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This article introduces introduces a new prefabricated and assembled steel structure system and its key construction technologies for repeated switching scenes in existing stadiums. This steel structure system follows the DfD design method, minimizing the volume of each group of structural member units and separating the connection interfaces between members. In order to improve the construction and assembly efficiency of all the structural components, this study establishes an assembly-oriented BIM model data system by adding customized attributes in the family library in Autodesk REVIT. By associating model attributes with on-site monitoring data of the construction process, this research realizes real-time acquisition and display of construction data of all components during the whole life cycle. At the same time, aiming at the requirements of high-precision positioning and digital dynamic monitoring in future on-site construction, this research proposes an innovative construction positioning monitoring method which combines motion capture system with traditional construction monitoring technology. By correcting the positioning data of motion capture system with traditional construction monitoring data, real-time dynamic monitoring of several monitoring points in a 12*15 m large site is realized and the measurement error is controlled within ±1 mm. This study takes the construction project of “ice-water conversion” from the main swimming pool of the National Swim- ming Center in the Summer Olympic Games to the curling venue of the Winter Olympic Games as an example to show the important role of relevant technology to improve the construction efficiency in the construction application for the renovation of existing Olympic venues. Keywords Building renovation, Design for Disassembly, Life-cycle monitoring, BIM integration, Motion capture system caused by construction activities, the wastes from the 1 Introduction subsequent life cycle of building maintenance, renova- Construction activities continue to consume resources tion, and demolition have also become the content that and affect the natural environment in the process of its needs to be focused on in current construction activities. entire life cycle. In addition to the direct use of mate- According to statistics, in the current world production rials in construction and the resource consumption and consumption process, up to 40% of the waste gen- eration comes from construction behavior (Layke et al., Layke et al., 2016), and worldwide, 20%–35% of negative *Correspondence: Xiang Wang environmental factors come from these wastes (Layke firstname.lastname@example.org et al., Layke et al., 2016). With China’s current attention College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tongji University, Shanghai, to environmental issues and the proposed goals of car- China China Construction First Group Corporation Limited, Beijing, China bon peaking and carbon neutrality, how to establish a College of Architecture, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China new adaptive building system from the perspective of the © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/. Wang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 2 of 14 whole life cycle of construction, operation, maintenance EPA, 2015). Therefore, how to further effectively consider and demolition, and how to explore more efficient and the full life cycle utilization and renewal operations of environmentally friendly green construction technology buildings has also become an urgent issue in the develop- methods have also become a crucial issue that the cur- ment of current prefabricated buildings. rent construction industry needs to pay attention to. In related fields, great efforts and attempts have been taken in the architecture field since World War II. With 1.1 Desig n for Disassembly (DfD): the reconstruction the exploration of prefabricated building technology in of prefabricated buildings the early twentieth century, the Dutch architect N. John The design and construction technology innovation of Habraken proposed the open building movement in the prefabricated buildings is an important frontier direc- 1960s, which advocated flexible construction of indi - tion in the construction sector, and it has always been an vidual participation; Architects represented by Japa- important strategic direction to promote standardized nese architect Kenzo Tange also put forward the theory components, construction details, as well as sustainable of metabolism in the 1960s, and tried them in a large and intelligent construction technology. In the stages of number of practical projects such as the Nakagin Cap- building production and construction, prefabricated tech- sule Tower by Kurokawa Kisho (Fig. 1) (Lin, Lin, 2011). nology advocates the standardization and modulariza- The related ideas first mentioned that buildings should tion of building components, shifting the manufacturing produce different responses to the changes of usage and process of building components from the construction social needs, and can be reapplied through replacement, site to the prefabricated factory, and at the same time thus laying the foundation for the ideas of deconstruct- transforming the on-site construction process into a com- able building design and