empirics (by pointing them out to observation) but to the greatest part of your who would be countrymen, glad (at least in desperate cases) to know where to apply for a probability of relief.118 REFERENCES 1. H. Lewis, Bath Proc. Bath nat. Hist. and 'The beginnings of the newspaper press', Antiquarian Field Club, 1885, 5: 8-21. L. E. J. Brooke, Somerset 1720- newspapers, 1960, Taunton, the author, 1960. 2. Bath Journal as called Bath (hereafter referred to B.J.), at times also Boddely's Journal, issues for years 5 March 1 1750 issue 5 commencing 1744, January (1 missing), January 1761, 3 January 1780 (3 issues missing), 1798 issue January (1 missing). Bath as and Chronicle also known variously Bath Chronicle (B.C.), Weekly Gazette, Bath and Bristol Chronicle, and Archer's Bath issues for Chronicle, years commencing 25 4 7 3 December 1760 (1 issue missing), January 1770, January 1790, January 1799, and issues from 4 August to 24 November 1768. Bath Advertiser issues for (B.A.), issues or year commencing 1 January 1757 (3 Salmon's missing). Mercury Entertaining Repository (S.M.), issue of 20 December 1777, and Salmon's and General Mercury dated Advertiser, Vol. 1, No. 10 (not dated but advertisement containing January 1779) (Bath Bath Gazette issue for 8 June 1778 Reference Libary). (B.G.) (Bristol Reference Library). Farley's Bath Journal issues of 11 and 18 October 1756 (F.B.J.) (British Museum). Bath Register and Western Advertiser issues for com- (B.R.) year mencing 3 March 1792 (1 issue missing). Bath Herald and General Advertiser (B.H.) 3 March 1792. I am to Mrs. M. and the issues for year commencing grateful Joyce staff of the Bath Reference for their with these and other sources. Library help 3. B.J. 17 December 1798. N. Observations on the manners and customs Brooke, of Italy, Bath, R. Cruttwell, 1798, p. 132. 366 The venders of medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newspapers 4. B.C. 4 February 1790. 5. B.J. 7 May 1798. 6. B.J. 12 November 1750 and 31 December 1750. 7. B.C. 9 May 1799. 8. B.C. 31 October 1799. 9. B.C. 22 February 1770. 10. B.R. 9 February 1793. 11. B.J. 26 January 1761. 12. B.C. 25 February 1790. 13. B.H. April 1792. 14. B.C. 3 January 1799. 15. The new Bath guide, or pocket companion, Bath, printed by R. Cruttwell for W. Taylor, and issues from 1783 to end of century. 1780, p. 53; annually 16. S. F. Gray, A supplement to the pharmacopoeias, London, T. & G. Underwood, 1818, p. vii. 17. J. Alden, 'Pills and publishing: some notes on the English book trade, 1660-1715', The Library, 5th series, 1952: 21-37. 18. B.C. 30 September 1790. 19. B.C. 25 December 1760. 20. B.J. 16 July 1744. 21. 7he Bath and Bristol guide, or the tradesman's and traveller's pocket 3rd companion, ed., Bath, T. Boddely, 1755. 22. Op. cit., note 1 above. and 23. H. A. Cruttwell, The history of the Cruttwellfamily, of Wokingham (Berks) Bath, Camberley, Hickmott & Co., 1933. B.C. 6 June 1799. 24. B.C. April 1790. 25. B.A. 1 January 1751. 26. See note 2 above. 27. Ibid. 28. Ibid. Ibid. March 30. B.H. 3 1792. 31. B.H. 31 March 1792. 32. B.H. 24 November 33. B.H. 18 August 34. G. Bath directory, Bath, Robbins, 1800. 35. B.R. 1 and 29 September 1792. 36. B.C. 26 December 1799. 37. Collection of Bath trade cards. Bath Reference Library. 38. John Wood, An essay towards a description of Bath, 2nd ed., London, C. Hitch; Bath, J. Leake, 1749, vol. 2, pp. 417-418. 39. Philip Thicknesse, The new prose Bath guide, Bath, the author, 1778, p. vi. 40. V. J. Kite, 'Libraries in Bath, 1618-1964', typescript in Bath Reference Library, 1966. 'A edited 41. Elizabeth Collett, visit to Bath in 1792: diaries of Elizabeth Collett', by Henry Collett; typescript in Bath Reference Library. 42. Kite, op. cit., note 40 above. H. M. libraries in The 5th 43. Hamlyn, 'Eighteenth-century circulating England', Library, 1:197-222. series, 1947, 44. B.J. 9 April 1744. 45. B.J. 1 June 1761. 18 1770. 46. B.C. January 47. B.C. 22 November 1770. 48. B.J. 23 October 1780. 49. B.R. 19 May 1792. 367 P. Brown S. 50. B.J. 5 February 1798, 5 November 1798. 51. Kite, op. cit., note 40 above. 52. Hamlyn, op. cit., note 43 above. 53. B.J. 18 May 1761; B.C. 28 May 1761, 8 February 1770. 54. Kite, op. cit., note 40 above. 55. B.H. 24 November 1792. 56. B.C. 13 October 1768. 57. B.J. 3 January 1780, 25 September 1780, 5 February 1798. 58. 14 B.C. January 1790; B.J. 5 February 1798. B.R. 7 July 1792. 60. B.C. 18 January 1770, 14 January 1790. Kite, op. cit., note 40 above. B.C. 25 June 1761. 63. 1 B.C. September 1768. 64. 11 B.R. 18 August 1792, 16 February 1793, May 1793. 65. Kite, op. cit., note 40 above. 66. B.J. 14 February 1780. 67. B.C. 7 January 1790. 68. Kite, op. cit., note 40 above. 69. B.C. 24 November 1768, 22 November 1770; B.J. 3 January 1780. 70. Kite, op. cit., note 40 above. 71. B.C. 4 January 1770, 24 May 1770. 72. Kite, op. cit., note 40 above. 73. B.J. 30 October 1780; B.R. 11 August 1792; B.H. 30 June 1792, 12 January 1793. 74. 7 B.R. July 1792. 75. B.C. 5 December 1799. 76. 2 B.H. February 1793. 77. B.C. 28 February 1799, 26 September 1799. 78. 34 Bath directory, op. cit., note above. 79. above. Kite, op. cit., note 40 80. Ibid. 81. B.R. 17 March 1792. 82. Kite, op. cit., note 40 above. 83. Hamlyn, op. cit., note 43 above. 84. 7 6 B.J. 30 April 1798, May 1798, August 1798. A new Hazard's 85. catalogue of circulating library Bath Reference Library. [n.d.]. 86. B.H. 3 March 1792. Bath directory, op. cit., note 34 above. 87. B.C. 22 November 1770. 88. Wood, op. cit., note above, p. 438. 89. B.J. 28 May 90. B.J. 24 1744. September 19 1799. 91. B.C. September 92. B.C. 25 April 1799. 93. B.H. 3 November 1792. 94. The Bath H. 1837. directory, Bath, Silverthome, 95. B.J. 4 June 1744. 96. Bailey's British directory, London, J. Andrews, 1784; The new Bath directory, Bath, from the 1792, reprinted Universal British Directory. 97. J. The London and Pendred, country printers, booksellers and stationers vade mecum, 1785; reprinted 1955, edited by G. 22-23. Pollard, London, Bibliographical Society, pp. 98. Collection of Bath trade Bath Reference B.J. 2 B.C. cards, Library. February 1744; 9 May 1799. 9 13 99. B.J. April 1744, April 1761. 368 The venders of medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newspapers 100. J. Menzies Campbell, 'Chevalier Bartholomew Ruspini, 1728-1813', Dent. Mag. Oral Topics, 1953, 70: 3-23. 101. J. F. Kett, 'Provincial medical practice in England 1730-1815', J. Hist. Med., 1964, 19: 17-29. 1 January 1757, 18 June 1757; B.J. 26 January 1761. 102. B.A. Hawes, An account of the Dr. Goldsmith's illness as far as relates to the 103. William Powders, London, W. Brown & H. Gardner, 1774, appendix exhibition of Dr. James's p. 24. 104. B.J. 18 June 1744. 1 January 1757. 105. B.A. 106. B.J. 2 April 1798. 