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Recent advances in carbon capture storage and utilisation technologies: a review

Recent advances in carbon capture storage and utilisation technologies: a review Human activities have led to a massive increase in CO emissions as a primary greenhouse gas that is contributing to climate change with higher than 1 C global warming than that of the pre-industrial level. We evaluate the three major technologies that are utilised for carbon capture: pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxyfuel combustion. We review the advances in carbon capture, storage and utilisation. We compare carbon uptake technologies with techniques of carbon dioxide sepa- ration. Monoethanolamine is the most common carbon sorbent; yet it requires a high regeneration energy of 3.5 GJ per tonne of CO . Alternatively, recent advances in sorbent technology reveal novel solvents such as a modulated amine blend with lower regeneration energy of 2.17 GJ per tonne of CO . Graphene-type materials show CO adsorption capacity of 2 2 0.07 mol/g, which is 10 times higher than that of specific types of activated carbon, zeolites and metal–organic frameworks. CO geosequestration provides an efficient and long-term strategy for storing the captured CO in geological formations 2 2 with a global storage capacity factor at a Gt-scale within operational timescales. Regarding the utilisation route, currently, the gross global utilisation of CO is lower than 200 million tonnes per year, which is roughly negligible compared with the extent of global anthropogenic CO emissions, which is higher than 32,000 million tonnes per year. Herein, we review different CO utilisation methods such as direct routes, i.e. beverage carbonation, food packaging and oil recovery, chemical industries and fuels. Moreover, we investigated additional CO utilisation for base-load power generation, seasonal energy storage, and district cooling and cryogenic direct air CO capture using geothermal energy. Through bibliometric mapping, we identified the research gap in the literature within this field which requires future investigations, for instance, designing new and stable ionic liquids, pore size and selectivity of metal–organic frameworks and enhancing the adsorption capacity of novel solvents. Moreover, areas such as techno-economic evaluation of novel solvents, process design and dynamic simula- tion require further effort as well as research and development before pilot- and commercial-scale trials. Keywords Carbon capture and storage · CCUS · CO capture · Geothermal energy · Energy storage · Pre-combustion · Oxyfuel combustion · Post-combustion · Hydrogen · Ionic liquids · Metal-organic frameworks · Geosequestration Abbreviations BECCS Bioenergy carbon capture and storage * Ahmed I. Osman CMSMs Carbon molecular sieve membranes aosmanahmed01@qub.ac.uk CAMD Computer-aided molecular design School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen’s IGCC Integrated gasification combined cycle University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland, UK IAST lar ge ideal adsorption solution theory Geothermal Energy and Geofluids, Department of Earth TRL Technology readiness level Sciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland MOFs Metal–organic frameworks Geology Department, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt MAB Modulated amine blend Materials Science Laboratory, Radiation Physics Department, CH Methane National Center for Radiation Research and Technology Mt Million tons (NCRRT), Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt NOx Nitrogen oxide gas emissions Egyptian propylene and polypropylene company (EPPC), CO Carbon dioxide Port-Said, Egypt K CO Potassium carbonate 2 3 Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Science, WGSR Water–gas shift reaction Port-Said University, Port-Said, Egypt Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 798 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 CPGs CO -Plume geothermal system combustion routes. Here, the first two routes represent MIEC Mixed ionic–electronic conducting membrane 96.6% of the literature work until 2018, while oxy-reform- ing technology showed only 3.4% of the total publications (Omoregbe et al. 2020). The utilisation of liquid solvents Introduction in pre- and post-combustion technologies is usually done in an absorber packed-bed in a counter-current directions, Renewable energy technologies have been dramatically where the fuel gas (pre-combustion) or the exhausted flue progressing over the past decade. The levelised cost of gas (post-combustion) is pumped from the bottom of the electricity for wind and solar energy technologies has been reactor to the top, while simultaneously, the flow of the reduced by 66 and 85%, respectively. This means that the chemical or physical solvent flows from top to bottom. levelised cost of energy for solar was approximately six Temperature or a pressure swing is then applied to release times higher only a decade ago (Lazard 2018). Despite this the majority of absorbed CO from the CO -rich physical 2 2 speed of maturity in renewable technologies, we still rely or chemical solvent, while the CO lean chemical or physi- on fossil-based fuels to generate the global energy demand. cal solvent is sent back to the absorber reactor. Finally, the The energy demand globally is expected to be nearly met captured CO is compressed and utilised in gas recovery, oil by from fossil-based fuel (coal, natural gas and oil), which recovery, agriculture, soda ash manufacturing, food industry constitutes 78% by 2040 (Cao et al. 2020). While waiting for and production of value-added chemicals and fuels or stored renewable energy technologies to fully mature enough and in geological reservoirs or saline aquifers (Ashkanani et al. replace fossil-based fuel, carbon capture storage and utilisa- 2020; Miranda-Barbosa et al. 2017; Tarkowski and Uliasz- tion of fossil-based emissions are crucial as a transition state Misiak 2019). (Zhang et al. 2016, 2020a). For instance, integrated gasifica- Globally, there are 22 demo projects for carbon capture tion combined cycle (IGCC) is a common approach coupled and storage based on power generation with the majority with carbon capture and storage in clean coal power plants. share of pre- and post-combustion projects, nearly equalling In a country such as India, transportation and electricity gen- 10 and 9, respectively. There are only three demo projects eration contribute to 45% of the country’s total greenhouse based on oxyfuel combustion projects (Vega et al. 2020). gas emissions (Ashkanani et al. 2020). In terms of countries that invest in carbon capture and stor- Furthermore, coal is considered the current and the future age, the USA is leading the world with seven projects, and fuel in India, where there are total reserves of approximately China comes second with five demo projects. For carbon 150 gigatons. Thus, the IGCC process along with carbon capture technologies to become economic feasible, having capture looks crucial. In terms of coal reserves, India comes adequate carbon pricing is crucial either in carbon tax or third globally after the USA and Russia as first and second carbon allowances. By 2019, carbon tax significantly varied (Ashkanani et al. 2020). Globally, coal is the largest energy from one country to another, with values ranging from a few source for electricity generation and the second-largest feed- dollars to one hundred $/tonne of CO . At the same time, stock source of primary energy (Wei et al. 2020). However, pricing for carbon allowances was approximately $35.4 per with the current rate of CO emissions globally and with a tonne of CO equivalent within the European Union Emis- 2 2 CO level in the atmosphere higher than 409 ppm, anthropo- sion Trading Scheme by July 2019 (Kárászová et al. 2020). genic activities have caused more than 1 C global warming This value of carbon allowance started at $5.17/tonne CO than that of the pre-industrial level, of which higher than equivalent in May 2017 and is expected to reach $47.25/ 0.3 C was due to coal-burning (Wei et al. 2020; Osman tonne CO equivalent by 2023 (Kárászová et al. 2020). Com- et al. 2020a). In 2015 the Paris agreement was developed paring the net present value of various types of power plants which aims to limit global warming to 2 C by 2100, while integrated with carbon capture technology, pulverised coal attempting to limit the increase to 1.5 C (Fawzy et al. 2020). was the cheaper option under low carbon prices. Simulta- Thus, investigating carbon capture technologies is of great neously, the IGCC power plants were desirable only when importance as it is considered the only solution to miti- the carbon price was high (Huang et al. 2020; Bohm et al. gate CO emissions from industrial-scale power generation 2007). Thus, the carbon pricing is considered as one of the plants, which could lower those emissions by 50% by 2050 most effective ways to encourage the deployment of carbon (Wei et al. 2020; Wienchol et al. 2020; International Energy capture and storage technologies. Agency 2008). It is worth noting that the cost of reducing This review offers the most up-to-date advancements CO emissions will dramatically increase by 140% if carbon in carbon capture, storage and utilisation technologies to capture and storage technologies are not considered (GCCSI help mitigate climate change. It outlines the advantages and 2017). disadvantages of each route with its readiness for commer- Three main technologies are being utilised in carbon cialisation to decarbonise the industrial sector. Moreover, capture: pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxyfuel the review suggests steps and future guidelines from gaps 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 799 in the literature using bibliometric analysis. Overall, this In the case of using steam reforming, the typical reformer critical review aims to benefit the academics working in the products are 43% H , 11% CO, 21% H O and 6% CO 2 2 2 decarbonisation field alongside the policies of carbon cap- (Osman et al. 2018a). When the partial oxidation and steam ture, storage and utilisation technologies and will focus on reforming are deployed in pre-combustion simultaneously, themes that face the development and potentially face the the process is called auto-thermal reforming, where the heat commercialisation of capture, storage and utilisation tech- released from the exothermic nature of the partial oxidation nologies and their future. can drive the endothermic steam reforming reaction. The syngas mixture is then cooled down and cleaned up from impurities such as hydrogen sulphide, hydrochloric acid, CO capture technologies mercury and carbonyl sulphide (Cao et al. 2020). The puri- fied syngas is then subjected to the water-gas shift reaction In carbon capture storage and utilisation, there are mainly (WGSR) by reacting the CO with steam ( H O) as shown three technologies that are being utilised: pre-combustion, in Eq.  (3), to increase the % CO and facilitate the CO 2 2 oxyfuel combustion and post-combustion technologies. separation in later stages along with the production of H fuel as decarbonised fuel, which only produces H O when Pre‑combustion combusted. −1 CO + H O → CO + H ΔH =−41 kJ mol (3) 2 2 2 In this decarbonisation route, traditional fuels (coal or natu- ral gas) are reacting with air or O and with or without steam Finally, CO is separated through various physical and to produce mainly synthesis gas, which is a mixture of car- chemical absorption processes for either storage or utilisa- bon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen ( H ), also known as fuel tion (Kumar et al. 2018; Li et al. 2019a). In the chemical gas or syngas as shown in Fig. 1. The main two processes industry, the pre-combustion approach is mature and has for producing syngas are shown in Eqs. (1) and (2) for par- been utilised for CO capture for nearly a century (higher tial oxidation and steam reforming reactions, respectively than 95 years). For power generation purposes, the H -rich (Jansen et al. 2015). fuel can be used in a Rankine + Brayton combine cycle n m plant. Although CO separation herein is much easier and −1 2 C H + O → nCO + H ΔH =− 36 kJ mol n m 2 2 C H requires lower energy than other techniques such as post- 2 2 (1) combustion, it still needs energy for reforming, air separa- n+m tion and improvements in the efficiency of energy recovery −1 C H + nH O → n CO + H ΔH = 206 kJ mol n m 2 2 CH within the process. Additionally, further purification stages (2) Fig. 1 Pre-combustion technology consists of an air separation unit gen can be used to fuel electric cars or to produce electricity through for oxygen separation (not mandatory). Then the fuel is reacting with a gas turbine, while the flue gas is sent to the heat recovery and steam air or O to produce mainly synthesis gas, which is then sent to the generation unit for electricity production. Finally, the CO is com- 2 2 shift reactor unit to produce hydrogen and CO . The produced hydro- pressed and dehydrated for transport and storage purposes 1 3 800 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 are required when oil or coal is utilised to eliminate impu- capacity, mechanically robust, fast sorption, selective and rities, ash and sulphur-containing compounds. In the first stable during multiple CO adsorption and regeneration generation of the integrated gasification combined cycle cycles. For instance, due to the deteriorating CO adsorp- (IGCC), the main cause for efficiency loss was the WGSR tion capacity at elevated temperatures, adsorbents such as step, which was responsible for 44% of the total efficiency zeolites, metal–organic frameworks