the related construction tech- ponent-based assembly process. The assembly process nology. After 2000, prefabricated buildings and green greatly reduces the complexity of the on-site operations building ideas began to be integrated. In the American and the negative impact on the environment, optimizes Energy and Environmental Design Evaluation System the waste of resources in the component manufacturing (LEED-NC), “reducing the (environmental) impact of the process, and improves the safety rate and productivity in whole life cycle of buildings” is listed as a separate scoring the manufacturing and installation of building compo- standard, and it stipulates “reuse of historic buildings”, nents. However, from a broader life-cycle perspective, the “regeneration of abandoned buildings” and “Building operation, maintenance and demolition phases of a build- Material Recycling” as bonus options for scoring. ing after completion also have a greater impact on the Under the current background of “carbon peaking and environment. For example, in the United States in 2014, carbon neutrality”, the adaptability of prefabricated struc- the annual total of construction and demolition waste tures and the high efficiency, energy saving and environ - reached 484 million tons, of which more than 90% were mental protection of their construction process have also debris generated during the demolition process (EPA, become the focus of a large number of recent researches. Fig. 1 Modular and detachable architectural design and construction method proposed in Nakagin Capsule Tower W ang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 3 of 14 For the adaptability of buildings, researchers in the field of and installation of components and materials during con- building industrialization have carried out a lot of prac- struction, aluminium was selected as the main material tices, among which the DfD theory is currently more con- of the building and the house was divided into approxi- cerned and recognized by the most researchers (Guy and mately 2000 parts to be mounted using screws and bolts, Ciarimboli, Guy & Ciarimboli, 2003; Rios et al., Rios et al., which would permit easy disassembly (Mrkonjic, Mrkon- 2015). DfD (Design for Disassembly) refers to an architec- jic, 2007). At the same time, due to the complexity of tural design idea based on sustainability and adaptabil- component and their connections in such buildings, they ity, emphasizing that at the beginning of the design, the are often more dependent on the complex work of on-site building assembly system is realized through the stand- workers. Some studies have also mentioned the impor- ardized design, disassembly design and detail design of tance of the size of related components and the simplic- the components and their parts. This enables the final ity of construction details in related design researches building system to be disassembled and installed repeat- (Abuzied et al., Abuzied et al., 2020). However, in most edly. Therefore, the disassembly of the whole life cycle is current practices based on relevant theories, there are considered in the original design stage, which makes the often more problems and difficulties in the repeated dis - components easy to disassemble, maximizes recycling, assembly and assembly of buildings, especially during and effectively improves its green performance (Fig. 2 ). the construction process, such as, how to reduce the loss In the current DfD design theory, the main research and damage of building components during the trans- issues focus on basic design topics such as the hierarchi- portation process, how to realize the in-situ positioning cal order, interface division, and assembly detail design of and assembly of different components, how to efficiently prefabricated building components. However, attention stack and organize construction components on site, and to the construction technology during the actual disman- how to control the installation accuracy and overall accu- tling and reconstruction process is still relatively rare. racy of construction and installation. Therefore, system - Currently, some studies have mentioned the requirement atic researches of structure systems and their building of considering human resource cost for the disassembly techniques are still required to be made. and demolition process of the basic building components (Navarro-Rubio et al., Navarro-Rubio et al., 2019a). For 1.2 Design for Reuse: post occupancy of Olympic venues example, in the Dymaxion house of Buckminster Fuller, Most buildings, especially public buildings, will face the in order to consider the convenience of transportation need of building renewal due to the transformation of Fig. 2 Application of Circular Economy Principles in Construction Industry (Arup, 2021) Wang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 4 of 14 functional requirements and the development of technol- continue to host, international competitions as well. ogy during their entire life cycle. Among them, the Olym- However, since it is rare that the same city will host both pic venues are a typical type of buildings with the need summer and winter Olympic Games and that Olympic for reuse and functional change. Over the last couple of Games returns to a previous host city, frequent and mul- years our knowledge about the impact of mega-events tifunctional