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Discipline and Bounding: The History and Sociology of Science as Seen through the Externalism-Internalism Debate

Discipline and Bounding: The History and Sociology of Science as Seen through the... Hist. Sci., xxx (1992) DISCIPLINE AND BOUNDING: THE HISTORY AND SOCIOLOGY OF SCIENCE AS SEEN THROUGH THE EXTERNALISM-INTERNALISM DEBATE Steven Shapin University of California at San Diego From the beginning of the Second World War to the ending of the Cold War no problematic so deeply shaped the academic history and sociology of science than that inscribed in talk of 'internalism' and 'externalism'. Insofar as empirical work was deemed relevant to developing an overall appreciation of the nature of science, its dynamics and its relations with social and cultural environments, that relevance was locally achieved by gestures at opposed 'internalist' and 'externalist' theories, orientations, domains, and accompany­ ing historiographic baggage. Students were initiated into the history and sociology of science by being told about these genres and the present state of play. Graduates' early orientation to their fields was achieved through affiliation with one or other genre and camp of practitioners. Reviews of the state of the history and sociology of science were seemingly obligated to use 'internalism' and 'externalism' as expository structures. Nowadays, however, historians of science commonly tell each other and their students that their discipline has transcended, outgrown or resolved those debates, and that it is http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png History of Science SAGE

Discipline and Bounding: The History and Sociology of Science as Seen through the Externalism-Internalism Debate

History of Science , Volume 30 (4): 37 – Dec 1, 1992

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References (84)

Publisher
SAGE
Copyright
© 1992 SAGE Publications
ISSN
0073-2753
eISSN
1753-8564
DOI
10.1177/007327539203000401
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hist. Sci., xxx (1992) DISCIPLINE AND BOUNDING: THE HISTORY AND SOCIOLOGY OF SCIENCE AS SEEN THROUGH THE EXTERNALISM-INTERNALISM DEBATE Steven Shapin University of California at San Diego From the beginning of the Second World War to the ending of the Cold War no problematic so deeply shaped the academic history and sociology of science than that inscribed in talk of 'internalism' and 'externalism'. Insofar as empirical work was deemed relevant to developing an overall appreciation of the nature of science, its dynamics and its relations with social and cultural environments, that relevance was locally achieved by gestures at opposed 'internalist' and 'externalist' theories, orientations, domains, and accompany­ ing historiographic baggage. Students were initiated into the history and sociology of science by being told about these genres and the present state of play. Graduates' early orientation to their fields was achieved through affiliation with one or other genre and camp of practitioners. Reviews of the state of the history and sociology of science were seemingly obligated to use 'internalism' and 'externalism' as expository structures. Nowadays, however, historians of science commonly tell each other and their students that their discipline has transcended, outgrown or resolved those debates, and that it is

Journal

History of ScienceSAGE

Published: Dec 1, 1992

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