and activated carbons loss. This was due to the energy required for steam genera- are not suitable. Various designed adsorbent systems have tion along with the heat released within the WGSR process been utilised, such as promoted calcium carbonate, hydro- as it is an equilibrium limited and exothermic process. talcite and others in that approach. For membrane reactors, On the other hand, CO produced through the pre-com- the palladium membrane or its alloy is the most commonly bustion process is characterised by high pressure. CO is used. However, palladium is prone to sulphur poisoning and then undergoing compression and liquefication for stor - deactivation even at a lower reaction temperature (Osman age or transportation purposes at low power requirements. et al. 2016), while the silica-based membrane is not, thus, Moreover, it promotes the production of H as a fuel that can superior in this perspective. be used in fuel cells (after further purification), transporta- Nevertheless, silica membranes are not stable at high tion or as a building block in the production of value-added temperatures and pressures. Dense polymeric membranes chemicals (Osman et al. 2020a). Another big benefit of the are cheap materials; however, they are thermally unstable pre-combustion route is the flexibility of the outputs where and not selective to hydrogen. In this perspective, the carbon H production or power generation can easily be switched molecular sieve membranes (CMSMs) showed good perfor- according to the demand. mance as they are resistant to sulphur poisoning and robust The separation of the H and CO mixture in the pre- materials. Recently, Cao et al. (2020) integrated both adsorp- 2 2 combustion route can be done using physical or chemical tive reactors and membrane reactors in multiple cycles for absorption techniques via syngas scrubbing using a liquid the pre-combustion route and showed good performance for solvent selective to carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide 750 hours of syngas exposure and a temperature of 250 C as acid compounds (Jansen et al. 2015). The main common and pressure of 25 bar, with CMSMs as adsorptive reactors. chemical solvent is amine-based, and its absorption capac- Overall, the pre-combustion technology is promising in ity is higher at lower partial pressure than that of physical carbon capture storage and utilisation, while there are many solvents that require higher partial pressure. On the other challenges to improving its overall efficiency. For instance, hand, the physical solvents’ loading relies on the partial the solvent regeneration temperature needs to be conducted pressure of the CO , according to Henry’s law. Generally, at a lower temperature than currently used to avoid any at low temperatures and high partial pressures, the physical reduction in the solvent. Thus, ionic liquids are being utilised solvents’ performance is high as those conditions provide to overcome this issue, as they are characterised with their better sorption capacity. Physical solvents suffer from draw - negligible volatility (Zhou et al. 2021; Krishnan et al. 2020; backs such as low CO –H selectivity, high solvent viscos- McDonald et al. 2014). On the other hand, selecting the 2 2 ity, thermal stability, corrosivity, toxicity and flammability appropriate ionic liquid is not an easy task due to the exist- (Ashkanani et al. 2020). Regarding low-temperature CO ence of possible structures from various anion and cation separation, many techniques are being deployed, such as combinations which requires trial and error to find the best cooling, compression, condensation, flashing along with separation performance (Lu et al. 2019). For that purpose, cryogenic distillation that is commercially used in the food computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) is recently being industry. However, it is mainly used for highly concentrated used to find out the best combinations to design ionic liquids CO streams (higher than 90%) and not adequate for dilute structurally. (Zhou et al. 2021) have investigated 10116 solu- CO streams. bility data along with 463 hydrogen solubility data from the The purity of the produced hydrogen in the pre-combus- literature of ionic liquids with modelling to find out the best tion approach is not a priority, while the CO separation is. ionic liquids for pre-combustion technology. They found out Thus, for high-purity H and CO , advancement in separation that the most promising ionic liquid solvents are hydroxyl 2 2 technologies is crucial. Adsorptive reactors and membrane (OH)-ammonium ( NH ) and hydroxyl-imidazolium ([Tf N ]) 3 2 reactors are promising where the integration of reaction and bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl) amide at 40 C and 30 bars separation occurs in a single unit to lower the energy require- according to industrial pre-combustion conditions. ment, as well as the formation of by-products, while increas- In theory, the pre-combustion route could offer a cheaper ing the overall efficiency of the process. In adsorptive reactor cost than that of post-combustion and oxyfuel combustion technology, a selective solid CO adsorbent is utilised to routes by 38–45 and 21–24%, respectively (Portillo et al. facilitate the removal of CO from the stream and hence, 2019). However, due to the retrofitting of current facilities, shift the equilibrium reaction towards H production. The this added costing and complexity to the set-up process have characteristics for those adsorbents are high CO adsorption limited its commercialisation. 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 801 oxygen-transport membranes in oxyfuel combustion could Oxyfuel combustion reach an economic saving in the range of 19–50%, compared to that of post-combustion technology (Carbo et al. 2009). In the oxyfuel combustion route, the carbon-based fuel is combusted in re-circulated flue gas and pure oxygen ( O ) There is recently a drastic increase in publications concerned with oxygen-transport membranes, where an average pub- stream, rather than air, hence limiting its commercialisation potential due to the high cost of O separation and produc- lications in 1985 were 30 publications compared to 200 in 2012 (Portillo et al. 2019). tion as shown in Fig. 2. However, the CO capture and sepa- ration are easy, and the oxyfuel combustion method is con- Interestingly, the utilisation of the chemical looping method can enhance the net power plant efficiency by 3% sidered as the most promising energy-efficient route among the main three methods (pre-, post- and oxyfuel), with a when employed in oxyfired along with IGCC and instead of the air separation unit. Furthermore, capital costing of the low-efficiency penalty of 4% compared with 8–12% for the post-combustion route (Wienchol et al. 2020). The reduction power plant and electricity costing will decrease by 10–18 and 7–12%, respectively (Wienchol et al. 2020; Cormos in the volume of exhausted flue gas and nitrogen gas emis- sions (NOx) along with the increasing boiler efficiency can 2020). One such advantage of using the oxyfuel combus- tion route is that it can be employed in current or new power be achieved by applying the oxyfuel combustion route in power systems. One big challenge in such a route is the sup- plants along with utilisation of various types of fuels such as municipal solid waste or lignocellulosic biomass. ply of pure oxygen as its separation is an energy-intensive and costly process in the air separation unit. For example, The integration between bioenergy and carbon capture and storage is called BioCCS or BECCS, leading to a nega- cryogenic distillation is the only proven technology for pro- ducing a large amount of O with high purity for large-scale tive carbon approach for climate change mitigation. It was reported that in oxyfuel combustion of lignocellulosic bio- utilisation (Chen et al. 2019). Thus, investigating new novel routes of air separation is quite important herein, such as mass, the accumulative emissions of CO of net electricity −1 production was − 0.27 kgCO MJel (Gładysz and Ziȩbik ion-transport and oxygen-transport membranes along with chemical looping methods (Shin and Kang 2018; Martinez 2016). While the integration of carbon capture along with municipal solid waste incineration has led to emissions of and Hesse 2016; Chen et al. 2018a; Shi et al. 2018). To −1 resolve the problem associated with the energy needed for − 0.70 kgCO ,eqkg of wet waste feedstock (Pour et al. 2018). This, in turn, showed that BECCS could be an effec- cryogenic air separation, oxygen-transport membranes were introduced, known as the mixed ionic–electronic conduct- tive way of achieving decarbonisation and the negative car- bon technology for climate change abatement along with ing membrane (MIEC) (Portillo et al. 2019; Kotowicz and Balicki 2014). Carbo et al. reported that the inclusion of oxyfuel combustion. Fig. 2 Oxyfuel combustion technology consists of an air separa- unit, followed by the cooler and condenser unit to remove water and tion unit for oxygen separation (mandatory). Then the carbon-based then to the sulphur removal unit before sending it again to the cooler fuel is combusted in the re-circulated flue gas and pure oxygen ( and condenser unit. Finally, the O ) CO is compressed and dehydrated 2 2 stream in a boiler. Then the flue gas is sent to the particle removal for transport and storage purposes 1 3 802 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 Interestingly, there are twenty BECCS projects globally such as 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and N-methyldietha- that include waste-to-energy, ethanol production, combus- nolamine and others (Karnwiboon et al. 2019; Ochedi et al. tion of biomass and co-firing, biomass gasification and 2020). The adsorption route is also used in post-combustion biogas plants (Pour et al. 2017; Bui et al. 2018c). Never- in the form of either temperature swing or pressure swing theless, still, there are challenges in the BECCS approach, adsorption processes along with calcium looping (Bui et al. such as the higher cost of biomass compared to fossil-based 2018b). Amine solutions are the most common solvents due fuel, such as coal along with high levelised cost of elec- to their high CO absorption capacity and good selectivity tricity and lower efficiency. When including air separation towards acidic gases (Rochelle 2009). Nevertheless, they and CO purification and compression units in the oxyfuel suffer from drawbacks such as the corrosivity of amines, combustion system, the cycle efficiency decreases by 9–13% high energy footprint during regeneration, degradation and points as those are energy-intensive units. Thus, to make hence, solvent loss and evaporation. Although the monoetha- the overall process attractive for commercialisation, process nolamine chemisorption, as mentioned, is the only commer- and heat integrations are inevitable herein. For instance, the cially available method, the capital along with the operat- utilisation of heat generated from the compressor cooling ing costing herein is expensive; thus, some projects based systems in the units, as mentioned above, along with the on that technology have been shut down (Schlissel 2018). steam cycle, showed that it is an effective method in this To decrease the capital costing associated with the post- case (Chen et al. 2019). Moreover, the pressurised oxyfuel combustion technology, membrane separation could be a combustion cycle showed better performance than that of suitable technology as it requires a low energy need, low the traditional atmospheric cycle and could increase the effi- carbon footprint, low operational cost and easy retrofitting ciency by 3% points (Hong et al. 2010). and scaling up with the current power plants (Vakharia et al. There is a growing global interest to prove the feasibility 2018). At the same time, there are many challenges associ- of the oxyfuel combustion technology with different dem- ated with membrane separation, such as water condensa- onstration projects and pilot-scale plants being deployed tion on the membrane, rapid diminution of selectivity and since the last decade; however, capacities are all lower than permeance after operation along with emissions (NOx and 100 MWth (Strömberg et al. 2009; Cook 2009). Wei et al. SOx) that pass through the membrane. Some membranes (2020) reported that the utilisation of biomass in oxyfuel also suffer from difficult temperature adjustment and fluctua- combustion using the supercritical CO cycle showed a tion in humidity that causes a drastic change in the transport reduction of − 3.7 megatonnes of CO per annum. Further- characteristics of the membrane (Pfister et al. 2017). more, BECCS technology will be more economically fea- For the adsorption route, metal–organic frameworks sible than fossil-based fuel if the carbon tax is higher than (MOFs) possess some interesting characteristics such as the $28.3 per tonne of CO . functionalised pore morphology and tailored structures that could work properly in CO carbon capture. MOFs materials Post‑combustion can exist in higher than 75,000 different structures, which help facilitate specific pore-structure materials for the car - The capture and separation of dilute CO in an oxidant envi- bon sequestration approach. Despite that, none of the MOFs ronment from the flue gas of a combustion system is called materials has been deployed at the industrial scale due to the post-combustion route (Zhang et al. 2020a, b). Before the intense energy required for regeneration and their rapid CO capture, the exhaust flue gas emissions go through structure instability (Qazvini and Telfer 2020). MOFs modi- denitric fi ation and desulphurisation along with dust removal fication