uses of Olympic Venues is only a remote pos- such as the Olympic Games on cities and their inhabit- sibility (Essex and Chalkley, Essex & Chalkley, 1998). ants has increased exponentially. Currently, two of the In 2022, the Beijing Winter Olympics has brought most important topics in geographical researches about unique attempts and opportunities for the post-Games the Olympic Games are the mega-event’s influence on the sustainable reuse of Olympic venues. Since Beijing host city’s urban development and, to a lesser extent, how hosted the Summer Olympics in 2008, in the organiza- the projects realized for the Olympic Games (primarily tion and preparation of the Winter Olympics, the guiding sports facilities, but also the Olympic Village, transporta- ideology of “green Olympics” and sustainable develop- tion routes and other infrastructure) can be reused after ment of existing Olympic venues, as well as sustainable the Games (Alberts, Alberts, 2011). reuse of existing Olympic venues and facilities in order Post occupancy and management of Olympic Venues to undertake new winter sports events, has also become is nowadays a common requirements for all the previous a characteristic innovation direction of Beijing Win- Olympic host cities. In general, the IOC (International ter Olympics strategy in the field of construction. The Olympic Committee) stresses that expensive projects “Water Cube”, which was used as the venue for the Olym- should have valuable uses after the Olympics are over to pic diving and swimming competitions in 2008, also fol- ensure “that the Olympic stamp on a city continues to be lowed this opportunity and became the first Olympic a positive one in the years after the event has been held” venue in the world to achieve “water-ice conversion” (Cashman, Cashman, 2009). Nevertheless, the event- and switch between swimming venues and indoor curl- driven property of the Olympic Venues and the technical ing venues repeatedly. The water-ice conversion scheme and safety specifications demanded by the International of “Ice Cube” is completed with a discrete steel structure Federations of the various sports mean that costs for support system that can be disassembled and assembled such facilities will be high even without any unnecessary repeatedly as well as a mobile ice-making system. It is dif- extravagances. ferent from the way of traditional curling competition Reusing facilities built for the Olympic Games have venues, which are built on a permanent concrete floor, been paid attention to and reported since 1968 for Gre- so it also brings the challenges of designing process and noble (Kukawka, Kukawka, 1999). The problem was the construction methods for the prefabricated build- found that the renovation of special facilities frequently ing system (Fig. 3). For example, curling has very strict required ever more specialized facilities due to the requirements on the ice surface, light and air environ- changes in the sports itself (Essex and Chalkley, Essex & ment. Therefore, the ice surface after construction must Chalkley, 2004). At the same time, attempts have been be extremely flat. Within the range of nearly 50*25 m made to add new training facilities and research cent- in the entire venue, the error of any two points can- ers based on the existing Olympic Venues. Although this not exceed 6 mm (±3 mm), and there must be a strong ensured the facilities’ continued use, it has also been crit- enough structure as a support to avoid structural vibra- icized that huge investments were only made for a small tion during the process. At the same time, since the group of elite athletes. In response to such problems, venue is being used as a post-Olympic public swimming Olympic Game in Calgary and Salt Lake City took the activity and training venue, the time period for the trans- reuse of Olympic Venues into consideration from the first formation and reconstruction of the structure also has a planning of the Olympic areas. Recreation areas and pub- great impact on the daily operation of the entire venue. lic activities was designed for the Olympic Venues and Based on these foundations, how to systematically design the post-Games uses already stated in the bid document the structural system, component system, construction of buildings such as the Salt Lake City Ice Arena and the details and construction technology from the perspective Winter Sports Park to become multipurpose recreational of “reconstruction” has also become an important issue facilities. Since Vancouver’s Winter Olympic Games in of this research. 2010, sustainable post-Games uses of the Olympic build- ings was planned in the concept, which included the use 2 Digital design of the demount‑able structure of many existing facilities “upgraded to meet or exceed system International Federation standards.” (Alberts, Alberts, 2.1 DfD‑based design of the prefabricated structure 2011) All of the buildings would be returned to their pre- The disassembly of prefabricated buildings is the reverse Games uses as commercial sporting facilities and would operation of the connection of components. Therefore, a W ang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 5 of 14 mechanical connection methods such as hinged, pinned, threaded, and profiled connections can often provide strong interface independence and simple disassembly. Especially in the composite structural