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Double trouble: co-infections of chytrid fungi will severely impact widely distributed newts

Double trouble: co-infections of chytrid fungi will severely impact widely distributed newts Invasive fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal) are causing mortality events and population declines in amphibians around the world. B. salamandrivorans has not been found in the Americas but is predicted to emerge there given the presence of competent hosts, high volume import pathways, and lack of effective biosecurity measures. Eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) are the most abundant and widespread salamanders in United States with known susceptibility to both fungi. However, little is known about how their current Bd infections will interact with novel Bsal infections. Here, we ran a series of experiments in which we exposed newts to each fungal pathogen, combinations of both fungi, and three Bd isolates to: (1) determine if natural exposure to Bd provides protection against Bsal, (2) quantify the effect of co-infections on newt survival, and (3) examine if resistance responses are general to multiple lineages. We found that hosts exposed under simultaneous co-infections experienced 78% mortality over a period of 18 weeks, which was driven by the persistence of Bsal because newts cleared Bd infection within a month. In a subsequent experiment, resistant newts also resolved infections of three Bd genotypes, suggesting that the defense mechanism is effective across all lineages. However, re-exposing these individuals with a tenfold higher dose (106 Bd zoospores) increased their susceptibility to Bsal, and 93% of them sustained Bsal infections. Our findings will improve the estimates of decline risk for a species that could serve as a potential superspreader of Bsal in North America. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Biological Invasions Springer Journals

Double trouble: co-infections of chytrid fungi will severely impact widely distributed newts

Biological Invasions , Volume 21 (6) – Apr 1, 2019

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References (58)

Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 by Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Subject
Life Sciences; Ecology; Freshwater & Marine Ecology; Plant Sciences; Developmental Biology
ISSN
1387-3547
eISSN
1573-1464
DOI
10.1007/s10530-019-01973-3
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Invasive fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal) are causing mortality events and population declines in amphibians around the world. B. salamandrivorans has not been found in the Americas but is predicted to emerge there given the presence of competent hosts, high volume import pathways, and lack of effective biosecurity measures. Eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) are the most abundant and widespread salamanders in United States with known susceptibility to both fungi. However, little is known about how their current Bd infections will interact with novel Bsal infections. Here, we ran a series of experiments in which we exposed newts to each fungal pathogen, combinations of both fungi, and three Bd isolates to: (1) determine if natural exposure to Bd provides protection against Bsal, (2) quantify the effect of co-infections on newt survival, and (3) examine if resistance responses are general to multiple lineages. We found that hosts exposed under simultaneous co-infections experienced 78% mortality over a period of 18 weeks, which was driven by the persistence of Bsal because newts cleared Bd infection within a month. In a subsequent experiment, resistant newts also resolved infections of three Bd genotypes, suggesting that the defense mechanism is effective across all lineages. However, re-exposing these individuals with a tenfold higher dose (106 Bd zoospores) increased their susceptibility to Bsal, and 93% of them sustained Bsal infections. Our findings will improve the estimates of decline risk for a species that could serve as a potential superspreader of Bsal in North America.

Journal

Biological InvasionsSpringer Journals

Published: Apr 1, 2019

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