could be done through the functionalisation with and cooling to prevent solvent degradation (Wu et al. 2020). polar groups or the loading of exposed metal sites within the Then the flue gas containing mainly CO , H O and N , is MOFs structure (Zhou et al. 2019; Ding et al. 2019; Jiang 2 2 2 then fed counter-currently to the absorber that contains the et al. 2019). Furthermore, computational screening model- solvent, as shown in Fig. 3. The scrubbed gas is then washed ling strategies are a powerful tool for finding optimum per - with water, followed by CO regeneration. Usually, the cap- forming materials among thousands of adsorbents, such as tured CO is then compressed into supercritical fluid and MOFs materials. Regarding the vacuum swing adsorption, then transported for storage in geological reservoirs or saline there is a common relationship between pellet porosity and aquifers. As the flow rate of CO is high, and its concen- pellet size for all materials at the optimal adsorbent perfor- tration is low in flue gas streams, along with its inherently mance (Farmahini et al. 2020). Furthermore, computational stable nature, an energy-intensive process is required for simulations could be used for designing new photo-reactive solvent regeneration. MOFs materials with high adsorption and desorption capaci- Monoethanolamine absorption is considered as the most ties. One major drawback of using adsorbents such as MOFs common and only commercialised method in the post-com- in carbon capture and storage is the energy-intensive nature bustion approach, while other absorbents are used as well, associated with the desorption process in the form of a large 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 803 Fig. 3 Post-combustion technology, where the hot flue gas is cooled while the CO -lean absorbent is sent back to the CO -absorber unit. 2 2 first and then sent to a CO -absorber unit that usually contains Finally, pure CO is compressed and dehydrated for transport in pipe- 2 2 monoethanolamine solvent as traditional sorbent. Then the CO -rich lines and storage purposes absorbent is sent to the CO -stripper unit to release the CO gas, 2 2 amount of pressure or temperature swing. Sunlight as an As mentioned earlier, chemisorption using amine-based external stimulus can facilitate the desorption process with solvents is a ready technology for retrofitting of current lower energy demand over photoresponsive MOFs materi- power plants. Based on that technology, pilot-scale power als such as diarylethene and azobenzene. Park et al. (2020), plants that have been implemented showed a CO absorp- with the aid of computational modelling, synthesised Mg- tion capacity of 80 tonnes per day (Vega et al. 2020). It is IRMOF-74-III (with azopyrdine attached to its unsaturated projected that the first integrated commercial carbon capture metal sites) material that showed a CO adsorption capacity and storage along with coal-fired power plants will be open 3 −1 of 89.6 cm g , that is the highest value within photorespon- by 2020–2025. Consequently, it will be utilised in the rest of sive MOFs reported in the literature. the carbon-intensive commercial-scale processes afterward. Although the pre-combustion technology offers higher Vega et al. (2020) compared traditional and novel technolo- efficiency than that of post-combustion technology, it is gies that are used in carbon capture and storage areas such more expensive. To reduce the cost associated with the pre- as post-combustion (traditional) and partial oxy-combustion combustion route, finding a superior absorption solvent is (novel). At the pilot-scale of the absorption route, novel crucial. Currently, post-combustion technology is the most along with blend solvents have been deployed to reduce mature and widely used route among the three main routes the energy footprint of the overall process before demon- of carbon capture and storage (Wienchol et al. 2020; Wang stration-scale trials. There are desirable properties in novel et al. 2011a). However, due to the dilution of CO comes solvents such as the high cyclic capacities, low production from the flue gas by N from the air, this reduces the par- cost, low corrosiveness, lower degradation and thus lower tial pressure of CO and increases the additional cost in the by-products along with the environmental impact. Over the electricity generation by approximately 60–70% for the new currently deployed pilot power plants, CO capacity was in infrastructure or 220–250% for the retrofitting (Portillo et al. the range of 0.1 to 1 tonne per day at a low capacity level, 2019). while the high capacity level showed values in the range of 10–80 tonnes per day (Vega et al. 2020). Shell company 1 3 804 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 TM pipelines along with transport ships are both mature (TRL9) developed a new CO capture method ( Shell Cansolv ) (Bui et al. 2018a). An important aspect during the early based on amine solvent technology (Stéphenne 2014). The stages of CCUS deployment is the development of appro- proposed technology is appropriate for various industries priate infrastructure, whereby the consolidation of multiple such as refineries, energy production, mining and chemical CO sources can provide an opportunity to take advantage industry processes. One such advantage of the CansolvTM of economies of scale in carbon capture. solvent is that the required regeneration energy for captur- ing one tonne of CO is in the range of 2.5–2.9 GJ per tonne of CO . Which is lower than the most common solvent, CO separation methods from flue gas monoethanolamine, as it showed regeneration energy of in combustion capture process 3.5 GJ per tonne of CO (Yun et al. 2020; Krishnamurthy 2017; James et al. 2019). Yun et al. investigated the techno- Numerous exceptional separation techniques are utilised economic feasibility of monoethanolamine as a traditional through the combustion method for the CO separation of absorption solvent and modulated amine blend (MAB) as a flue gas. These techniques are absorption, microalgae, mem- novel solvent in the carbon capture and storage technology. brane separation, adsorption and cryogenics (Fig. 4) (Osman The novel solvent has an advantage over the common sol- et al. 2020a; Li et al. 2012a). vent in the regeneration energy required for capturing one Absorption is an entrenched CO separation procedure tonne of CO , which was 2.17 GJ per tonne of CO , where 2 2 utilised in the synthetic and petroleum area up to date. monoethanolamine common solvent as mentioned earlier Absorption divides into two classifications: (1) physical, showed a value of 3.50 GJ per tonne of CO . The technoeco- where it relies on both temperature and pressure (absorp- nomic evaluation revealed that the cost for CO capture in tion happens at extraordinary pressures and low value of the Republic of Korea for monoethanolamine and Modulated temperatures), and (2) chemical, where absorption of CO Amine Blend solvents were 35.50 and 25.70 per tonnes of 2 relies upon neutralising acid-base response (Li et al. 2011c). CO , respectively (Yun et al. 2020). Remarkable of the favoured solvents are amines (for exam- The decarbonisation of the industrial sector will require ple, monoethanolamine), solutions of ammonia, Selexol, an assessment of the technology readiness level (TRL) of Rectisol and fluorinated solvents. The common current addi- different carbon capture, storage and utilisation techniques. tion is ionic liquids, which have shown incredible poten- Pre-combustion (natural gas processing) is the only capture tial in the absorption of CO and are likewise eco-friendly technology that has reached commercial scale (TRL9) (Bui 2 (Hasib-ur Rahman et al. 2010). et al. 2018a). Other capture technologies such as adsorption Microalgae bio fixation is a suitable procedure for the post-combustion, oxyfuel combustion (coal power plants), expulsion of CO of flue gases. This procedure demands pre-combustion (IGCC), membrane polymeric (natural gas), the utilisation of photosynthetic organisms (microalgae) for BECCS technology and direct air capture are in the demon- anthropogenic carbon capture and storage. Marine microal- stration scale (TRL7), while, in pilot-scale (TRL6), there gae have been proposed to be of more prominent potential are membrane polymeric (power plants), post-combustion because they have more distinguished carbon stabilisation (biphasic solvents), chemical looping combustion as well rates than land plants (Ben-Mansour et al. 2016). Microal- as calcium carbonate looping technologies. The remain- gal culturing is very costly; however, the technique creates ing capture technologies are ranging from laboratory-scale different composites of high worth that can be utilised for plant (TRL5) to proof of concept (TRL3) such as membrane income production. Microalgal photosynthesis further com- dense inorganic, oxyfuel combustion (gas turbine), ionic liq- mands to precipitation of calcium carbonate that can aid as uid post-combustion and low-temperature separation pre- an enduring sink for carbon (Nakamura and Senior 2005). combustion technologies. The separation based on membranes substances depends Regarding carbon storage technology, post-combus- on the variances in the interactions that occurred within tion (amine) in power plants, saline formations and CO gases and the materials of the membrane, that adjusted to -enhanced oil recovery are the only three technologies that permit several pieces to transfer discriminatory into the have reached commercial scale (TRL9) (Campbell 2014; membrane (Li et al. 2011c). Membranes have extraordinary Singh and Stéphenne 2014). While other technologies such merit in CO separation in pre-combustion capture and post- as CO -enhanced gas recovery and depleted oil and gas fields combustion CO separation. A broad category of diverse are still in the demonstration level (TRL7), other storage 2 membrane materials and methods are obtainable, some of technologies such as ocean storage and mineral storage are which now on the industrial field, and potentially related to in infant stages of formulation (TRL2) and proof of con- CO separation. The enforcement and related cost of technol- cept in laboratory tests (TRL3), respectively. On the other ogies based on membrane separation in extensive range CO hand, the transport technologies either onshore and offshore 2 capture principally rely totally on the membrane materials. 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 805 Fig. 4 Technologies and methods that are utilised regularly in CO separation. In post-combustion carbon capture technologies, there are many four routes: absorption, adsorption, membrane separation and microalgae Adsorptive separation is a hybrid separating technique which its recovery through pressure throttling. The destruction of operates on the principle of varieties in adsorption and des- CO in the physical fluid solution is ascribed to the Van orption properties of the component of the hybrid (Li et al. der Waals or interactivity electrostatic and is typical at tre- 2012a). The cryogenic CO separation procedure utilises mendous pressure and lowered value of temperature (Koyt- the basis of liquid case temperature and pressure variation soumpa et al. 2018; Theo et al. 2016). in component gases of flue gas. In this procedure, cooling The chemical or reactive absorbents comprise amines, and condensation of CO occur, then extracted from the flue blends, ionic liquids, aqueous solvents, ammonia, etc. The gases (Song et al. 2012). blends were then created to merge the positive features of diverse absorbents, and concurrently overcoming their nega- Absorbents and their performance tive features. The physical absorbents comprise solvents like Rectisol, Selexol, etc. To be applied as an absorbent, a sol- Absorption is a technique of transporting the matters from vent should possess the required features such as exceptional their vapour state to the fluid phase as long as that the vapour reactivity and absorptivity with CO , great stability below is dissolvable in that fluid (Abdeen et al. 2016). In the state elevated thermal and fixed chemical exposure, moderate of CO , the solubility of the gas is conditioned on the sol- vapour pressure, suitable renewability, low environmental vent’s physical and chemical features. Contingent upon the impact and cost-effective to apply (Sreedhar et al. 2017a, solvent utilised, the gas parts can be easily dissolved physi- b). Amines such as monoethanolamine and diethanolamine cally or are bound chemically to the solvent designated as were the newest and the most usually applied absorbents physical or chemical absorption or a hybrid of both pro- attributed to their economical cost, excellent reactivity and cesses (Koytsoumpa et al. 2018). If the particles of vaporous a remarkable rate of absorption. Nevertheless, they undergo of CO are combined with liquid particles with inadequate several obstacles like diminishing in the oxidative atmos- intermolecular forces, the absorption is defined as physical phere, intense renewal energy demand, restricted CO stor- absorption. ing potential and corrosive features by foaming and fouling Thermal energy demands through chemical solvents are components (van der Zwaan and Smekens 2009). extremely more necessary than those for physical solvents Gao et  al. (2016) have revealed a trial of a 30  wt% that are attributed to the energy augmented through the monoethanolamine-methanol compared to aqueous 30 wt% reboiler of the stripper column (Koytsoumpa et al. 2018; monoethanolamine solvent in a pilot-plant testbed, which Jansen et al. 2015). In the case of physical solvents, the involves the whole absorption and desorption. The out- loading limit of the solvents is in a practical direct