system composed of a vari- ety of materials, such as the load-bearing structure of the steel structure overlying the concrete slab, due to the need for the integrity of the structure, on-site concrete pouring is often used in the traditional structural design and con- struction, where there is a strong dependence on construc- tion methods such as reinforcement connection. In the new detachable system, the components become smaller and discrete due to the need for repeated disassembly, and their structural hierarchy is more complex. Multiple direc- tions constrain the displacement degrees of freedom of the final structure, resulting in a stable and flexible disas - sembly of the final structure (Eckelman et al., Eckelman et al., 2018) (Fig. 4). Compared with traditional construc- tion methods, studies have shown that in similar buildings, the environmental impact of demount-able buildings will be greatly reduced, and it will also bring significant advan - tages in terms of economy. When the prefabricated com- Fig. 3 Application of a DfD-based fast-built steel structure system in ponents are not removable, the on-site construction cost is the ice-to-water conversion system for the Olympic curling Hall in the about 10–30% higher than that of the traditional method, Chinese National Aquatics Centre(“Water-Cube”) and when the removable components are used and reused, the construction cost of the prefabricated building is about 5–20% lower than that of the traditional building (Navarro- large number of studies related to demount-able design Rubio et al., Navarro-Rubio et al., 2019b). mainly focus on the design of the connection method of The ice-water conversion structure system in this building components. Different from the demolition pro - study is mainly used in the main swimming pool of the cess of traditional buildings, the dismantling of reusable “Water Cube” of the National Aquatics Center, Beijing. prefabricated buildings largely depends on the integrity Under the functional requirements of curling sports of and independence of the component connection inter- the winter Olympics, a temporary support structure is face. In the traditional building structure system and designed by filling the swimming pool to provide a tem - construction detail design, a large number of on-site wet porary support structure for the upper platform, which operations and chemical connection methods also make should be stable and flat enough for the final finishing of it difficult to present a relatively clear component level the ice surface. Therefore, the overall structure adopts a and interface in the building, and construction often prefabricated steel structure system with a total length leads to an integrated structural system. Therefore, it is of 56.7 m and a width of 26.7 m. In the related struc- difficult to carry out secondary dismantling and rebuild - tural disassembly design, considering that it is difficult ing. Even in the field of steel structures with a high degree to operate large-scale construction and transportation of prefabrication, traditional construction details and machinery on the construction site, the final structure is their reliance on such as welding, embedded reinforce- further discretized so that the weight of each structural ment often bring about integration results that are diffi - component is controlled within 500 kg. The structural cult to disassemble. frame is made of prefabricated steel columns and beams, In response to the problem of independent splitting, the covered with lightweight prefabricated concrete slabs detachable design system aims at rapid installation and for ice making. The structure is based on the beam-slab- non-destructive disassembly, and clearly puts forward the column structural system, which is divided into struc- importance of dry operation details and construction tech- tural columns, main beams, secondary beams, concrete nology in the design of structural systems. In addition to the slabs and other main components. Taking into account building envelope components, the applicability of the dry the stability of the structure and the quality constraints operation connection technology in the structural compo- after the dismantling of the components, the basic struc- nents is also an important direction of the current detach- tural grid size is controlled to be 2 m*3 m, and there are able system design. In related types of construction details, 6 concrete slabs corresponding to the upper part of each Wang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 6 of 14 Fig. 4 Disassembly-Oriented Assembled Bolted Construction Node System span (Fig. 5). Among the structural components, high- and determines the difficulty of the construction pro - frequency welded thin-walled H-beams with thickened cess. At the same time, the sequence of disassembly and flange plates are used to reduce the possibility of defor - assembly of components also play an important role in mation during disassembly and transportation. The con - the overall workflow control and manual deployment struction details between the column, the main beam and of the whole construction process. Therefor, the overall the secondary beam is connected by M16 high-strength structure is further split into layers according to the sys- bolts. In order to facilitate the adjustment during the tem of columns, beams and