107. Marlborough Journal, 18 April 1772. of specifications relating to medicine, surgery and 108. Patents for inventions. Abridgments dentistry, 1620-1866, Patent Office, 1872. London, philosophical and medical sketch of the natural history of the 109. James Makittrick Adair, A and R. sold by Dilly, 1787, p. 256. human body mind, London, printed by Cruttwell, 110. William Tickell, A concise account of a new chymical medicine, entitled, Spiritus Anodyne Aethereal Spirit, London, printed by J. Salmon, aethereus anodynus, or, sold John p. 94. by Wallis, 1787, 111. 28 January 1790. B.C. 112. Patents for inventions . . ., op. cit., note 108 above. 113. ofpatents of inventions, chronologically arranged, London, Bennet Woodcroft, Titles Queen's Printing Office, op. cit., note 103 above, passim. 114. Hawes, Medical cautions; chiefly for the consideration of invalids, 115. James Makittrick Adair, by R. Cruttwell, sold C. Dilly, 1787, p. 425. 2nd ed., London, printed of National Biography. 116. Dictionary 11 1739 and 14 June 1739. See also, Arthur 117. Journals of the House of Commons, April and the a J. Viseltear, 'Joanna Stephens eighteenth century lithontriptics; misplaced therapeutics', Bull. Hist. Med., 1968, 42: 190-220. chapter in the history of Gentleman's Mag., 1748, 18: 346-350. 118. [Poplicolal, 'Pharmacopoeia empirica', to be published in Medical History, April 1976, will discuss the [A subsequent paper, medicines themselves.] http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Medical History Pubmed Central

The venders of medicines advertised in eighteenth-century Bath newspapers.

Medical History , Volume 19 (4) – Oct 1, 1975

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Abstract

THE VENDERS OF MEDICINES ADVERTISED IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BATH NEWSPAPERS by P. S. BROWN* century, Bath was well supplied with weekly FROM THE middle of the eighteenth and a in their was the advertisement of newspapers' prominent feature columns or In issues, these advertisements were patent proprietary medicines. the early of bold type in which the names of the medicines were conspicuous because the the device with which printed, and because they often reproduced pseudo-heraldic the second half of the century, advertisements the medicine was sealed. Throughout more than ten per cent for medicines occupied considerable space, frequently filling and cent. of the total column length, occasionally exceeding twenty per Many products the Bath Chronicle in 1790, for example, advertising 114 different were involved, some of them of medical treatment must medicines, repeatedly (Table 1). Many types available in Bath at this time, and superficial inspection of these advertise- have been that self-medication with or medicines made a ments suggests patent proprietary contribution to the total therapeutic effort. The advertisements in a significant of Bath from their first appearance in 1744 until the end of the sample2 newspapers century have, therefore, been studied in an attempt to estimate the importance of medicines sold in this way. Where available, issues of the Bath Journal, Bath Chronicle, Bath Register and Bath Herald have been examined throughout the first year of their publication, and the in issues for a year of at least one of these newspapers have been studied each decade. The Bath Advertiser was examined during its third year of publication as this allowed included in a more complete series. Other issues of some newspapers were the sample as in the case of Bath because the newspaper was under new ownership or, Farley's available. All and Journal and the Bath Gazette, because no other issues are patent offered for sale as distinct proprietary medicines were listed as long as they were of various advertised treatment items; no entries were made when practitioners types sale of a medicine. it in general terms without specifying the separate Occasionally was a cosmetic or a if a was difficult to decide whether a preparation medicine; in of the the was included. medicinal use was mentioned any advertisements, product Donna Maria's for example, was primarily cosmetic because it was "a Lotion,3 to former delicate Colour and Beautifyer and Restorer of relaxed Bosoms, their effectual in cases of if not but it is included because "it is sometimes Cancer, Shape" have been included in all cases because their too deeply rooted." Dental preparations was described as or as well as cosmetic. 302 function therapeutic preventive prepara- S. 65 Northover Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS9 3LQ. *P. Brown, B.A., B.M., M.R.C.P., Road, 352 The venders medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newspapers of tions were advertised in the sample and the present report deals primarily with the listed as these in Bath. persons selling preparations TABLE 1. ADVERTISEMENTS OF PROPRIETARY MEDICINES IN A SAMPLE OF BATH NEWSPAPERS. Newspaper Year sampled Number Total number Number of medicines Percentage of column starting: of issues of medicines advertised per issue length occupied by missing advertised Average Range of advertisements for during year over monthly medicines in first year averages issue of each month Average Range Bath Journal 5 0 27 5.4 0 -10.2 3.8 0 - 8.4 March 1744 1 January 1750 1 30 10.1 0 -21.8 1.5 0 - 5.8 1761 0 39 12.5 6.6-21.2 8.0 0 -15.5 5 January 3 3 38 7.2 2.0-10.9 4.5 0.3- 8.3 January 1780 1 January 1798 1 43 4.2 2.5- 5.8 6.1 2.5-10.4 Bath Chronicle 25 December 1760 1 49 7.3 0.7-14.2 5.9 3.0- 9.4 1770 0 80 20.3 14.5-28.8 12.2 3.3-17.5 4January 7 1790 0 114 24.4 21.0-28.0 10.6 6.7-18.4 January 3 1799 0 108 27.9 21.0-33.8 16.8 13.6-20.1 January Bath Advertiser 1 January 1757 3 46 28.7 25.0-37.5 9.4 0.2-21.1 Bath Register 3 1792 1 28 1.5 0 - 4.0 2.1 0 - 5.8 March Bath Herald 3 March 1792 0 40 4.1 1.2- 9.3 3.6 0.8- 9.4 1. THE ADVERTISEMENTS The advertisements took several forms. Sometimes a series of products was simply listed and a number of venders named; the printer of the newspaper was usually included among them. More commonly a product was named and at least one paragraph was devoted to extolling its virtues, often describing it as the most effectual, safe and pleasant cure yet discovered for several related or unrelated conditions. Another common form of advertisement was the testimonial letter, used widely by to of men- many advertisers. It might be appended the type advertisement already or it be without in columns where letters devoid of tioned, might printed heading advertising content would be found. Godbold was able to collect the signatures of but lords and ladies to recommend his Vegetable Balsam,4 few advertisers managed would and "Dr." Hammond of this. Clergymen sometimes oblige, Kingsdown, cases attested the rectors of St. John's and St. Bristol, published by Michael's, Bristol.6 The situation was reversed in the case of the Rev. Mr. Goodrick, Vicar of 353 P. S. Brown Somerset, who was the proprietor of a Powder for Rheumatism (and Kilmersdon, other ailments); he published many testimonials, some of which were from his parishioners.6 An advertisement for Scotch Pills, prepared by Robert Anderson of Bristol, sought reliable testimony by quoting a letter from Thomas Waring of Leo- "one of those respectable people called Quakers".7 minster, Occasionally advertisements were in verse. One ostentatious testimonial was in the form of "Lines addressed to N. Godbold . Proprietor of the celebrated Esq.... Vegetable Balsam, on seeing a print representing a view of his elegant Mansion at in Surrey. Written by a young Lady of the city of Bath as a small mark Godalming, of her gratitude for the restoration of her mother's health . . ."