reliance comes showed that monoethanolamine-methanol solvent within the partial pressure of the parts to be separated and possessed a more accelerated CO absorption rate and low- the solvent loading as indicated by Henry’s law, deducting ered regenerating energy-consuming compared to aqueous 1 3 806 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 monoethanolamine solvent (Fig. 5). Recovery heat duty of 1/3 compared in the case of using a 3 wt% of NH solution monoethanolamine-methanol solvent at best-operating sta- without any addition. tuses was lower than that of aqueous monoethanolamine 2-Amino-2-methyl-1propanol was further reviewed in the solvent which revealed that monoethanolamine-methanol literature due to its excellent absorption potential, special possessed a potential to displace aqueous monoethanolamine resistance for degradation and corrosion and more extraor- solvent in manufacturing CO pilot plant. dinary selectivity (Sreedhar et al. 2017a; Kim et al. 2013). Cyclic amine piperazine was applied as a promoter attrib- The blend of 2-amino-2-methyl-1propanol and piperazine is uted to its prompt production of carbamates with carbon beneficial where it managed to lessen in regeneration energy dioxide. Ma et al. (2016) have studied the influences of dif- with a 20% and reducing in the rate of circulation absorbent ferent additives of piperazine and Ni(II) ( were utilised as an by (45%), away from a notable increment in thermal and absorbent in the bubbling reactor) on CO absorption perfor- oxidative decay resistances (Sreedhar et al. 2017a). Khan mance and ammonia escape rate. Also, they compared the et al. (2016) have investigated reviews a post-combustion efficiency of the mixed additive in the extraction technique procedure of capture of CO of flue gas by utilising aque- with that of pure ammonia solution (Fig. 6). The obtained ous amine blend of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and performance for the absorption of CO was higher by 72% piperazine. The specific rate of absorption for the blends −6 −6 at the addition of 2  wt% NH solution with piperazine ranged between 14.6 × 10 and 26.8 × 10 kmol/m s . The (25 mmol/L) and Ni(II) (50 mmol/L), as compared to that measured highest rate of CO absorbed was (99.63%) at the performed by 3 wt% NH solution without any addition. Fur- greatest content of piperazine (10 wt%) in the blend. The thermore, the loss in of the NH amount was approximately most chief CO loading potential was (0.978) to the greatest 3 2 content of piperazine. The regeneration performance was Fig. 5 a Regeneration heat duty for monoethanolamine (MEA) and monoethanolamine solvent. Adapted with permission from Gao et al. monoethanolamine-methanol (MEA-methanol) solvent, b regen- (2016), Copyright 2020, Elsevier eration heat duty for monoethanolamine-methanol solvent c for 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 807 Fig. 6 Using Ni(II) and pipera- zine to decrease NH escape during CO capture by a NH 2 3 solution. This can be utilised in post-combustion technology detected within the range of 90.93–98.93% and the found in diethylenetriamine, securing great CO capacity (Wang best performance was (98.93%) at using the greatest content et al. 2020a). Wang et al. (2020a) have found that the sul- of 2-amino-2-methyl-1propanol (28 wt%). pholane enhanced the rate of CO absorption via diethylene- Diethylenetriamine possesses three amino groups (two triamine–pentamethyldiethylenetriamine–sulpholane solvent principal and one secondary). In contrast to monoethan- (1.3 times) compared to that diethylenetriamine–pentame- olamine, diethylenetriamine displayed more special reac- thyldiethylenetriamine solvent. Figure 7 demonstrates the tivity (Salvi et al. 2014), lower heat of reaction although chemical structures and carbon atom label of the species in with sufficient CO absorbing potential (Kim et al. 2014), the diethylenetriamine–pentamethyldiethylenetriamine–sul- more elevated rate of mass transference (Fu et al. 2012) pholane biphasic solvent. The CO was captured over dieth- and smaller heat capacity for regeneration (Zhang et  al. ylenetriamine corresponding to the zwitterionic mechanism 2014). Sulpholane behaves like a physical additive within and provided carbamate to the solvent. If more CO was the chemical absorption system, attributed to its extraordi- absorbed in the solvent, the quantities of liberating diethyl- nary stability and special resistance towards corrosion. The enetriamine and pentamethyldiethylenetriamine at the solu- diethylenetriamine–pentamethyldiethylenetriamine mixed- tion reduced, and a higher amount of diethylenetriamine amine solvent was affirmed as a biphasic solvent. The pen- and pentamethyldiethylenetriamine have owned a proton. tamethyldiethylenetriamine duties as the proton acceptor, i.e. Contrasted with untreated pentamethyldiethylenetriamine extracted the zwitterion and improved the CO absorption and sulpholane, the formed diethylenetriamine–carbamate, Fig. 7 The chemical structures and carbon atom label of the diethylenetriamine–pentamethyldiethylenetriamine–sulpholane biphasic solvent. Adapted with permission from Wang et al. (2020a), Copyright 2020, Elsevier 1 3 808 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 protonated diethylenetriamine and pentamethyldiethylenetri- losses and extraordinary resistance for decomposition. To amine, bicarbonate was further hydrophilic and possessed counterpoise the lowering rate of mass transfer, promoters, large polarity, causing to a more durable ability to merge biological enzymes, organics and alkaline amino acids were with water than untreated pentamethyldiethylenetriamine stated to be utilised (Endo et al. 2011; Russo et al. 2013). and sulpholane. Wang et  al. (2019) have synthesised spherical pellets Hence, throughout CO absorption within the solvent, the of K CO comprising varying amounts of Al O for CO 2 2 3 2 3 2 uniform solution was split to hydrophilic and hydrophobic capture (Fig.  9). The activated alumina promoted sorb- phases. Also, it is denoted that the hydrophobic sulpholane ent pellets arranged with 50 wt% of K CO hold the most 2 3 and untreated pentamethyldiethylenetriamine were dispersed chief CO adsorption potential (0.0023 mol/g). Besides, the off the higher layer, whereas the hydrophilic parts were urea additive (15 wt%) can also improve CO separation dispersed off the below layer due to the density variation. (∼ 0.0031 mol CO ∕g ) of the pellets filled with 50 wt% of Therefore, the hydrophobic sulpholane developed the hydro- K CO . The enriched CO capture is attributed to the nota- 2 3 2 philic–hydrophobic division within the CO stored solution, bly improved sorbent pellets’ porosity as a sequence of which improves the phase division, as presented in Fig. 8. urea decay. Furthermore, the urea sorbent pellets keep the The influence of the addition of enzyme carbonic anhy - exceptional compressive strength (18.96 MPa) and excel- drase was examined on monoethanolamine, methyldiethan- lent resistance towards corrosion (retain about 99.41% of its olamine, 2-amino-2-methyl-1propanol and potassium car- original weight after 4000 rotations). bonate ( K CO ) (Gladis et al. 2017). The K CO was tried 2 3 2 3 as an absorbent due to its economic value, the moderate value of enthalpy demands, lowering toxicity, small solvent Fig. 8 The suggested phase division mechanism in dieth- ylenetriamine–pentamethyldi- ethylenetriamine–sulpholane biphasic solvent. This represents the single phase along with biphasic (hydropholic and hydrophobic) Fig. 9 The synthesis process of K CO pellets sorbents. Adapted with permission from Wang et al. (2019), Copyright 2020, Elsevier 2 3 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 809 Activated carbon materials Over the ages, the porous car- Adsorption bon adsorbents have emerged as proper substances for CO uptake ascribed to the physical adsorption of CO on their The concept of adsorption is interpreted as the emerging adhesion between atoms, ions or molecules, whether in a surface, signifies the energy that demands the regeneration process was declined. Besides, the excellent CO adsorption liquid or gaseous or solid state, and the surface. The ions, atoms or particles that adhere to create a film on the sub- will be performed ascribed to their porous feature. Also, these materials can be ec ffi iently qualified to combine excep- stance’s surface in which they are bound and are termed as an adsorbate, while the substance on which they appended tional surface features and necessary beneficial groups that can assist in enhancing the resulting interaction between the is named adsorbent. Adsorption is diverse from absorption due to, in absorption, the absorbate (fluid) is dissolved via adsorbent substances and CO which are crucial for pro- viding an extraordinary CO adsorption potential (Li et al. an absorbent, whether solid or liquid. Adsorption forms on the outside surface, while absorption entails the whole 2019b; Singh et al. 2019). The activated carbons were fabri- cated of carbonaceous substances through pyrolysis at high material volume. Sorption is correlated to the couple man- ners, while desorption is considered as counter-reaction or temperatures and special pressure in the activation furnace (Kosheleva et al. 2019). The resulting from this process is reversed the adsorption process (Ben-Mansour et al. 2016; Abd et al. 2020). extraordinary surface area and heterogeneous pore structure. Besides, an inert gas (nitrogen or argon) was applied in the Adsorption may begin physically; this requires ineffective Van der Waals forces (physisorption). Likewise, it might carbonisation step to eliminate any volatile parts to fabri- cate enriched carbon specimens. After that, the fabricated happen chemically, which demands covalent bonding (chem- isorption), and it may happen attributed to the electrostatic specimen was activated in the existence of the oxidising agent (oxygen, steam or carbon dioxide) at a wide range of attraction. The most prominent chemical adsorption and absorption systems, in CO capture techniques, include the elevated temperatures (Mahapatra et al. 2012). The activation stage among the carbonaceous substances interaction within chemicals that leads to the creation of molecular structures based on CO , following which recov- and the oxidising agents is an endothermic reaction, as explained in the following: ery of the uptake CO is achieved over an adequate rise in temperature via heat treatment. The regeneration method 3 −1 C + CO → 2CO, ΔH =+173 × 10 J mol (4) spends the greatest of the potential demand in CO capture. So, there is a necessity to promote energetic substances and −1 methods for CO uptake that can considerably lessen opera- C + H O → CO + H , ΔH =+132 × 10 J mol (5) 2 2 tion expenditure via the decline in expenditure of regenera- The carbon dioxide was preferably utilised as an activa- tion (Ben-Mansour et al. 2016). tion agent than steam ascribing to its capacity to produce The physical adsorbents which used in CO adsorption particles that have tight micropores nature that satisfies the whether carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous substances, characteristics of molecules of carbon dioxide, while steam as shown in Table 1, demands lowering value energy in the is beneficial to compose particles with mesopores feature contrasting to that required in the case of using the chemi- (González et al. 2009; Román et al. 2008). cal adsorbents. This can be explained that in the physical The influence of nitrogen incorporating with the activated adsorbents, not new bonds are created between the carbon carbon was estimated to behave that the carbon dioxide dioxide and the surface of the used adsorbent; hence, this uptake performance is managed via porosity character and ultimately results in reducing the energy demanded regen- nitrogen ratio. Recently, He et al. (2021) have synthesised eration process (Abd et al. 2020). activated carbons via carbonisation and potassium hydrox- ide KOH activation employing rice husk as a raw material. Carbonaceous materials adsorbents The studied samples show remarkably surface area about 2 -1 −2 3 −1 ≈ 1496 m g , and micropore volume of 44.7 × 10 cm g . Carbonaceous materials typically were composited of car- Also, compared with the biochar to KOH as (1:5) ratio sam- bon and additional linked material that can consider unique ple, chitosan modified (biochar/KOH as 1:5) sample displays features like environmentally benign, extraordinary stability −1 remarkable CO uptake achievement 0.00583 mol g , which feature whether the thermal and chemical behaviour, excep- can be ascribed to the creation of the CO -philic active sites tional conduction mechanism (heat and electrical character- 2 on activated carbons surface via nitrogen species. The isos- istics) or surpassing strength. Besides, these materials have teric heat of CO uptake for chitosan modified (biochar/KOH numerous merits such as low-cost, effective, simple compo- 2 as 1:5) sample is extremely higher than that of the non-mod- sition from materials settled in nature, extraordinary distinct ified sample. The adsorption performance of the modified surface area, unique pore volume, and they are fine weight sample with chitosan can be suitably represented via the substances (Abd et al. 2020; Lozano-Castelló et al. 2002). 