plates, and the two layers of installation process, long straight holes with an adjust- auxiliary leveling devices for leveling, which determines ment range of about 2 cm are used for the bolts. The sur - the final disassembly sequence of the system. face layer is made of lightweight 1 m*1 m*0.1 m concrete First of all, the detachable structure is located on the prefabricated panels, whose strength grade is L40. spherical hinge bearing with a non-slip design that can Due to the particularity of the ice surface conditions be adjusted in height. Before the on-site assembly, the in the curling competition venue and the limitation of original swimming pool needs to be waterproofed and ice making conditions, the bottom of all steel columns the cleaning work should be completed. After that, the is provided with a coarse adjustment device that can spherical hinge support should be positioned and placed, be adjusted in height through bolts. The connection and adjust the thread height to a uniform height; then, all between the top secondary beam and the bottom of the steel columns can be placed on the spherical hinge sup- concrete slab adopts a fine adjustment device that can port with the support from the worker for stability. Then, also be adjusted in height, and it is also fix connected the horizontal and the oblique rod connection are con- to the secondary beam and the concrete slab by bolts nected onto each column span to form a self-stabilizing (Fig. 5). Finally, the structure can be disassembled into structure. The whole process can be completed by only more than 2000 components, including a total of 1568 2–3 workers in a short time; after that, the workers can prefabricated panels and 140 t steel structure. Compared place the main beam and the secondary beam on the to traditional prefabricated structure systems, all the top interface of the column in turn. The top of the col - components are designed to be transportable by human umn and the main beam were connected bolt structures labor and all the connection details are designed to be at four corners, and the secondary beam were also con- convenient for diassembly as well as on-site calibration. nected by the bolts to the main beams at the holes on the flange plate. At the same time, in order to ensure the 2.2 Desig n of the demount‑able construction detail tolerance of installation, the preset holes on each struc- and the disassembly sequence tural beam are long slotted holes, allowing a construc- In the design of the structure system, the demount-able tion error of 1-2 cm. After the assembly of the columns detail design between the detachable components plays a and the main beams, the whole structure is roughly lev- decisive role in the repeated installation of the structure eled and then the secondary beams as well as the fine W ang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 7 of 14 Fig. 5 Structural level dismantling design of the ice-water conversion system leveling device are assembled onto the structure. Finally, powerful construction data analysis platform is needed. the 1 m*1 m precast concrete slabs are mounted on the The structural design and the component design con - secondary beam according to the serial number and fixed sider both the possibilities to maintain the integrity of at the the four corners of the concrete slab (Fig. 6). With the structure and to make the component small enough the fine leveling device, the whole surface of the concrete for transportation. And this also makes the final discrete slabs can be further leveled within centimeters. building structure composed of thousands of different structural elements. 3 On‑site assembly monitoring and analysis To solve the problem, the BIM platform is introduced 3.1 BIM ‑based construction control system from the designing stage of the structure system. Firstly, The project had a high complexity of requirement that a component definition system and its related building includes the status monitoring of each building com- information model is built in REVIT. For each compo- ponent in the full construction cycle, the real-time nent, a customized family is created with several special dynamic monitoring of the high information of hundreds defined fields to trace its condition, such as the trans - of plates, the high accurate calibration standard of lev- portation stages, assembly stages as well as the leveling eling (±3 mm). Therefore, a complex framework and a information. The tracing and monitoring of various Fig. 6 Assembly Sequence of the prefabricated Structure Wang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 8 of 14 Fig. 7 On-site monitoring system and its workflow components relies mainly on the sensors such as the cameras in a MoCap system must be synchronized to RFID that gives the status information whether a compo- measure the dynamic motions of different individual nent is on-site or still in transportation, the motion cap- markers. To achieve the synchronization, a server gets ture system that provide the height of each top plate as all the real-time 2D information of the cameras and send well as the QR Code information that the builders edited them to the computer. The software in the computer at any time (Fig. 7). To integrate every different kind of combines the 2D coordinates together and record all the information together, Autodesk REVIT is selected as history