."8 More amusing was a verse about Nicoll's Beaume de Vie which reads: Mr. a Complaint in his Stomach. On hearing of Wilkes's having thro' Britain's Pray'rs, Why is not Wilkes, free? From inward Pains and Bondage When gracious G ..... the sceptre bears, sells the Beaume de Vie.9 And NICOLL This verse may have been planned as an advertisement or merely intended to amuse, scarce in the advertisements. but it introduces a touch of topicality which is remarkably though in 1792 an advertise- They rarely reflect stirring events in the outside world, contained the following: "many ment for the Chevalier Ruspini's Balsamic Styptick and connections interested in in this must doubtless have relatives persons country the impending warfare.... To such persons a more valuable present could not be sent, than a quantity of this admirable Styptick, which may render them important service in the hour of calamity."'0 at ailing visitors who came for If the advertisements for medicines were aimed the to mention the Bath waters. Such references medical be expected purposes, they might reflects the fact rare in the earlier portion of the sample but this probably simply are that the texts of most advertisements were not composed locally but were supplied the Stomachic Lozenges supplied the central distributors of the medicines. By 1761, by Mr. Newbery were described as having an excellent effect in disorders of the by Bath and Tunbridge Waters, stomach and bowels "after other Remedies, and even the of the however, references to have been used in vain."" Towards the end century, We are told that British Pills are "a great the Bath waters were becoming frequent. Waters" ;12 that Stomach Pills are and necessary Auxillary to the Bath Speediman's a course of the Bath waters";4 that "the best medicine that can be taken during taken "after the Cheltenham and other Cox's Stomachic Pearl Seeds are to be Bath, ;13 that Pastilles Martiales de Montpellier, or Aromatic Lozenges Spa Waters" and the of which are offered to the public as an infallible remedy for impotency, and Steel, "have been lately those complaints incident to females of delicate constitutions, to be taken with the Bath Waters"."I recommended by a very learned Physician that those who came to take the waters were an important These references suggest for the advertisers. target advertisements were intended to catch the eye of If, as these examples suggest, the 354 Bath newspapers The venders of medicines advertised in 18th-century with the social season. the vistor to Bath, their frequency might be to vary expected The yearly samples of the Bath Journal and Bath Chronicle (excluding their first years of publication) have, therefore, been exaniined for seasonal fluctuations, and various figures for the Bath Journal of 1750 are shown in Figure 1. The weekly average of . 6 Do ;z p4 COLUMN SPACE FOR ADVERTS OF MEDICINES 0 I_ Ih__ aI____ I i MEDICINES ADVERTISED ARRIVALS ANNOUNCED 'n ADVERTS FOR DRESS FABRICS Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec month to month in the number of Figure 1. Histograms showing the variation from advertisements in the Bath Journal for 1750. The top row shows the percen- appearing of the total column space of the first issue of each month taken up by advertise- tage number of for medicines and the second row shows the average medicines ments each month. third and fourth rows show the advertised per issue in The average of arrivals noted and the number of advertisements for dress fabrics number average issue. per 355 P. S. Brown arrivals noticed in the newspaper shows two large peaks with a trough in June and July. The unfashionable character of these months was still apparent in 1780 when lodging-house charges which were lOs. Od. a week for the rest of the year were reduced to 7s. Od. a week for June, July and August: a similar differential persisted through the rest of the century.15 The average number of medicines advertised in an issue also fluctuated from month to month but in an opposite direction, so that as the number of arrivals fell, the advertisements for medicines increased and vice versa (Figure 1). The negative correlation between the two is not statistically significant (r=-0.48; d.f.-10), but a similar and significant negative relationship exists between the percentage of column length taken up by advertisements for medicines in the first issue of each month and the average weekly arrivals for that month (r=-0.58; P<0.05). This fall in advertisements for medicines during the social season is not simply caused by notices of social events leaving little space for any type of advertise- ments. Figure 1 also shows the average weekly number of advertisements for fabrics by silk mercers and linen drapers, and for other dress materials. Their number follows their positive correlation the same pattern as that of the average weekly arrivals, (r= +0.57; P'vr 0.05). Thus it seems that advertise- approaching statistical significance fashionable ones the ments for medicines had to make way for more during season, that advertising medicines was considered unim- but this does not necessarily imply lies in the fact that, as discussed below, the pro- portant. The explanation probably a of medicines. When silk mercers or prietor of the newspaper was also vender advertisements and their money were accepted: when others wished to advertise, their the advertised his own wares, outside advertisers were not forthcoming, printer medicines. which included of 1770, there was still significant In the Bath Journal of 1761 and the Bath Chronicle of medicines advertised in fluctuation from month to month in the average number not so clearly seasonal as in 1750. In subsequent an issue but the variations were fluctuations ceased to be statistically significant. samples of these two newspapers, the II. THE VENDERS 1. Newspaper proprietor/printer advertisements named venders in Bath from whom the With rare exceptions, the could be obtained. That many venders of patent medicines were book- medicines or printers is well known, and a logical explanation of this situation is offered sellers writing early in the next century. Speaking of nostrums or patent medicines by Gray virtues vaunted in he says "as most of these are largely advertised, and their posting- and the of their bills, a connection is hence formed between the preparers printers and are the usual advertisements, so that in many places the printers stationers considers this explanation venders of this class of medicines".16 