1 3 810 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 Freundlich model (Fig. 10). The large ideal adsorption solu- simple to restore, low regeneration temperature, an abun- tion theory (IAST) selectivity factor to the modified sample dance of raw materials and extraordinary thermal stability; with chitosan designates their unique adsorption selectivity mainly the uptake achievement improves if the applied pres- for CO over doping with nitrogen. sure of carbon dioxide rises. Activated carbons were prepared using two stages of Carbon nanotube materials Carbon nanotube materials activation steps from different types of waste and low-value are being examined in CO uptake area ascribed to their lignocellulosic biomass such as potato peel waste, barley attractive physical and chemical features such as great con- waste and miscanthus with surface areas ( m ∕g ) of 833 duction behaviour whether thermal or electrical, besides (Osman et al. 2019), 692 (Osman et al. 2020c) and 1368 the feasibility to develop their surfaces through attaching a (Osman et  al. 2020b), respectively. Singh et  al. (2019) chemical duty group, the exceptional yield for uptake storage have presented the manufacture of activated porous carbon potential. Further, the carbon nanotubes were achieved as a spheres for D-glucose carbonisation with a unique potassium proper adsorbent for CO uptake (Abuilaiwi et al. 2010; Sriv- acetate for carbon dioxide uptake. The obtained spheres astava and et al. 2003). Recently, Ghosh and Ramaprabhu shape activated porous carbon possesses a specific surface (2019) have studied transition metal (iron, cobalt and nickel) area of ≈ 1920 m ∕g , spherical shape for surface morphol- salt-encapsulated nitrogen-doped bamboo-like carbon nano- ogy and special pore volume of ≈ 0.9 cm ∕g . The activated tubes for CO uptake across a broad range of temperature porous carbon spheres display outstanding achievement, and and pressure (Fig. 12). The observed results reveal that the manifest carbon dioxide uptakes ranged between 0.00196 CO adsorption potential completely improves for all transi- to 0.00662 mol/g at different operating conditions. Further - tion metals covered the nitrogen-doped bamboo-like carbon more, the samples exhibit efficient carbon dioxide uptake nanotubes in both the pressure range. Further, the adsorption achieved 0.02008 mol/g at a temperature of 0 C and pres- potentials lessen with the increment in temperature to all the sure of 30 bar and achieved 0.01408 mol/g in the case the studied samples inferring that physical uptake is the prin- temperature raised to 25 C and pressure 30 bars (Fig. 11). cipal adsorption mechanism. Also, the sample used the Fe This achievement could be ascribed to the extremely as an encapsulating metal shows the most chief adsorption revealed porous construction of the studied materials. potential, whereas the sample used Ni as an encapsulating To sum up, the activated carbon adsorbents exhibit metal uptake was the least between the studied samples. Fur- remarkable merits such as low value for regeneration energy, thermore, the adsorption potentials of the Fe encapsulated Fig. 10 A Activated carbon prepared by varying biochar and KOH (b) chitosan@biochar/KOH(1:5) (CAC-5), (c) chitosan@biochar/ mass ratios, B large ideal adsorption solution theory (IAST) selectiv- KOH(1:6) (CAC-6) and (d) chitosan@ biochar/KOH (1:7) (CAC-7) ity factors of (a) biochar/KOH(1:5) (AC-5), (b) chitosan@ biochar/ estimated, and D CO adsorption isotherms of (a) biochar/KOH(1:5) KOH(1:5) (CAC-5), (c) chitosan@biochar/KOH(1:6) (CAC-6) and (AC-5) sample fitted to various isotherm models. Adapted with per - (d) chitosan@biochar/KOH(1:7) (CAC-7) at 298 K, 0–101 kPa, mission from He et al. (2021), Copyright 2020, Elsevier C isosteric heat of CO uptake on (a) biochar/KOH (1:5) (AC-5), 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 811 Fig. 11 A Activated porous carbon spheres fabricated from d-glucose, B CO adsorption isotherms of (a) activated porous carbon spheres sample, (b) activated porous carbon spheres—1 g of potassium acetate, (c) activated porous car- bon spheres—2g of potassium acetate, (d) activated porous carbon spheres—3g of potas- sium acetate, and (e) activated porous carbon spheres—4 g of potassium acetate at 0 C , and C CO adsorption isotherms of activated porous carbon spheres—3 g of potassium ◦ ◦ acetate at (a) 0 C , (b) 10 C and (c) 25 C . Adapted with permis- sion from Singh et al. (2019), Copyright 2020, Elsevier Fig. 12 Synthesis of transi- tion metal (iron, cobalt and nickel) salt-encapsulated nitrogen-doped bamboo-like carbon nanotubes. Adapted with permission from Ghosh and Ramaprabhu (2019), Copyright 2020, Elsevier the nitrogen-doped bamboo-like carbon nanotubes is reached carbon nanotubes@ 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was 0.0015  mol/g, whereas the Co covered the nitrogen-doped significantly impacted through the existence of vapour of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes uptakes 0.00115 mol/g, and water. Whereas raising the water amount, the uptake poten- the Ni coated the nitrogen-doped bamboo-like carbon nano- tial increased, which revealed that the uptake process is an tubes uptakes 0.00098 mol/g at 298 K which increment with exothermic reaction. Also, they observed that the uptake the reduction in temperature. potential declined with increasing temperature. The CO Also, Su et al. (2011) have prepared multiwalled carbon uptake potential reached 0.0026 mol/g at 293 K for multi- nanotubes were functionalised with a large weight load of walled carbon nanotubes@ 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to examine their performances The outcome implies that the solid multiwalled carbon in the CO uptake. The adsorption potential of multiwalled 1 3 812 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 nanotubes@ 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane are a promising Furthermore, with boosting the regeneration temperature, system for CO uptake. the CO recovery improved. 2 2 Jena et  al. (2019) have presented the synthesis of the Hsan et al. (2019) have confirmed chitosan grafted gra- nanohybrid (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane@zinc oxide@ phene oxide aerogels for CO uptake. The result of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The nanohybrid displays uptake potential of CO via the prepared grafted sample is mesoporous features possessing a unique surface area around 0.26 mmol/g at the pressure 1 bar, which is notably ( ∼ 27 m ∕g ) with a pore size of about 3.8 nm. The multi- greater in contrast to the uptake potential of pure chitosan walled carbon nanotubes surface that is adjusted with the sample. The outcomes affirm that this examination assists zinc oxide considerably enhances the CO uptake potential to decrease the cost-effectiveness of adsorbents where chi- (0.00132 mol/g). Furthermore, the increase in the ZnO den- tosan is abundant with a large amount in marine waste, and sity that is attached at the surface of multiwalled carbon therefore, this research intends to decrease the cost of CO nanotubes produced a tremendous affinity for the sake of uptake with suitable temperature and pressure. CO uptake at low pressure. Wang et al. (2020c) have combined unique hierarchical Graphene Graphene is a unique category of carbonaceous porous C acquired from poly(p-phenylenediamine) with substances with superior adsorption potential and lately got reduced graphene oxide for CO uptake technology. The extensive consideration (Abdel Maksoud et al. 2020). Vari- obtained reduced graphene oxide on poly(p-phenylenedi- ous investigations applied different strategies to qualify the amine) sample has a surface area around 860 m ∕g besides surface of graphene and introduce an extraordinary surface it displays superior CO uptake potential (0.00465 mol/g at area and acceptable pore volume (Kumar and Xavior 2014). a temperature of 298 K and pressure of 5 bar). Recently, Varghese et al. (2020) have progressed the gra- Meng and Park (2012) have declared that exfoliated phene oxide foam via the ultraviolet irradiation and inves- nanoplate of graphene was a highly proper adsorbent for tigated for CO uptake potential (Fig. 13). They found that CO uptake. The graphene nanoplate was synthesised from 2 2 CO recover potential increased as the ultraviolet exposure graphene oxide through a low-temperature approach. The increase. The CO recover potential reached about 90% for treated adsorbents performed an extraordinary CO removal 2 2 the graphene oxide foam exposed to 5 hours for ultraviolet of about 0.056 mol/g. Further, the remarkable adsorption irradiation and reached 91% as the exposed time for ultra- potential of graphene nanoplates was ascribed to the larger violet irradiation increased to ten hours in contrast to the inter-layer spacing and essential interior volume. The treated untreated graphene oxide foam were recovered 65% of CO . graphene nanoplates showed excellent capture uptake Fig. 13 a Synthetic stages of graphene oxide foam and ultraviolet selectivity of untreated graphene oxide foam (GOF) and treated gra- irradiation (UV-GOF), b CO adsorption isotherms of untreated gra- phene oxide foam via ultraviolet irradiation (UV-GOF) adsorbents phene oxide foam (GOF) and treated graphene oxide foam via ultra- at different pressures. Adapted with permission from Varghese et  al. violet irradiation (UV-GOF) adsorbents and c CO and N adsorption (2020), Copyright 2020, Elsevier 2 2 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 813 (248 wt%) at the operating conditions. Also, Hong et al. alkyl-functionalised- (3-Aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane @ (2013) have proposed progressing the basicity via improving zeolite displayed an uptake potential of about 0.00144 mol/g. the surface of graphite using 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane, Also, the studied absorbent sample displayed an extraordi- which can increase the CO removal. The outcomes stated nary uptake rate of about  0.7 min (after 90% of the whole that amine adjustment enhances the CO uptake; hence, the uptake potential in five min), and great stability after 20 increment of the basicity is the principal factor in advancing cycles. Furthermore, alkyl-functionalised- (3-Aminopropyl)- CO uptake which is agreeable with the adherent molecules triethoxysilane @ zeolite beta provided more chief uptake of amine that attached into the graphite surface. potential and stability than (3-Aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane @ zeolite at CO mixture uptake and CO flow regeneration. 2 2 Non‑carbonaceous dry adsorbents The affected metal ions incorporated in the zeolitic frame- work could likewise promote the CO uptake potentials. Zeolites Zeolites are another category of physical adsorbents Theoretical and practical examination of nontreated zeolite found in nature and can be manufactured in the investiga- (13X), lithium comprising zeolite (LiX) and polymetallic tion laboratory also it comprises a microporous crystalline zeolite (LiPdAgX) with Faujasite composition proved that framework compositing of aluminosilicates. Zeolites were the LiPdAgX system is a more efficient candidate not alone broadly applied in the carbon dioxide elimination in the con- for CO uptake but likewise for the selectivity of carbon cern of their molecular sieving influence, and the electro- dioxide and nitrogen as compared to 13X and LiX sam- static interactions occurred among carbon dioxide and alkali ples. Further, the LiPdAgX system presented  25% greater cations inside the zeolite frameworks (Singh et al. 2020). CO uptake and  180% more chief selectivity (Chen et al. The gas uptake features of the zeolites are notably reliant 2018b). upon the size, the density of charges and the distribution Notwithstanding the superior merits of affected metal of the commutable cations in the pored framework (Zhang qualified zeolite, the progress remarked in the isosteric heat et al. 2008). of uptake was not notably great. A related statement decided The replacement of aluminium ions with silicon ions that the thermal conductivity was improved through the produces a negative charge, that can be rebalanced via the incorporation of palladium and silver ions within the zeo- exchangeable cation into the construction of alkalies such lite framework could efficiently consume the heat of uptake, as sodium and potassium cations or alkaline earth metal appearing in the enrichment of the CO uptake potential at calcium and magnesium ions. Zeolites possess many tradi- post-combustion uptake conditions (Chen et al. 2017). tional kinds such as zeolite A, X and Y or natural zeolites Silica materials The materials based on silica are different such as chabazites, clintopiles, ferrierites and mordenite types of adsorbed non-carbonaceous substances for carbon (Dong et al. 1999). The zeolites 13X and 5A that possess dioxide uptake, which distinguish with an extraordinary reasonable pores size exhibit more proper for CO uptake surface area, pore size and excellent mechanical stability. than their rival that have pores with little sizes such as Silica is commonly applied as a support on which different Chabazite and Na-A in the low applied pressures (Song et al. substances are combined for CO elimination. Consequently, 2018). Mason et al. (2015) have reported that the zeolite most of the investigation goes on adsorbents based on silica 5A (Na0.28Ca0.36AlSiO4) including Linde Type A com- are principally induced in adjusting several natures of silica position and zeolite 13X(NaAlSi1.18O4.36) with Faujasite and utilising proper amines types since numerous investiga- composition comprising calcium and sodium cations exhib- tions noted the performance of silica materials-based adsor- ited amazing CO uptake potential 0.0031 mol/g at pressure bents for CO (Qin et al. 2014; Sanz-Pérez et al. 2018). 