data for each marker. the main software platform. With the use of the “Rhino- To get the accurate 3D coordinate of the target mark- inside-REVIT” technique, a computational data analysis ers, the real coordinates of the cameras should be cal- approach could be achieved by using Grasshopper Plat- culated. Because there are often many cameras in one form inside REVIT (Fig. 8). By developing corresponding system, one simple static coordinate information of the interfaces in the system, one can get all the information at markers is not enough. Therefore, a calibration procedure the same time and interact within the same data system. must be applied. The calibration uses a great amount of data, which is usually sampled by performing with a 3.2 M otion capture system wand, as shown in Fig. 9. Because the wand provides the Motion Capture (MoCap) System is innovative applied basic shape relationship and distances of the markers as a in this research to provide a precise positioning of mul- priori and the wand can be easily waved, the calibration tiple slabs at the same time. A MoCap System comprises method based on the wand can simplify the process and markers, cameras, a server, and a computer as the data improve the calibration accuracy. analyzer and exchanger. The infrared-reflective markers The calibration process can be divided into two pro - are attached to the target objects and the cameras can cesses: static and dynamic. Firstly, static calibration is triangulate the location of the markers and record them performed to establish the absolute spatial reference of with a high sampling rate. To obtain the 3D coordinates the coordinate system. In this process, the T-shape of the of a marker, at least 2 cameras must simultaneously track wand will be used. As shown in Fig. 9, the wand is placed the positions of the target marker in the 2D images. At around the target, and the markers appended on the the same time, because the accuracy is decreased if the wand form two perpendicular axes (x , y ). These axes w w marker image in any camera(s) overlap or are closely are used to define a 3D space coordinated system (x , y , w w positioned, a series of evenly distributed cameras are z ). The relationship between the 2D image coordinates the common configuration in a MoCap system. All the W ang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 9 of 14 Fig. 8 Customized BIM Families Information for the Structure System in AutoDesk REVIT of the cameras (u, v) and the target 3D model coordinates waving the wand to record multiple coordinates data (x , y , z ) is defined by the algorithm as follows: and to calculate the relative positions and directions of w w w x r r r T x w 11 12 13 x w u f 0 p 1 000 x x y r r r T y w 21 22 23 y w (1.1) v 0 f p 0 10 0 = [C][I|0][R|T ] = y y z r r r T z w 31 32 33 z w 1 00 1 0 0 10 1 000 1 1 where [C] is the perspective projection matrix from the the camera. The accuracy of the reconstruction of the camera space to the image space, which is also an intrin- 3D coordinates is dependent on various factors such sic matrix that consists of the focal length f and f and as the focal length, the lens distortion coefficients and x y the principal point coordinates p and p . [R| T] is the the camera’s resolution. During the calibration, direct x y extrinsic matrix that shows the transformation from the linear transformation and nonlinear transformation wand space to the camera space. It contains the rotation algorithms are frequently employed (Hinrichs and matrix R and the translation vector T. McLean, Hinrichs & McLean, 1995). Three coordinate systems are used in the process to transform the 2D image coordinates to the 3D model 3.3 On‑site monitoring of the components’ assembly coordinates. As shown in Fig. 1.4, the 2D image coordi- information nates (h , v ) of the jth marker from the ith camera are In the construction process, the collection of informa- j j i the result of the perspective projection of the camera tion on structural components first comes from vari - coordinates. The camera coordinates ( x , y , z ) are the ous sensing devices on site. In this research, the on-site c c c i 3D coordinates of the ith camera corresponding to the information perception includes two systems: the com- marker. The wand coordinates ( x , y , z ) are the virtual ponent entry and exit information perception based on wj wj wj 3D coordinates of the jth marker relative to the location the Internet of Things and the real-time monitoring of of the wand. component coordinates based on MoCap technology. The camera matrix [C] and the extrinsic matrix For the entry and exit status of components, the radio [R| T] are optimized and finally determined via a frequency identification chip (RfID) with the function dynamic calibration procedure, which is performed by of positioning tags is used. The entry and exit status Wang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 10 of 14 Fig. 9 Principles of the calibration of a motion capture system of components is monitored, and the status changes be maintained in real time through the software data of each components are recorded into the overall BIM interface of the BIM system. model in real time through the relevant data monitoring software interface. In the on-site construction organiza- 3.4 On‑site positioning monitoring and leveling tion, the entry and exit data is recorded