Alden, however, The of all the venders in Bath mentioned more ingenious than plausable.'7 occupations in the sample of newspapers are listed in Table 2. wholesale and retail venders. In most cases were Newspaper proprietors important and the medicines advertised were available from the printer was also the proprietor, office and from the distributors of the The ramifications of the printing newspaper. and bookseller of this can be for example, when Charles Hewitt, printer system seen, 356 The venders of medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newspapers 2. OF PERSONS NAMED AS VENDERS OF ADVERTISED MEDICINES IN A TABLE OCCUPATIONS BATH NEWSPAPERS. SAMPLE OF NEWSPAPER (abbreviated as in reference2) and YEAR B.J.1744 F.B.J.1756 B.C.1768 B.J.1780 B.C.1790 B.J.1798 OCCUPATION B.A.1756-7 B.C.1770 S.M.1777 B.R.1792-3 B.C.1799 B.J.1750 B.J.1761 S.M.1779 B.H.1792-3 B.C.1760-1 B.G.1779 Newspaper printer/ 1 4 2 4 3 2 proprietor Bookseller, 2 2 8 6 9 11 stationer Perfumer, 2 2 5 2 8 3 toyman 1 3 3 1 4 2 Grocer Dentist 1 3 4 0 5 2 Apothecary, chymist, 0 1 2 4 5 8 druggist Others* 1 0 1 1 0 3 Notstated 8 2 2 3 2 4 *one one venders (Dr. Brodum and John broker, com-cutter, one cutler, two visiting medicine Gardner) and N. Brooke'. was an for the distribution of the Bath Chronicle. He Glastonbury, appointed agent announced"8 that he sent out hawkers to various towns, including Somerton, Lang- port, Ilchester, Street, Wedmore and Meare, and that persons residing in these might give their orders to the hawkers for the newspaper and for medicines parishes system of distribution as much as advertised therein. It may have been this efficient by Gray that made the newspaper proprietors successful the reasons put forward advertisement illustrating the wholesale and retail venders of medicines. A typical of Cornelius Pope, printer of the Bath Chronicle, for aspects of the business is that Jesuit Drops which were "to be had ... of C. Dr. Robert Walker's Patent Genuine at their Office, in Stall Street, Bath; and of the Distributors of this Pope and Comp. Sorts of Patent Medicines ... Paper. At the Printing Office aforesaid may be had, All may be supply'd Wholesale on the London Terms".19 where country Shopkeepers of Bath Journal announced similarly that "Good Allowance will be Boddely the made the said T. Boddely to those that take Quantities to sell again."20 by Bath Journal, from February Boddely was the first printer and publisher of the as a vender in most of the advertise- 1744. He was an active advertiser and was named 357 P. S. Brown ments for medicines that appeared in his paper. He also advertised in other publica- tions that he printed, for example the Bath and Bristol Guide2l which contained a list printer, and their prices. Subsequent printers of of thirty-one medicines sold by the to sell medicines but the information in Table 1 suggests that the Journal22 continued the of the Bath Chronicle. This paper they were not as active in this respect as printers on 25 December 1760 by Cornelius Pope; a note on the title page said was started Boddely and had managed the Bath Journal for that he had been apprenticed to Mr. five years. He clearly had access to the suppliers of medicines and in his the previous first year of publication was able to advertise a greater number of medicines than the spell in 1768 the title was Archer's Bath Chronicle and on Bath Journal. For a brief William was joined by Richard Cruttwell as senior partner. 29 September 1768, Archer a of an and able family and from the time that he Cruttwell was member interesting sole in 1769 until his death in 1799 he was an active became proprietor October and vender of medicines.23 He sold the products of all the leading manu- advertiser facturers as indicated by an advertisement which listed "all the late Sir John Hill's . . . Dicey's, Newbery's, Wray's, Bayley's and Jackson's medicines and all Messrs His son, Richard junior, carried on this tradition at the Medicines, etc., etc...."24 end of the century. Advertiser was started by Stephen Martin in October 1755. In the year The Bath the number of medicines advertised in an issue was sampled (1757), the average for in any newspaper. As well as the main advertisements 28.7, the highest figure found a wholesale and retail vender,25 the front in the columns, which named Martin as listing about twenty-four medicines sold at the page regularly carried a footnote were responsible for the high average number of printing office. These footnotes advertised each week. Another newspaper which appeared at about the preparations was Bath Journal of which only two issues are known.'6 In both, same time Farley's Samuel the and proprietor, advertised medicines which were sold at Farley, printer office in the Market Place, Bath, and "by the Men who vend this the printing Journal". was J. at first associated with T. Sketchley. Salmon's Mercury printed by Salmon, its full which at first was Salmon's and General Advertiser, Despite title, Mercury most of the available at least as do not contain advertisements. issues, they survive, shows that the was also a vender of medicines as One issue in 1777, however, printer it was announced that Montpellier Pectoral Drops might be had of J. Salmon, printer in Another of 1779, advertised fourteen medicines sold Stall Street."7 issue, probably at about the same time but is represented by the printer.28 The Bath Gazette appeared issue.29 It was printed by J. Watts, who leaves no doubt of his by only one known as a of medicines that Pills, Dr. Anderson's status vender by announcing Leyden Scots Pills and Genuine Patent Medicines of every kind are "sold at J. Watt's Medicine of their premises as and Stationary Warehouse, St. James's Parade". The description later in the century, as medicinal warehouses was used by newspaper proprietors mentioned below. first on the same The Bath Herald and the Bath Register were published day, Bath to have a and 3 March 1792. The Herald was the first newspaper separate printer Robert Paddock and William Both dealt publisher: these were Meyler respectively. 358 The venders medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newvspapers of in medicines. Paddock, as well as being a printer, advertised for sale bibles, prayer books, every kind of writing, printing and drawing papers, wholesale and retail, Riley's and Reeve's colours and "Genuine Patent Medicine".