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Agent OrangeUpdate on Cacodylic AcidCacodylic acid, The Major Component of Agent Blue

Agent Orange: Update on Cacodylic AcidCacodylic acid, The Major Component of Agent Blue [Air Force Logistic Command records for the Vietnam War noted that approximately 29,235 drums, containing approximately 6,080,880 L of Agent Blue, were shipped to Vietnam from December 1965 through December 1970. Approximately 50% of the liquid Agent Blue was sprayed by RANCH HAND aircraft in crop denial operations, especially against rice production, and for opening areas in savannahs, and mangrove forests. The remaining 50% were sprayed by the Army Chemical Corps for vegetation control, especially grasses, outside of base perimeters, and in limited crop denial programs. Agent Blue was an organic arsenical as cacodylic acid and sodium cacodylate, and once in contract with the soil it would have been bound within the soil matrix making it immobile, but slowly converting to volatile alkyl arsine and released into the atmosphere. In rice fields sprayed with Agent Blue, anaerobic conditions would have dominated and the conversion of the cacodylic acid and sodium cacodylate to alkyl arsine would have been even faster, 61% in 24 weeks. The phytotoxic properties of cacodylic acid were quickly inactivated on contact with moist soils. The toxicity of the active ingredients, the acid and sodium salt of cacodylic acid, were considered low (LD50 of 2600 mg/kg in the rat). In man, these active ingredients were rapidly excreted unchanged in the urine. Reviews of the limited available studies by the Institute of Medicine concluded that cacodylic acid was likely not a carcinogen, teratogen, or a mutagen in man.] http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png

Agent OrangeUpdate on Cacodylic AcidCacodylic acid, The Major Component of Agent Blue

Part of the Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Book Series (volume 58)
Agent Orange — Jul 26, 2022

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Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Copyright
© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022
ISBN
978-3-031-08186-6
Pages
61 –81
DOI
10.1007/978-3-031-08187-3_5
Publisher site
See Chapter on Publisher Site

Abstract

[Air Force Logistic Command records for the Vietnam War noted that approximately 29,235 drums, containing approximately 6,080,880 L of Agent Blue, were shipped to Vietnam from December 1965 through December 1970. Approximately 50% of the liquid Agent Blue was sprayed by RANCH HAND aircraft in crop denial operations, especially against rice production, and for opening areas in savannahs, and mangrove forests. The remaining 50% were sprayed by the Army Chemical Corps for vegetation control, especially grasses, outside of base perimeters, and in limited crop denial programs. Agent Blue was an organic arsenical as cacodylic acid and sodium cacodylate, and once in contract with the soil it would have been bound within the soil matrix making it immobile, but slowly converting to volatile alkyl arsine and released into the atmosphere. In rice fields sprayed with Agent Blue, anaerobic conditions would have dominated and the conversion of the cacodylic acid and sodium cacodylate to alkyl arsine would have been even faster, 61% in 24 weeks. The phytotoxic properties of cacodylic acid were quickly inactivated on contact with moist soils. The toxicity of the active ingredients, the acid and sodium salt of cacodylic acid, were considered low (LD50 of 2600 mg/kg in the rat). In man, these active ingredients were rapidly excreted unchanged in the urine. Reviews of the limited available studies by the Institute of Medicine concluded that cacodylic acid was likely not a carcinogen, teratogen, or a mutagen in man.]

Published: Jul 26, 2022

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