2 2 0.15 bar. Henao et al. (2020) have estimated the CO uptake per- Wang et al. (2020b) have prepared X zeolite via waste formance of a range of amine-functionalised silicas with rice hull ash and qualified via rare-earth metals (La and Ce) distinct pore compositions: SBA-15 (2D hexagonal), SBA- ion-exchange into the zeolite (Fig. 14). The NaX exhibited 11 (3D cubic) and disordered silica. The rice husk ash was −1 high CO uptake ( 0.0061 mol g ), whereas LaLiX shows utilised as a silica source. Afterwards, the silica is function- −1 0.0043 mol g for CO uptake. Also, the selectivity of car- alised by polyethyleneimine through wet impregnation. The bon dioxide and nitrogen for LaNaX was improved more CO uptake achievement is considered sensitive to the pore than three times. Further, the qualified zeolite samples lost characteristics of the silica supports and the impregnated about 3.5% of its original adsorption over 20 adsorption- value of polyethyleneimine. Between the developed sam- desorption cycles. ples, the polyethyleneimine on SBA-15 presented the most Liu et  al. (2020) have prepared (3-Aminopropyl)- superior amine employ and CO uptake potential (0.0616 g triethoxysilane and alkyl-functionalised- for every 1g of CO ) under moderate conditions. (3-Aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane and grafted it on zeo- Minju et al. (2017) have prepared sorbents and used three lite beta by a reflux reaction. The results showed that the amines (tetraethylenepentamine, tetraethylenepentamine 1 3 814 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 Fig. 14 Isotherms of uptake of CO via a NaX zeolite, b LaNaX zeolite, c CeNaX zeolite, d LaLiX zeolite and e CeLiX zeolite Adapted with permission from Wang et al. (2020b), Copyright 2020, Elsevier acrylonitrile and a hybrid of aminopropyltrimethoxysi- the modified samples revealed that the sorbents coupled lane coupled with the two amines individually) for the sur- with aminopropyltrimethoxysilane presented excellent face qualification intention. The CO uptake isotherms of uptake achievement than the other samples. The specimen, 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 815 including a hybrid of aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and area of CO uptake (Farha et al. 2012). The high surface tetraethylenepentamine, exhibited the most remarkable area to weight ratio in the metal–organic frameworks is a achievement between the other samples for a CO uptake remarkably critical agent for their CO uptake potential at 2 2 potential about of 0.00326  mol/g. The tetraethylene- low pressures, which allow them to perform more reliable pentamine acrylonitrile immobilised sorbents displayed CO uptake than other substances such as zeolites. Moreo- more accelerated kinetics at all applied temperatures. ver, the metal–organic frameworks had well utilised for the Lashaki and Sayari (2018) have examined the influ- selective uptake of CO by utilising the force of polarisable ence of the provider pore composition on the CO uptake for the CO molecule and quadrupole moment. 2 2 achievement of triamine-tethered SBA-15 silica. The SBA- Liu et al. (2012) have revealed that the metal–organic 15 silica compounds assistance by varying pore extents and frameworks possess numerous merits such as tunable three- pore volumes have been manufactured, accompanied via dimensional construction, exceptional values of the surface triamine functionalisation by grafting process. The results area, managed pore configurations and tunable porosity of of CO uptake estimations confirmed the certain influence surface characteristics. The cations and a broad array of of support large pore size and extraordinary pore capacity organic varieties can work to compose metal–organic frame- on uptake features, with the former signifying predominant. works. A couple of relevant principles pointers for choosing Also, the exceptional pore promotes showing the principal a suite metal–organic framework for CO uptake are that surface density about amine groups, and exceptional CO the porosity of the studied adsorbent must be proper with −1 elimination (∼ 0.0019 mol g ). Further, if the pore capacity the CO molecules’ radius. Moreover, the studied adsorbent declined to 47% of its original value of samples including should originate with polar, where the porosity of the sur- likewise pore sizes, the CO adsorption declined to 63% face possesses a more considerable CO storing ascribing to 2 2 and more delayed adsorption kinetics has been seen. that the carbon dioxide particles possess electric quadrupole Fayaz and Sayari (2017) have examined the hydrothermal moments. Consequently, examining these criteria in the form durability of triamine-grafted commercial-grade silica for of the metal–organic frameworks adsorbents can turn in a CO adsorption. The results of uptake showed extraordinary tremendous enhancement of the CO uptake. 2 2 CO uptake of 0.0019 mol/g at best grafting statuses (1.5 cm Li et al. (2011a) have divided the metal–organic frame- of amino silane per each gram of silica with a small vol- works into two classes; rigid and dynamic. The rigid type ume of water). Also, the increase of the duration exposure of metal–organic frameworks should possess tunable frame- time for steam lessened CO capture to 44% of its original works that produce more pores alike to zeolite substances. value. Nonetheless, the CO uptake decreased (21–4%) with In contrast, the dynamic kind possesses simple frameworks increasing the adsorption temperatures by 25 C. whose constructions alternate via outer influences alike Metal–organic frameworks materials Metal–organic pressure, temperature and the incorporated molecules. The frameworks materials are a unique type of adsorbed sub- numerous current procedures are to perform an untreated stances that have fabricated via the incorporation of metal metal position overlying the porous via the release of the cations combined with the coordination bonds (Li et  al. molecule of the coordinating solvent. 2012a, b). The metal-organic frameworks materials had The enrichment in the potential of metal–organic frame- classified as organic-inorganic mixtures, superporous works to uptake CO of the mix of the various gases is solid materials. Among the identified substances to time, reliant on the fundamental features of the metal–organic metal–organic frameworks possess an exceptional uptake frameworks. Further, the enrichment is depended on surface area for every gram. They hold an outstanding the characteristics of the gases or mix that uptake in the achievement for CO uptake, able to be flexible in whether metal–organic frameworks. These features comprise the structure and function behaviours. All these unique features construction and configuration of the metal–organic frame- made these materials broadly applied in the investigation works, fabrication and porous of metal–organic frameworks operations of CO capture. (Li et al. 2011a). Further, the metal–organic frameworks have appeared For example, Millward and Yaghi (2005), Furu- and first performed via Hoskins and Robson and further kawa et  al. (2010) and Li et  al. (1999) has developed recognised as coordination polymers (Abd et  al. 2020; four separated uptake materials of metal–organic frame- Düren 2007). Further to the unique structural chemistry of works, viz. metal–organic framework-180, metal–organic metal–organic frameworks, the composition agents such as framework-200, metal–organic framework-2015 and 3 2 extraordinary surface area around 7 × 10 m ∕g and excep- metal–organic framework-210. The metal–organic frame- tional pore volume (∼ 4.5 cm ∕g ) besides with more com- work-210 uptake material displayed outstanding porous of fortable control of the pore structure and surface and the the surface and extraordinary carbon dioxide uptake achieve- other concerning characteristics of metal–organic frame- ment. Metal–organic framework-210 uptake material pre- works, which offer a marked state for their utilisation in the sented carbon dioxide removal of about 2.87 g/g of CO . The 1 3 816 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 fabricated adsorbent possesses a density of the bulk around composite of a heterocyclic ligand that is propitious for 0.25 g per unit volume, the volume of porous of 3.6 cm per improving the CO uptake potential of the metal–organic gram and a more exceptional surface area of 6240 m per frameworks. Their pristine samples metal–organic frame- gram that is the greatest recorded for all crystalline sub- works, UiO-67 (the UiO-67 composites of a cubic frame- stances. Further, they observed that metal–organic frame- work of cationic Zr O (OH) nodes and biphenyl-4,4’- 6 4 4 work-2, metal–organic framework-505, Cu (BTC) (BTC dicarboxylate (BPDC) linkers), displayed depressed value 3 2 = 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylate), isoreticular metal–organic of CO uptake abilities than of those qualie fi d metal–organic frameworks-11, isoreticular metal–organic frameworks-3 frameworks holding heterocyclic ligands in their construc- and isoreticular metal–organic frameworks-6 are consid- tions (Fig. 15) (Hu et al. 2018). erably suitable adsorbents for carbon dioxide elimination. Additionally, they suggested metal–organic framework-177 Membranes separation that possesses a particularly exceptional surface area 3 2 −1 ( 4.5 × 10 m ∕g ) with CO removal of ∼ 0.014 mol g at 35 Among the substitutional technologies obtainable, mem- bars. brane technology deems the most suitable. Also, it offers The uptake achievement of metal–organic frameworks many merits in terms of energy lost and cost-effective. Mem- materials has further enhanced via using a suitable linker, brane technology categorised into three classes based on the which can alter the surface of adsorbents whether the porous technique operated such as non-dispersive contact through and exceptional surface area for carbon dioxide particles. microporous membranes, gas penetration into high-density Zheng et al. (2013) have developed an expanded 4,4-pad- membranes, and supported (Sreedhar et al. 2017b). dlewheel combined metal–organic framework-505 analog The non-dispersive contact via microporous membranes of a nanostructured rectangular diisophthalate associated that utilised concerning post-combustion carbon separation. by alkyne associations. The produced adsorbent exhibited It possesses merits additionally, traditional uptake columns, −1 extraordinary CO uptake of 0.024 mol g at room tempera- viz. elasticity in working conditions and classes of mem- ture and unique selectivity. brane contactors that could be applied (Xu and Hedin 2014). The CO uptake into remarkable metal–organic frame- The CO uptake by gas permeation results ascribed to selec- 2 2 works can improve via the incorporation of heterocyclic tivity and permeability of a high-density membrane towards ligands. It is obvious that these metal–organic frameworks an appropriate gas coupled in a mixture. The membrane Fig. 15 Geometries of a Zr core and b biphenyl-4, 40-dicarbo- nodes and biphenyl-4,4’-dicarboxylate (BPDC), g UiO(BPYDC), xylate (BPDC), c 2, 20-bipyridine-5, 50-dicarboxylate (BPYDC), h Zr-BTDC and i Zr-BFDC. (Zr: cyan; C: grey; O: red; N: blue; S: d 2, 20-bithiophene-5, 50-dicarboxylic (BTDC), e 2, 20-bifuran-5, yellow; H: white). Adapted with permission from Hu et  al. (2018), 50-dicarboxylic (BFDC)ligands. Crystal structure of f UiO-67 (the Copyright 2020, Elsevier UiO-67 composites of a cubic framework of cationic Zr O (OH) 6 4 4 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 817 has comprised of polymer in which the highest layer is a with filler ratio 40% improved the permeability of CO with particular high-density layer posted on a cost-effective non- 380%, and selectivity to 68% for CO ∕CH and CO ∕N 2 4 2 2 selective membrane (Lee et al. 2013). In supported liquid selectivity 26%. The outcomes confirmed the possibility membranes, the liquid has loaded into the porous of the of NOTT-300 as filler material for commixed matrix mem- surface. The principal–agent that manages the selectivity in branes endeavour at CO uptake ascribed to their extraordi- supported liquid membranes is the attraction towards CO . nary porosity and CO specific properties. 