-" Dr. Waite's celebrated Worm Medicine was "sold in Bath only by the Printer of this Paper"..3' Meyler was a bookseller in the Grove who operated a circulating library described in an advertise- In ran a state ment which also listed "all kinds of Patent Medicines".2 addition, he described in a directory of 1800 as a printer.34 lottery office- and was under discussion in that The Bath Register is the exception among the newspapers its printer, J. Johnson, was not apparently involved in selling patent medicines. This for the relatively small amount of advertisement for such items presumably accounts For three months, however, the paper in his paper (see Table 1). approximately of during this time only, it was published was associated with venders medicines for, or J. at the circulating library in by Messrs. Campbell and Gainsborough by Campbell the familiar that medicines "may be Burton Street, and advertisements used phrase it was both and had of the Newsmen".35 After this period, again printed published the Bath Herald in October 1793. by Johnson until it was absorbed by was not an occa- It appears, therefore, that selling proprietary medicines merely sional side-line for the printers and publishers of newspapers. In eighteenth-century Bath it seems to have been regularly associated with the printing of seven out of the Even in the one case where it was not, there was a brief period when eight newspapers. the was published by a vender of medicines, and this newspaper only achieved paper to an independent existence for nineteen months. The importance attached the selling in the case of the Bath Gazette where the of medicines has already been suggested and Warehouse". The second Richard printer wrote of his "Medicine Stationary over his father's used a similar Cruttwell, a few months after taking business, St. Street",36 phrase and began to advertise from the "Medicinal Warehouse, James for a in each of the three In 1799 a Mr. John Jeffreys inserted advertisements property bills for the are preserved.37 Bath newspapers and fortunately the receipted advertising Journal and Herald respectively, read The three bill-heads, from the Bath Chronicle, and at his Medicine as follows: "Dr. to Richard Cruttwell, Printer Stationer, Patent "Dr to Printers at their Patent Medicine Warehouse, St. James Street, Bath."; Keenes, and "To William Warehouse, King's Mead Street, Bath"; Meyler, Bookseller, and Medicines." These bill- Stationer and Orange Grove. Patent Approved Printer, of trade in medicines to news- heads leave little doubt as to the importance the these paper proprietors. 2. Circulating libraries of were the of libraries Another prominent group venders proprietors circulating in the social life of Bath was considerable. and the importance of these institutions John Wood described how it was for the master of a family arriving in customary "to for which he is Bath to pay various subscriptions, including one the Bookseller, his ... The Ladies too subscribe to have what Books he pleases to read at lodgings; Oliver Goldsmith in his Richard Nash to the Bookseller".38 Later, Life of (1762) Wood's In Thicknesse wrote that "Men of simply re-used description. 1778, Philip to and Kite has described the will find Libraries always open them",39 Reading 359 P. S. Brown proliferation of circulating libraries towards the end of the century.40 Among ficti- tious characters, Lydia Languish in Sheridan's The Rivals (1775) made use of the libraries run by Mr. Bull and Mr. Frederick, and Smollett's Miss Melford in The expedition of Humphry Clinker (1771) considered them "charming places of resort". The non-fictitious diarist, Elizabeth Collett, used them extensively.4" James Leake is the best known of the Bath booksellers who operated circulating libraries and was probably lending books well before the publication of the first Bath newspaper.4243 He was the first person to advertise medicines independently, and not in association with the printer, in the Bath Journal.44 This advertisement was for Inglish's Dr. Anderson's Scots Pills: he also sold Dr. Hill's and John Newbery's medicines,45 and others. His son, who succeeded him, advertised a similar range of medicines and was named as the Bath vender of Ward's medicines for prepared Fielding and Dingley." In 1770, Lewis Bull took over Leake's library on the Lower Walks but announced that "The and at his in the Jewellery Toy Trades, Shop Grove, will be carried on in the usual extensive Manner".'7 He continued to sell the main of medicines and advertised his new wares and groups library, books, stationery medicines all in the same advertisement.'8 In his son John at first patent 1792, Bull, associated with John took over the business.49 His advertisements in our Hensley, to the end of the were for various medicines of Francis sample up century Newbery.50 Another well-known circulating library was that of William Frederick,51'52 who advertised various of Newbery's medicines as well as Dr. Hill's.53 This library in The at first in association Grove was later taken over William with by Meyler, Joseph of Sheldon." Meyler has already been mentioned as the publisher the Bath Herald A advertisement listed and a vender of medicines. ladies' comprehensive almanacks, court and in a of new and and gentlemen's pocket-books, city registers, etc., variety and sold at "where as elegant bindings, just published Meyler's Circulating Library, and Publication is to a extensive New very Collection, every Entertaining constantly as available for included seven London added".55 The listed newspapers reading three each from Bath and papers "and the Reviews", and country papers, Bristol, and and one each from Birmingham, Chester, Exeter, Gloucester, Oxford, Salisbury Dublin Post. The advertisement ends York, The Edinburgh Gazette and Evening by the Patirosa that "All Fuller's announcing Approved Medicines; particularly Lozenges celebrated Pearls and may be had here. Likewise the Gloucester Seeds, prepared by of Patent Medicines from the Warehouses of Messrs. Mr. D. Cox-and all Kinds etc." Newbery, Wye, other libraries must be summarized In The evidence concerning briefly. 1768, in Milsom Street was advertised in with various William Bally's library conjunction and a note was added that would be educated as usual at a patent medicines, youth in for that in Lane.56 the house fitted up purpose Parsonage Subsequently present were mentioned as various M. and later J. sample, Bally Bally selling medicines, not with advertisement of the There were numerous though in conjunction library.57 of run first in Milsom Street and later in Bond mentions the library by Joseph Barrett, for sold numerous other advertisements were medicines him.58 Street; by Campbell as of the Bath for a short and have been mentioned Gainsborough publishers Register were often advertised as sold at their medicines time; proprietary circulating library.59 360 The venders of medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newspapers There were many advertisements for the sale of medicines by W. Taylor, bookseller in Street.60 He was Church presumably the William Taylor, proprietor of the circulating library in Church Street,6" but records in the 1760s must be interpreted cautiously as there was then a W. Taylor described as grocer,62 and one described as a cutler,63 both of whom sold medicines. Edward Russell's circulating library was advertised in as as the same context various medicines,"' was the library run successively by Pratt and Clinch6'566 and James Marshall.67 The latter had been started by Andrew for Tennant68 whose advertisements