and controlled calibration in form of component stacking, and the components are Due to the characteristics of the motion capture system stacked from top to bottom according to the order of in this research, when the MoCap cameras are unilateral on-site construction, so as to enable the in-situ installa- arranged, the system positioning error increases as the dis- tion of each structural components. At the same time, a tance between the target marker and the camera increases. material stacking area is set up on site. Once the mate- At the same time, due to the method of the establish- rial stacking enters the site stacking area, the chip will ment of the coordinate system, the coordinate data col- be automatically detected, the record will also be trans- lected directly from the motion capture system often has mitted and stored in the system, and the attribute sta- a certain degree of twist and tilt, so it is difficult to directly tus of the corresponding component will be changed reflect the real elevation data of the target. According to accordingly. the relevant research, the motion capture technology and In addition to the state changes of components the traditional mapping technology are together used that can be directly perceived through the IoT tech- in this study for collaborative fitting and optimization nology, there is still a lot of installation information (Nagymáté et al., Nagymáté et al., 2018) to further ensure that needs to be manually performed and reported the accuracy of the relevant data. Firstly, after the installa- for maintenance, such as whether each component is tion of the structural columns, the level data of the center installed, whether there is damage and so on. For all point of each column top will be manually recorded once. such component information, a unified management Then, after the motion capture system is deployed, the through an online construction information database center point level information of each column top is once is used in this research. The database records all con- again recorded by the MoCap system. Therefore, the two struction states of each component in a unique label, groups of data form a set of basic positioning grids. By and saves the time stamp of each record’s changes. using the error fitting algorithm of iterative closest point In order to facilitate the convenience of on-site con- optimization (ICP), the on-site BIM system performs a struction operations, the maintenance and editing global fitting on the coordinate data of the two sets of grid functions of relevant data are completed in the form points, so as to eliminated the possible tolerance from the of WeChat (a mobile APP) application. On each com- MoCap system. With such algorithm, multiple tests are ponent on the site, the relevant QR code stickers are done in a indoor 12*8 m site with 8 camera to test the pre- arranged through the corresponding component name cision of predicted MoCap positioning. In the tests, both and position number. After each construction step is the cases of rectangular and linear arrangement of cameras completed, the on-site construction manager can scan are tested. Multiple points are selected and measured both the code in batches to check and change the installa- by the MoCap System as tested values and by an API Laser tion information of the components (Fig. 10). Other Tracer as ground truth. The results show that the errors in data related to RfID chip and the MoCap system can the Z direction are controlled within ±1 mm between the two systems (Fig. 11-12). W ang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 11 of 14 Fig. 10 QR code of each component and the WeChat interface for maintaining data Fig. 11 Error between the MoCap system (rectangular arrangement) and Laser Tracer measurement At the same time, the global positioning point data feedback frequency and precision. In order to assist the composed of total station also facilitates the stitch- related construction leveling process, a leveling sup- ing and integration of the overall elevation data after porting system is developed as a plugin software in the motion capture camera is moved to the next area, the BIM system and it can directly show the leveling thus ensuring the real-time monitoring and analysis information of each marker point during the on-site of multi-points in the whole working area with a high construction. By placing markers on different concrete Wang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 12 of 14 Fig. 12 Error between the MoCap system (linear arrangement) and Laser Tracer measurement slab tops, the elevation information of relevant mark- first place any markers in the center of the top of any ing points can be obtained in real time. By judging the structural components within the detection range, and X and Y coordinates of the positioning information, if simultaneously obtain the overall installation leveling the ball is located at the center of the top, the Z coor- information through the assistance system, and make dinate of the ball is considered to be the overall eleva- a preliminary design for the adjustment plan (Fig. 13). tion of the roof of the structure. Otherwise, it will be In the assistant system, the leveling tolerance of each considered as a free target and with multiple data such structural slab is displayed in real time. And by setting as X, Y, Z