2 2 The backing does not influence the membrane permeabil- Also, Jiamjirangkul et  al. (2020) have studies on gas ity, restricts the stability of the complete construction (Krull sorption suggested that the immersion of chitosan nanofi- et al. 2008). bres in Cu-BTC (copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) Guo et al. (2020) have reported amino-decorated orga- metal–organic frameworks. The chitosan nanofibres on nosilica membranes that utilise bis(triethoxysilyl)acetylene (copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) metal–organic frame- (BTESA) and (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) raw works presented great specific surface area ( 104.6 m ∕g ) , materials. The studied membranes exhibit high CO per- with uptake potential of CO ∕N above 14 times possesses 2 2 2 meance in the range 2550 gas permeance unit to 3230 gas an exceptional potential for uptake and filtration of CO . permeance unit, while the selectivity for carbon dioxide and Magnesium oxide MgO is a suitable filler substance in nitrogen reached values ranged between 31 to 42 during the commixed matrix membranes ascribed to its exceptional carbon dioxide and nitrogen separation (Fig. 16). carbon dioxide uptake potential and cost-effective in con- The metal–organic frameworks have further examined trast with metal–organic frameworks. Lee et al. (2020) have for membrane synthesis. Usually, there are two techniques synthesised bimodal-porous, hollow magnesium oxide MgO to utilise metal–organic frameworks into a membrane: the spheres by spray pyrolysis and precipitation technique. establishment of metal–organic frameworks into a polymer The synthesised bimodal- magnesium oxide spheres were matrix to produce a combined form membrane and the depo- injected into poly (vinyl chloride)-graft-poly(oxyethylene sition of a thin film of the metal–organic framework on a methacrylate), forming commixed matrix membranes for spongy substrate (Prasetya et al. 2019). Habib et al. (2020) carbon dioxide to nitrogen separation. Furthermore, particu- have addressed simultaneous improvement in CO permea- lar interactions that occurred within the bimodal-magnesium bility and selectivity using unique metal–organic frameworks oxide and carbon dioxide surface molecules improved the [ Al (OH) (L) ] (L = biphenyl-3,3’,5,5’-tetracarboxylate) solubility carbon dioxide and accelerated the carbon dioxide 2 2 NOTT-300 and polyether-block-amide (Pebax®1657) as a molecules compared to those for the nitrogen molecules. polymer matrix. In contrast to the unadulterated polyether- The bifunctional bimodal-magnesium oxide improved the block-amide membrane, the incorporation of the framework carbon dioxide permeability within physical and chemical [ Al (OH) (L) ] (L = biphenyl-3,3’,5,5’-tetracarboxylate) mechanisms, together. The most suitable gas separation 2 2 Fig. 16 Structure of bis(triethoxysilyl)acetylene (BTESA) and (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) raw materials and the produced materials. Adapted with permis- sion from Guo et al. (2020), Copyright 2020, Elsevier 1 3 818 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 achievement was achieved in the commixed matrix mem- Absorption‑microalgae branes with bimodal-magnesium oxide fillers (10  wt%), which confirmed a carbon dioxide permeability of 179.2 Microalgae CO fixation possesses the benefit of extraordi- gas permeance unit and about of 42.6 of carbon dioxide to nary photosynthetic performance, quick growth rate, excellent nitrogen selectivity. environment ductility, great lipid richness and the capacity to Hydrophobic membranes with anti-moistening sur- isolate carbon and therefore has been considered as a suit- faces assist as the interface separating the aqueous amine able approach for post-combustion CO uptake and utilisation absorbents and the CO combined gases. The CO gases go (Cheah et al. 2015; Zhou et al. 2017). Normally, dissolved 2 2 along into the first frontage of a hydrophobic membrane inorganic carbon presences in culture solution water cover and are uptake via the amine solvent that streams on the carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, carbonate and carbonic acid opposite frontage of the hydrophobic membrane. If the during the dynamic ionisation equilibrium are given, unless, membranes possess weak porosity and are moisten over particularly carbon dioxide and bicarbonate are fundamental the amine solution, the resistance of the transportation for dissolved inorganic carbon patterns which can be applied by the CO gases, will be improved, pointing to a reduction microalgae cells in several approaches (Zhao and Su 2014). in CO uptake fluxes (Tuteja et al. 2007 ; Kobaku et al. The bicarbonate has proved to be practised not exclusively 2012). Lin et al. (2018) have successfully synthesised eco- through a straight approach, viz. active transportation and cat- friendly, fluorine-free and watertight breathable polydi- ion exchange, but additionally through an indirect approach methylsiloxane on polystyrene membranes with extraor- which catalyses bicarbonate as carbon dioxide and hydroxyl dinary porosity reached about 89% via an electrospinning ions with periplasmic carbonic anhydrase. It gave the feasibil- technique. Contrasted among pure polystyrene nanofibrous ity of incorporating microalgae agriculture with carbon diox- membranes, polydimethylsiloxane incorporating in poly- ide uptake methods through utilising bicarbonate assembled at styrene nanofibrous membranes succeeded inhibits liquid the uptake column as a carbon origin rather of carbon dioxide droplets from agglutinating on their surfaces, appearing (Zhao and Su 2014; Song et al. 2019b). in the prosperous synthesis of a membrane possess anti- Yang et al. (2020) have applied purified terephthalic acid moistening surface. The CO uptake flux of the studied wastewater was as the growing medium of chlorella pyr- polydimethylsiloxane on polystyrene membranes is around enoidosa microalgae for CO biouptake (Fig. 17). The alga 0.0019 mol/m s. was incapable of originating in the unmodified wastewater ascribed to low pH value, while it favoured bearing and Fig. 17 The two stages of the untreated (Type A) and treated (Type B) purified terephthalic acid wastewater for CO uptake. Adapted with per- mission from Yang et al. (2020), Copyright 2020, Elsevier 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 819 (A) (B) Quartz Pore Pore Fig. 18 A visual comparison in the pore-connectivity system between rock found in the Molasse Basin, Switzerland. b SRXTM’s image for aquitard rocks (a) and the reservoir or aquifer rocks (b). Each of these Nubian Sandstone—a typical reservoir rock found in the Gulf of Suez images represents a 2D slice through the volume of Synchrotron Radia- Basin, Egypt. Dark grey areas are pore space (air), while light grey tion X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM) dataset with voxel size areas represent the mineral grains (quartz). The full SRXTM raw data- is 0.65 μm . a SRXTM’s image for Posidonia shale—a typical cap- set ( 2560 × 2560 × 4320 pixels and 8-bits) is provided by Hefny (2019) acclimation in the pH ( pH = 7.40 ) conform wastewater and sequestration potential reached up to ∼ 0.16 g/L per day. At the modified wastewater. The obtained outcomes confirmed the same time, pH modification was an efficient procedure that the rate of CO uptake and the photosynthetic rate of to additional enhance the achievement of the hybrid method. the algae if the growing medium is treated by wastewater were greater than these with the untreated using wastewater. The most chief algal CO capture rate was obtained around Geological CO storage ∼ 82.2% for the growing medium unmodified with wastewater and  91.6% for growing medium modified with wastewater. Global CO storage Azhand et al. (2020) have conducted the hydrodynamic comparison of inner and outer spargers in an airlift biore- In order to limit the global warming to 1.5 C above the pre- actor and carbon dioxide biofixation investigation below industrial level, IPCC (2014) estimated that the amount of CO various gas speeds. Also, they reviewed the input gas speed that must be captured and permanently stored by the middle of influence on the fixation of carbon dioxide through chlo- this century are around 5000–10,000 million tonnes per year. rella vulgaris microalgae in an airlift reactor with an outer Carbon Capture and Geological Storage is a process whereby sparger. The investigation reveals that the hydrodynamic out- CO is captured from flue gases, transported, compressed and come of inner and outer spargers considerably relies on the finally injected in supercritical or liquefied form into suit- cross-sectional area. Besides, the outcomes designate that able subsurface formations, either in a saline aquifer (Brad- chlorella vulgaris can increase to ∼ 2.695 × 10 cell/mL and shaw et al. 2007; Michael et al. 2010) or, potentially, used for eliminate the carbon dioxide with 94% performance in the enhanced oil recovery (Godec et al. 2013). Ideally, the storage −3 −1 smallest outer gas speed of ∼ 1.9 × 10 ms . formation, which needs to be at a depth greater than 1 km to As an example of the numerous considered carbon uptake ensure that CO remains in the supercritical phase, is charac- techniques, thermal regeneration of intense CO uptake terised by numerous intercalations of tight aquitrade rocks, solvent is a significant challenge due to its rising energy e.g. shales, within the reservoir rock units, e.g. sandstone or exhaustion. Song et al. (2019a) have offered a concept of carbonate. Such multiple confinements ensure the retention bioregeneration via microalgae for bicarbonate transform to security necessary to impede the upward migration and leak- amount-attached biomass. Also, various intense solutions age of the injected CO (Benson and Cole 2008). (including ammonium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate The petrophysical properties of shale, where the poros- and sodium bicarbonate) were examined to estimate the ity’s range (−) is 0.01–0.10, the mean pore size’s range nm achievement of bioregeneration. The outcomes showed that is 5–100, a high capillary pressure’s range (MPa) up to 2 −21 −19 ammonium bicarbonate could be a suitable bicarbonate car-  400 and the permeability’s range (m ) is 10 to 10 , rier for the aimed uptake-microalgae mixture method, which make the favourable conditions for the aquitrade in lim- possessed more extraordinary biomass productivity opposed iting the potential CO leakage to be minimal (Armitage to potassium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate and carbon et al. 2010) (Fig. 18a). Compared to the basement complex, 1 3 820 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 Table 1 Adsorbents for carbon dioxide capture Adsorbent BET Surface Pore size (nm) CO adsorp- References area ( m ∕g) tion capacity −1 ( mol g ) Activated carbon/coconut shell 370.72 1.63 0.0018 Rashidi et al. (2014) Activated carbon/sustainable palm – – 0.00732 Nasri et al. (2014) Activated carbon/cellulose 2370 1.2 0.0058 Sevilla and Fuertes (2011) Activated carbon/starch 2850 1.2 0.0055 Sevilla and Fuertes (2011) Activated carbon/olive stone 1215 – 0.0031 González et al. (2013) Activated carbon/algae 2390 1.8 0.0038 Sevilla et al. (2012) Activated carbon/baggase 923 – 0.0017 Boonpoke et al. (2012) Activated carbon/bamboo 1846 – 0.007 Wei et al. (2012) Activated carbon/rice husk 927 – 0.0013 Boonpoke et al. (2011) Activated carbon/coffee ground 831 – 0.0049 Plaza et al. (2012) Activated carbon/nut shell 573 – 0.00348 Bae and Su (2013) Three-dimensional graphene 477 – 0.0007 N-doped porous carbon@polypyrrole/reduced graphene 1588 14.7 0.0043 Chandra et al. (2012) oxide Polyaniline @ graphene – – 0.075 Mishra and Ramaprabhu (2012) Graphene–manganese oxide 541 4.3 0.00259 Zhou et al. (2012) Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8@ graphene oxide 1120 – 0.01636 Kumar et al. (2013) Fe O -graphene 98.2 3.8 0.06 Mishra and Ramaprabhu (2014) 3 4 ZnO-based N-doped reduced graphene oxide 1122 0.71 0.0355 Li et al. (2016) Montmorillonite clay/reduced graphene oxide 50.77 – 0.00049 Stanly et al. (2019) Zeolite SSZ-13 – – 0.00398 Hudson et al. (2012) Zeolite NaX 672.09 – 0.00553 Xu et al. (2019) Zeolite-5A@meta–organic framework-74 – – 0.0138 Al-Naddaf et al. (2020) Silica @ amine-like motifs 199 67 0.0014 Zhao et al. (2010) Sodium metasilicate 908 – 0.00292 Lin and Bai (2010) Amines immobilised double-walled silica nanotubes 348 – 0.0023 Ko et al. (2013) Amino-modified silica fume 271.2 – 0.0013 Liu and Lin (2013) HMS (wormhole) 1181 – 0.0056 Sanz-Pérez et al. (2015) 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane@ SBA-15 silica 572 – 0.0041 Ribeiro et al. (2019) [Co (OH) (p-CDC) DMF ] 1080 – 0.0037 Farha et al. (2009) 4 2 3 2 n Amine-chromium terephthalate metal–organic framework 2297 – 0.002 Yan et al. (2013) Metal–organic framework MIL-53(Al)/graphene nanoplates 1281 – 0.001295 Pourebrahimi et al. (2015) BET Brunauer–Emmett–Teller sedimentary rocks, e.g. sandstone, fall into the category of structure, total sediment isopachs, subsidence regime, basin a porous medium where the injected fluids can freely move evolution and petroleum systems and other public data are through, or be stored in the intrinsic void space without defined and shown in Fig.  19 (IPCC 2005). Mostly, the sedi- requiring hydraulic stimulation. Figure  18b shows a 2D mentary rocks are inherently heterogeneous assemblages of grey-level slice of a high-resolution Synchrotron Radiation depositional lithofacies, each with characteristic mineralogi- X-ray Tomographic Microscopy for the Nubian Sandstone, cal content and bedding architectures (i.e. foliation, shear a typical reservoir rock type found in the Gulf of Suez Basin and compaction banding). These geological variations are (Egypt) with a porosity (−) up to 0.3, a mean pore size (nm resulting directly from the formation of the rock, from the of 44 × 10 , capillary pressure (MPa) 25.3 and permeability stress fields applied to it later (Zoback and Byerlee 1976) or 2 −12 (m ) of 2.56 × 10 (Hefny et al. 2020). from diagenetic changes (Aplin et al. 2006). Moreover, the Sedimentary basins are the subsidence areas of the orientation of both the mineral grains and the pores (Wright earth’s crust that is underlain by a thick sequence of such et al. 2009) or crack (Guéguen and Schubnel 2003) along sedimentary rocks (Selley and Sonnenberg 2015). Over 800 a preferential direction can also constitute barriers to flow, sedimentary basins worldwide based on basement outcrop, or at least reduce it (Clavaud et al. 2008), and resulting in 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 821 different elastic responses (Helbig and Thomsen 2005). despite faults and fractures, which may occur in it. The CO Therefore, the deployment challenges of large-scale CO injection pressure at the bottom-hole must remain below storage in the geological formations will be affected by the fracture stress gradient to avoid caprock integrity, while quantification of the geological heterogeneity which influ- being larger the in situ fluid pressure to displace the resident ences both the microscopic fluid displacement processes, formation fluid (brine) by CO . As a continuous CO injec- 2 2 thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes, caprock integ- tion, excess fluid pressure will be built up in the reservoir—a rity, induced seismicity and well’s ( CO ) injectivity. These condition that develops high permeability pathways within challenges will be discussed in details