medicines were frequent, a few referring also to his Thomas who a in library.69 Mills, started circulating library Kingsmead Street,70 sold Dr. Radcliffe's and a for the Drops powder cleaning teeth.7' When his library was taken over Samuel Hazard and moved to it a by Cheap Street, became very active for sale of a wide of centre the range proprietary medicines72'73 and an advertisement Dentifrice referred to its sale at "Mr. for Walkey's Vegetable Hazard's Circulating Library and Medicinal Warehouse".7' At the end of the Thomas century, Gibbons established a "at one half the of other in Bath".75 library charge any library This was run from his shop in Street where he was Bridge already selling patent medicines.76 the J. Brown who sold various medicines of & in Finally, Dicey Co.77 1799 was probably the John Brown who ran a in circulating library Edgar Building.78 this the Clearly, socially important institution, circulating library, was very strongly linked with the sale of proprietary medicines. The well-known only library not identi- fied as medicines in the is that of selling present sample Theophilus Shrimpton;79 he did not do or he did not advertise the perhaps so, perhaps simply fact. Lesser-known libraries that do not appear in the sample as places where medicines were sold are those of Mathews and nor does that of David who Benjamin Thomas Loggan,80 Evans stated his intention of a but who is not listed opening library8l by Kite.82 With these relatively minor exceptions, however, we can say that the circulating libraries in Bath sold proprietary medicines. Hamlyn83 quotes a in the Bodleian pamphlet Library which that libraries were not remunerative but that their suggests circulating highly profits required augmentation with some other business. The sale of a medicines seems natural choice for Bath, and other associated businesses have already been noted in this sample. Despite the sale of James Marshall became one of medicines, bankrupt; the announcements in the Bath referred to him as a dealer and newspapers bookseller, chapman.84 was a of At least one circulating library source medical information as well as of A of Hazard's medicines. claimed to list about surviving catalogue library 10,000 100 of on and volumes.85 Nearly these were medical topics represented a compre- hensive collection ranging from two-volume works on The practice of physic to medicine. William Buchan's Domestic 3. and Perfumers toy-men Further evidence that the advertised medicines were the inclined bought by socially visitors is provided by the number of perfumers and listed as venders toy-men (Table 2). for a The two traders are grouped together as probably catering similar public. Three were described as both trades86 and Lewis Bull combined the advertisers following toy trade with a The need for is circulating library.87 perfumers strongly suggested by 361 P. S. Brown Smollett's description in The expedition of Humphry Clinker (1771) of the odours at a ball, and the toy-man seems to have had a place in the arising from the throng polite round. Wood says that "From the Pump Room, the Ladies from time to time withdraw to a neighbouring Toy Shop, amusing themselves there with Reading the Miss Melford tells her correspondent that "From the Bookseller's News".88 Smollett's a tour the milliners and toy men". shop we make through If perfumers sold medicines, why were they not also sold in the milliners' shops the and the lace warehouses? Francis Bennett, in the Church Yard, who sold linen and woollen drapery, mercery, and haberdashery goods also sold all sorts of teas, coffees, chocolate and sugar, and other things including fine snuffs.'9 Mary Sellen, milliner in also sold powders and Hungary water."° Neither appears to have sold Pierpoint Street, medicines. It is likely that a good proportion of the purchasers of patent medicines of the medicines were designed for women. Restorative were women: many specifically Salo Pills, sold by Cruttwell, were for all obstructions and irregularities;91 Welch's Pills were sold both by Cruttwell and Meyler and performed a similar function, being suitable for complaints peculiar to virgins;92 Dr. Sibley's Lunar Tincture was especially adapted to treatment of the female but it would be "extremely improper" to enumer- ate the particular cases;93 and there were many others. One might think that the milliners' shops would be ideal for marketing them and, in the next century, Morrison's sold three female in Bath: two of the three are listed in Pills were at one time by agents the this information as dressmakers." A possible another section of directory giving explanation for the apparent exclusion of milliners, drapers and such like from the ranks of medicine venders in eighteenth-century Bath may have been that their trade weaver and mercer on the for instance, announced was too seasonal. Ferry, Parade, that stocks would be returned to London on 16 April 1744 and that the shop would on or before 20 September for the winter season.95 Perhaps an adequate re-open reward for selling medicines required not merely the seasonal trade but also a steady turn-over for the rest of the year. Alternatively, the shops frequented by the ladies may have sold "female pills" but may have considered it unnecessary or indelicate to the fact in the advertise newspapers. 4. booksellers, stationers Printers, and 2 include one who are listed as printers, booksellers stationers in Table Venders and stationers not mentioned as of one bookseller two already printers printer, newspapers or proprietors of circulating libraries. In 1784 and 1792 general direc- for and Pendred's has a list for the city.'7 tories were published Bath,'6 directory name seventeen individuals or businesses classed as Between them they printers, or stationers: all but three one stationer and booksellers (one printer, Theophilus identified as advertisers of medicines in the newspapers Shrimpton) can be proprietary The two directories list sixteen perfumers of whom seven advertised sampled. general sale of medicines in our the sample. and 5. Grocers dentists of venders listed in Table 2 must be mentioned only briefly. The grocers Two classes of but one business deserves individual mention. did not form a advertisers, large group 362 The venders medicines advertised in 18th-century Bath newspapers of It was run by various members of the family of Lambe, at India House, opposite the Three Tuns Inn in Stall Street, and had the distinction of being the most persistent advertiser in the sample, apart from the printers of the Bath Journal, advertising from 1744 to the end of the The other to be mentioned only regularly century.'8 group briefly was composed of a very varied collection of dental practitioners. One example was John Goldstone who arrived from London to bleed, draw teeth and cut corns. He settled in Bath and became an "operator for the teeth", selling dental preparations and various patent medicines.99 A very different example was the distinguished