coordinates to be shown in the software. the range of the error threshold, the concrete slab that Therefore, during on-site construction, the workers can exceeds the threshold will be filtered and presented as Fig. 13 On-site leveling calibration with the MoCap system W ang et al. Architectural Intelligence (2023) 2:4 Page 13 of 14 the field data is displayed by the attribute information of the corresponding component in the BIM software, and finally reflected the change of the construction status by different colors. Therefore, on-site construction manager can monitor the data remotely and analyze the develop- ment of the whole process. Finally, the relevant data will be outputted as the construction log of the EXCEL file, so that the whole process of a complete disassembly and construction process can be traced and recorded. In terms of the final construction leveling effect verifi - cation, in the real construction project, a test area where Fig. 14 Real-time analysis and feedback of the leveling support most of the leveling process is performed by the motion system capture system and a comparison area which only under- goes preliminary manual leveling are set up. A compara- tive measuring with laser tracker is carried out to test the red in real time (Fig. 14). For the fine-tuning process of precision of the method. The results show that the area the platform, it is often necessary to adjust the fine-tun - that has undergone elevation monitoring and leveling ing device located at the intersection point, and this can assistance basically meets the project’s requirements for also be done by moving the trackers to the intersection global and local elevation errors, and the overall accuracy point. At this time, the coordinates in the leveling sup- is controlled between − 1.5 mm-1.5 mm (Fig. 15). Com- port system will change to free point mode and the rep- pared with this area, the elevation error of the unmoni- resentative error will presented synchronously through tored area is larger, and a large number of measuring the digital twin model on the large screen on site, so points in the area are lower than the global expected ele- that the workers can quickly control the refined adjust - vation. The error is in the range of − 2 to − 10 mm, which ment of the entire structure. is often related to the measurement data and experience of the workers. Therefore, the effectiveness and efficiency 4 Result and discussion of the elevation monitoring method proposed in this Based on the above-mentioned on-site monitoring sys- research can be demonstrated. tem with various sensing technology, the information As conclusion, this research presents and discusses the collection and analysis of all components for all key pro- possibility to apply a BIM-based system for the intelligent cesses could be realized. During the on-site construc- and sustainable construction of some possible DfD-based tion, information integration through the BIM model structure systems. It has also presented an innovative system and the digital twin model can effectively reflect way for the Olympic Venues to be renovated for the new the advantages and disadvantages of on-site construction functions and usages. The system framework and key organization and management, and provide the necessary technologies are shown with an integrated BIM work- basis for organizational optimization for the repeated flow, with corresponding IoT techniques, motion capture disassembly and assembly operations of the entire struc- technique and the software interface in the Grasshop- ture. At the same time, the record of time-consuming per plugin. As demonstrator, such construction method information of different construction processes can is applied in the China National Aquatics Centre for the also help construction planners to find key defects in rapid and repeatable scene transition from the 2008 sum- the entire structural design, so as to evaluate the system mer swimming venue to the 2022 winter curling venue, and optimize related designs. 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Acknowledgements Nagymáté, G., Tuchband, T., & Kiss, R. M. (2018). A novel validation and calibra- This article is extended and revised from a conference paper (named: Level- tion method for motion capture systems based on micro-triangulation. J ling Calibration and Intelligent Real-time Monitoring of the Assembly Process of Biomech, 74, 16–22. of a DfD-based Prefabricated Structure using a Motion Capture System) in the Navarro-Rubio, J., Pineda, P., & García-Martínez, A. (2019a). Sustainability, DigitalFUTURES-CDRF 2022: The 4th Conference on Computational Design prefabrication and building optimization under different durability and Robotic Fabrication (CDRF 2022). The author would also like to thank and re-using scenarios: Potential of dry precast structural connections. Ming LU, Mingyang LI, Boqiang YAO, Tingshu CHE, Deyuan SUN for their help Sustainable Cities and Society, 44, 614–628. during the whole research. Navarro-Rubio, J., Pineda, P., & García-Martínez, A. (2019b). 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Architectural Intelligence – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 21, 2023
Keywords: Building renovation; Design for Disassembly; Life-cycle monitoring; BIM integration; Motion capture system
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