surgeon- dentist, the Chevalier Ruspini, who had a fashionable practice in both London and Bath and sold his own dental medicines.Y°° Several other dental practitioners in Bath sold their own dental tinctures and dentifrices. prepared and chemists and 6. Apothecaries, druggists final to be considered is formed the The group by combining apothecaries, chemists and An increasing number of such persons advertised medicines during the druggists. course of the century. The earlier advertisers called themselves apothecaries, or apothecaries and chemists. The designation, "chynaist", was sometimes added with the passage of time as in the case of Thomas Horton. The municipal records show that he to the freedom in 1778 as an but when was admitted apothecary, an apprentice of his was admitted in Horton was described as an and 1799, apothecary chemist. In the 1790s, four chemists and druggists appeared as advertisers, forming a small group distinct from the apothecaries. Such a distinction was not always apparent in the city records early in the next century: William Hayden, for example, was admitted to the freedom in 1837 having served seven years' apprenticeship to Charles Webb "to trade or of a and learn the art, mystery, profession surgeon apothecary and chymist and druggist". Kett concluded from a study of Newcastle and Ipswich newspapers that apothecaries did not deal in patent medicines in these areas.101 The first advertisements for an apothecary selling such medicines in the present sample, however, suggests that selling these medicines may not necessarily be equated with advertising their sale. These advertisements were for the letting of apartments or tenements by Mr. William and at the next door to the Three Cups in Street, Apothecary Chymist, Phoenix, Bath. made the main Northgate Street, Having announcement, the advertisement that Street and wholesale and stated "truly prepares sells, retail, drugs, chemicals, and as as in London. He also virtue of other medicines, cheap sells, by the King's Letters Dr. James's Powders and other Patent Medicines"'.102 Patent, many It seems that the for was the and the mention of his other reason advertising letting, wares was second- the fact that he was an and chemist made it ary. Probably apothecary unnecessary for to advertise medicines. The would seek him out when re- him normally public they Such a situation would account for the that lack of advertisements quired commodity. in Kett's even if were in fact selling patent medicines. by apothecaries sample, they himself an in that were William Hawes, apothecary, writing 1774, suggests they doing London. He of James's Powders that "this Medicine is in such so in says general vogue is to it". 110 almost that every Apothecary obliged keep of medicines advertised in the Many the proprietary present sample were produced D P. S. Brown by apothecaries. For example, Thomas Greenough prepared, among other items, two widely-advertised dental tinctures in Snow Hill, London.04 Nearer Bath, Joseph Dalby, apothecary of Malmesbury, Wiltshire, prepared a Carminative Mixture,105 and, in Bath itself, Messrs. Breuer & Co., chymists and apothecaries, in Broad Street, prepared and sold a Vegetable Lotion for the Itch, though the manufacture may have been carried out at their laboratories in Park Street, Grosvenor Square, London.106 Many other local apothecaries probably had their nostrums. Two were associated with proprietary medicines but do not appear as venders in the present sample of advertisements, nor were their products advertised by other venders. One was P. Page himself as a and of who described "chymist apothecary" Bath when, in 1772, he a that announced in Marlborough newspaper he had appointed the printer of the paper in Wiltshire for his Balsamic of the sole agent Lozenges Tolu.107 The other was of who his William Tickell, apothecary Bath, patented Anodyne Aetherial Spirit in 1786.108 By so doing he came under attack from Dr. James Makittrick Adair who "I shall leave it to Mr. T to determine how far he can wrote, reconcile his pretensions as a to his credit as a .. .".109 nostrum-monger, regular practitioner Tickell, however, not without allies the as one of the was apparently among faculty cases he described in of his nostrum was communicated to him Dr. with writing by Lysons, permission for its 0 publication." If apothecaries did not need to advertise the sale of proprietary medicines, the same reasons to the chemists and Like the probably applied druggists. apothecaries, had their nostrums. Thomas chemist and of many probably Howe, druggist Milsom and Fleet sold Howe's Pectoral of Street, Bath, Street, London, Lozenges Horehound of continued and for coughs, asthma, spitting blood, cough consumption."' This he and had in one of the sixteen prepared patented 1786,112 being chemists or druggists who the of medicines in the appear among eighty patentees eighteenth century whose or status is noted in a index of This occupation chronological patentees."13 number with fourteen described as as or chemists in compares apothecaries (some surgeons and with fourteen described as addition) surgeons. Ill. LITERARY REFERENCES The with which the of and of frequency proprietors newspapers circulating libraries advertised were also venders of medicines that the sale of the latter was an suggests of their business. The of important part occupations the venders make it clear that the an for visitors to Bath formed important market these medicines no though, doubt, the and the they were not only advertisements in were not the purchasers, papers only which medicines were introduced to The of means by them. sections English society medicines in also did so when which the to their bought Bath, probably they dispersed homes. We to find some comments on own might, therefore, expect the taking of these medicines in and in this we are not contemporary literature, disappointed. of The widespread sale proprietary medicines, even if some had therapeutic value, the must have and the of medication angered regular practitioners, danger unsupervised non-medical writers. The extreme fostered was recognized by many view, probably by the medical was that all sold regular practitioners, preparations by irregular practi- if in tioners were worthless not lethal. Laurence a sermon on murder actually Sterne, 364 Bath The venders of medicines advertised in 18th-century newspapers (Sermons, 1769), wrote: "There is another species of this crime . . . and that is, where the life of our neighbour is shortened, and often taken away as directly as by a weapon, by the empirical sale of nostrums and quack medicines, which avarice and ignorance blend." Early in the next century, George Crabbe wrote in The Borough (1810); But now our quacks are gamesters, and they play With craft and skill to ruin and betray; With monstrous promise they delude the mind, And thrive on all that tortures human-kind. Void of all honour, avaricious, rash, The daring tribe compound their boasted trash- Tincture or syrup, lotion, drop or pmll; the All tempt the sick to trust lying bill; Several writers about Bath in the eighteenth century made their comments on proprietary medicines with less venom and more humour. Tobias Smollett, himself ridiculed Hill's Essence of Water Dock in The expedition of medically qualified, Humphry Clinker (1771) by attributing its use to the absurd Tabitha Bramble and linking it with her dog's laxative. Her curiously spelled letter to her housekeeper reads: "William may bring over my bum-daffee, and the viol with the easings of Dr. Hill's dock-water, and Choders lacksitif. The poor creature has been terribly constuprated ever since we left huom." Christopher Anstey, in a similar vein in The New Bath Guide (1766) also alluded to two of Hill's preparations which were taken by Tabby Runt, the maid who was "the queerest animal in nature". She has to be treated by the doctor: He gives little Tabby a great many Doses, For he says the poor Creature has got the Chlorosis, so on the Or a ravenous Pica, brought Vapours Stuff has read in the Papers; By swallowing she And I she so much Money often marvell'd spent In Water-Dock Essence and Balsam ofHoney; Pills I Such Tinctures, Elixirs, such have seen, I her Face was so never could wonder green. Some of the most ridicule of advertised medicines and nostrums is entertaining contained in two of Oliver Goldsmith's Lettersfrom The Citizen of the World (1762). and the of They mock both the gullibility of the public ignorance the proprietors, three was of whom are selected for personal ridicule. Goldsmith probably medically quali- his it also adds to a fied and this would have coloured outlook; point circumstance is arising during his final illness. It reported that, despite contrary advice from his he in James's a much-advertised apothecary and a physician, persisted taking Powders, medicine.114 The attitude in his satirical writing apparently did not patent expressed would have claimed apply in the stress of his own illness: but he probably that Dr. medicines. also James's preparation was an exception among patent Henry Fielding the aid of celebrated nostrums his final illness when he wrote in The sought during a of Joshua Ward a to Lisbon that he had become patient and journal of voyage (1755) want indeed no unfair of mine to that "the powers of Mr. Ward's remedies puffs give 365 P. S. Brown These sentiments are not quite in line with those of a in Tom them credit." passage cannot be wholely serious: of "interest" he tells Jones (1749) which speaking us: "This is indeed a most excellent medicine, and, like Ward's pill, flies at once to the particular part of the body on which you desire to operate, whether it be the the or tongue, hand, where it scarce ever fails of the any other member, immediately producing desired effect." Despite the complaints of the regular such as Dr. Adair of who practitioners, Bath, wrote an essay on quacks and quack medicines,115 the public seems to have been very to buy proprietary medicines. Their allowed medicine venders like willing support Joshua Ward'16 to flourish and even achieve Royal earlier in the patronage just as, century, Mrs. Joanna Stephens had received powerful support resulting in a of grant £5000 from Parliament to reveal the secrets of her medicines for the stone."17 It seems clear that advertisement could bring considerable success to the vender of medicines, and the words of the anonymous author of the Pharmacopoeia in Empirica, published the Gentleman's Magazine, may be a fair summary of the situation. He listed 202 proprietary medicines and may not have been entirely disinterested in so: the doing view that he expressed in his introduction to the list was that: Indeed the rich and will great (generally speaking) seek relief, secundum artem, from the regular physician, and true-bred apothecary; for whom provision is made in the college dispensary.-But the majority of mankind (in hopes of saving charges, and on a presumtion of surer are help) apt to resort to men of experience, as they are called, whose remedies they are induced to from think, their advertisements (so often repeated, and at so great expense) have been successful in the cure of the several distempers for which they are calculated.-I cannot but think, that therefore, by pub- lishing the list of nostrums you will herewith receive, you will do a favor not only to the empirics (by pointing them out to observation) but to the greatest part of your who would be countrymen, glad (at least in desperate cases) to know where to apply for a probability of relief.118 REFERENCES 1. H. Lewis, Bath Proc. Bath nat. Hist. and 'The beginnings of the newspaper press', Antiquarian Field Club, 1885, 5: 8-21. L. E. J. Brooke, Somerset 1720- newspapers, 1960, Taunton, the author, 1960. 2. Bath Journal as called Bath (hereafter referred to B.J.), at times also Boddely's Journal, issues for years 5 March 1 1750 issue 5 commencing 1744, January (1 missing), January 1761, 3 January 1780 (3 issues missing), 1798 issue January (1 missing). Bath as and Chronicle also known variously Bath Chronicle (B.C.), Weekly Gazette, Bath and Bristol Chronicle, and Archer's Bath issues for Chronicle, years commencing 25 4 7 3 December 1760 (1 issue missing), January 1770, January 1790, January 1799, and issues from 4 August to 24 November 1768. Bath Advertiser issues for (B.A.), issues or year commencing 1 January 1757 (3 Salmon's missing). 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Patents for inventions. Abridgments dentistry, 1620-1866, Patent Office, 1872. London, philosophical and medical sketch of the natural history of the 109. James Makittrick Adair, A and R. sold by Dilly, 1787, p. 256. human body mind, London, printed by Cruttwell, 110. William Tickell, A concise account of a new chymical medicine, entitled, Spiritus Anodyne Aethereal Spirit, London, printed by J. Salmon, aethereus anodynus, or, sold John p. 94. by Wallis, 1787, 111. 28 January 1790. B.C. 112. Patents for inventions . . ., op. cit., note 108 above. 113. ofpatents of inventions, chronologically arranged, London, Bennet Woodcroft, Titles Queen's Printing Office, op. cit., note 103 above, passim. 114. Hawes, Medical cautions; chiefly for the consideration of invalids, 115. James Makittrick Adair, by R. Cruttwell, sold C. Dilly, 1787, p. 425. 2nd ed., London, printed of National Biography. 116. Dictionary 11 1739 and 14 June 1739. See also, Arthur 117. Journals of the House of Commons, April and the a J. Viseltear, 'Joanna Stephens eighteenth century lithontriptics; misplaced therapeutics', Bull. Hist. Med., 1968, 42: 190-220. chapter in the history of Gentleman's Mag., 1748, 18: 346-350. 118. [Poplicolal, 'Pharmacopoeia empirica', to be published in Medical History, April 1976, will discuss the [A subsequent paper, medicines themselves.]

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Medical HistoryPubmed Central

Published: Oct 1, 1975

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