as follows. the caprock unless water-extraction wells operate concur- Given the fact that CCUS entails cyclic fluid(s) injection rently with CO injection (Bergmo et al. 2011). Ideally and into (and possibly retrieval from) these geological forma- according to Espinoza and Santamarina (2017), a leak rate of tions, unintended changes in dynamic reservoir properties 3 kg/m ∕year corresponds to  2 cm of the CO pool height (e.g. saturation, pressure) will be often induced and needs to is enough to saturate the pore water in a shallow 100 m sedi- be quantified using the inversion of the geophysical field data ment column in 100 years. (such as time-lapse seismic data, gravity data). However, the Moreover, the potential physicochemical interactions time-lapse seismic inversion will be quite problematic, if not between the dry supercritical CO , the resident formation impossible, without proper rock physics models which can fluid and rocks may cause formation dry-out, whereby min- capture these geological features at small scale and find the erals (mainly salts) precipitate due to continuous evapo- relationship of that complexity to the u fl ids o fl w (and seismic ration of water into the scCO stream. Depending on the waves propagation) through it. The regional heterogeneities at spatial distribution of the salt precipitate within the pore field scale include lithofacies geometries and continuity, thick - system, the intrinsic permeability can be significantly ness variability, preferential alignment of the faults network impaired, leading to a considerable decrease in the well’s and bulk reservoir properties (Fig. 19). On the other hand, the ( CO ) injectivity index (Muller et al. 2009; Grimm Lima heterogeneities of wellbore scale can be extended down to the et al. 2020). microscopic pore network, grain size and mineral contents Of the previously mentioned technologies, Carbon Capture and orientation. Therefore, the impact of these geological fea- and Geologically Storage has been implemented in practice, tures (such as heterogeneity scale, anisotropic behaviour, the albeit thus far only at relatively small scales, with the Norwe- topology of a porous medium and mineralogical contents) on gian Sleipner site in the North Sea being the longest-running rock physics model (including seismic-waves velocity, perme- and largest-scale carbon capture and storage project in the ability tensor, two-phase constitutive relationships) needs to world (Furre and Eiken 2014; Eiken et al. 2011; Eiken 2019). be considered for the geophysical data inversion. Roughly 0.85 million tonnes of CO are injected annually for Moreover, the geological heterogeneity contributes a cumulative total of over 16.5 million tonnes as of January towards the quantification of the basin-scale CO storage 2017. In Sleipner site, 2D, 3D and 4D geophysical data have capacity of the reservoir. For a consistency with methods been acquired to ensure that there is no CO leakage. used in previous studies to assess the prospective geologic The time-lapse high-quality seismic field datasets have storage of buoyant fluids in subsurface formations (van der been acquired covering roughly the same 4 × 7 km area. The Meer 1995; Doughty et al. 2001; Kopp et al. 2009; Good- seismic data consist of (1) the benchmark (base) model and man et al. 2011; NETL 2015; Hefny et al. 2020), Eq. (6) is (2) twelve (a huge number, given the complexity of acquir- used to estimate the theoretical (in a conservative approach) ing 3D seismic data in the field, in this case even off-shore reservoir storage capacity. in the North Sea) time-lapse seismic surveys as a function of CO injection. All surveys and differences have high signal- eff bulk M =  V  (T, p), (6) eff CO CO res to-noise ratios due to the large contrast in acoustic proper- ties between the in situ saline aquifer and the injected CO eff bulk where, M is the effective storage capacity (kg), V is CO res and have been valuable for understanding the CO -plume the bulk reservoir volume (m ) and  is the density CO CO 2 development (Fig. 20). −3 (kg m ) as a function of the corresponding reservoir tem- perature and pressure. The dimensionless -storage effi- CO Thermophysical fluid properties ciency factor,  (−), represents the fraction of the total pore eff volume that can be occupied by the injected . can be CO 2 eff The subsurface CO -plume migration at a representative estimated based on a combination of coefficients for the geo- geological scale depends on: (1) rock properties at the pore metric capacity, the geological heterogeneity capacity and scale, such as relative permeability and capillary pressure reservoir porosity. curves in addition to their intrinsic characteristic features, An additional parameter for the safekeeping of under- and (2) fluid pairs ( CO -brine) properties such as density ground stored CO is the sealing capacity of the caprock, 2 and viscosity differences, mobility ratios, interfacial tensions 1 3 822 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 (A) Sedimentary basins Highs Fold belts Schields (B) (C) Sandsand facies Sandsand facies Shaly sand Shaly sand Shale facies facies facies Shale facies 1 km 1 km Fig. 19 a Distribution of sedimentary basins around the world show- erential alignment of faults (white channels among fault blocks) are ing the potential sites for CO geosequestration. The map is modified considered as sources of regional anisotropy and potential hydrau- after IPCC (2005), Bradshaw et al. (2005) and USGS (2001). Three- lic transmissive structures. This 3D rendering of property models is dimensional perspective views of b porosity distribution model and c representing only the blocks of Nubian Sandstone III reservoir and the calculated permeability distribution model of Nubian Sandstone showing how field-scale heterogeneities can affect the fluids injectiv - III compartmentalised reservoir at the Gulf of Suez Basin (Egypt), ity. Histograms showing the dominance of the distributed property (Hefny 2020). The calculated permeability is based on a realisation values are included in the legend box. A generalised depth to the res- of the rock physics model biased with lithofacies well-logs. The pref- ervoir top is ∼ 3350 m with an average reservoir thickness of ∼ 38 m and CO solubilities. Two NaCl brine molalities have been P = 7.38 MPa ), CO acts as a super-critical fluid with a 2 crit 2 chosen to replicate the salinity at (I) the Gulf of Suez in gas-like viscosity but a liquid-like density. Egypt (0.66 mol/kg) and (II) the Aquistore Carbon Capture and Storage site in Canada (4.63 mol/kg). Moreover, regions Density and dynamic viscosity with large geothermal gradients exhibit different thermo- physical properties than those regions that exhibit smaller For a given pressure and temperature, the density and geothermal gradients. dynamic viscosity of supercritical CO are iteratively cal- The thermophysical properties of the fluid pairs ( CO and culated using the Span and Wagner equation of state Span brine) describe the multiphase flow behaviour and define and Wagner (1996) and Fenghour et al. (1998)’s correlation, the functionality of a CPG system. The thermophysical respectively. The results are shown in Fig.  21. Primarily, properties of fluids were chosen to represent those found the densities (kg/m ) and dynamic viscosities (μPa.s) for in a deep geological formation, typical for depleted oil and both CO and brine increase with increasing pressure and gas reservoirs. Above these conditions (T = 31.1 C and decreasing temperature. crit 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 823 for successful implementation and forecasting of numer- ous applications including CO -based geothermal system and CO -Enhanced Oil Recovery. In CO -based geothermal 2 2 system, such as CPG, dividing the density of CO by its dynamic viscosity results in high mobility (i.e. the inverse of kinematic viscosity) compared to brine. The mobility will be described in details in “CO2 mobility ratio” section. Moreo- ver, the dynamic viscosity can be indirectly related through the Reynolds number with the pressure drop during flow in pipelines, which in turn affects the power consumption of pumps. It was reported that a viscosity underestimation of 30%, will lead to a 30% underestimation of the pump- compressor power consumption (Li et al. 2011b). Fig. 20 Relative changes in seismic p-wave velocity (solid and Interfacial tension in CO ‑brine systems dashed black lines) and density assuming CO density of 675 kg/m 2 (dashed blue line) and density assuming CO density of 425 kg/m (solid blue line) versus CO saturation. The two double arrows indi- 2 We used the empirical relationships derived from the most cate which saturation bands can be resolved by time-lapse seismic comprehensive dataset after Li et al. (2012c) and Bachu and (grey box) and gravity data, respectively. These parameters (velocity Bennion (2009) in order to calculate the interfacial tension and density) are key input parameters to estimate the changes in seis- mic impedance and the reflection coefficients. The figure is modified between supercritical CO and aqueous solutions with differ - after Eiken (2019) ent salt molalities (mol/kg). The interfacial tension is devel- oped as a function of pressure, temperature and brine salin- ity and primarily decreases with increasing CO solubility. The density can then be used to calculate the other fluid At conditions relevant to the CPG subsurface reservoir, the properties, such as internal energy, directly. In fact, the CO interfacial tension ranges from 24 mN/m at high tempera- dynamic viscosity is one of the most crucial parameters ture, low salinity (0.66 mol/kg) and high-pressure conditions Fig. 21 Thermophysical properties of the fluids, brine and super - (Top) Densities and density ratio of the CO -brine system calculated critical CO , used for fluid flow simulation. The P–T conditions are at 0.66  mol/kg salinity. (Bottom) Dynamic viscosities and viscosity representative of relevant conditions typical of CCUS reservoirs. ratio of the CO -brine system calculated at 0.66 mol/kg salinity 1 3 824 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 to 52 mN/m at low-temperature, high-salinity (4.63 mol/kg) Specific heat capacity and high-pressure conditions (Fig. 22). The specific heat capacity is the ratio of the heat transfer to a CO solubility in aqueous solution body to the associated temperature change and its weight. It describes the ability of a material to store heat and is temper- Given that the dissolution of CO in aqueous solution is ature-dependent. The volumetric heat capacity is the product extremely slow, it can minimally affect the CO circulation of specific heat capacity and density and is used to calculate during the time frames considered in CPG systems. Alter- the thermal capacity of geothermal projects. The constant- natively and during carbon capture and storage, convective pressure (isobaric) specific heat capacity, c [kJ/(kg. C)] , of dissolution, driven by a small increase in brine density with the working fluid, as it flows through the reservoir, is calcu- CO saturation, is considered to be the primary mechanism lated by Eq. (8). of CO dissolution trapping, critical for the long-term fate of CO and storage security (Martinez and Hesse 2016; Kong c = , 2 (8) and Saar 2013). The most commonly used thermodynamic models to where h is the fluid’s heat changes for a given fluid’s tem- describe the mole fraction (solubility) of CO for a CO - 2 2 perature changes, T . A comparison of the specific heat brine system are provided by Duan and Sun (2003) and Duan capacity for water and supercritical CO is shown in Fig. 23. et al. (2006). Generally, CO solubility in brine increases At high pressure of more than 30 MPa, the increase in spe- with increasing pressure and temperature and decreasing cific heat capacity with constant temperature for CO is less brine salinity, but at the pressures relevant to geologic CO than half of the increase of water, indicating that more than storage, the CO solubility decreases with increasing tem- twice the CO mass flowrate would be needed to achieve the perature (Fig. 22). same rate of sensible heat transport. CO mobility ratio CO utilisation pathways In the continuity equation, we assume that fluid flow obeys Darcy’s law and that heat is both advected by the fluids and Various CO utilisation routes were successfully researched conducted through the rock-fluid system. in term of technical and economic feasibility. Currently, the gross global utilisation of CO is lower than 200 million kA Q =ΔP c ΔT , p (7) tonnes per year which is roughly negligible compared with the extent of global anthropogenic CO emissions (higher where P is the pressure (Pa) , L is the reservoir thickness than 32,000 million tonnes per year) (Rafiee et al. 2018). (m) , k is the reservoir permeability (m ) , A cross-sectional Applicability of waste CO in different fields such as direct area (m ) , c is specific heat capacity at constant pressure p routes (i.e. beverage carbonation, food packaging and oil [kJ/(kg. C)] ,  is the dynamic viscosity (Pa.s) ,  is the or gas recovery), material and chemical industries (i.e. density (kg/m ) and T is the temperature ( C) . The fluid acrylates, carbamates, carbonates, polyurethanes, polycar- mass flowrates for any given driving force is proportional bonates, formaldehyde and urea) and fuels (i.e. biofuels, to the ratio of density to dynamic viscosity, also known as dimethyl ether, tertiary butyl methyl ether and methanol) Mobility, M = ∕ (i.e. the inverse of kinematic viscosity), are currently operated (Srivastava et al. 2020). Poliakoff given all else parameters in Eq. (7) being equal. In the case et al. (2015) stated 12 principles to assess CO utilisation of water, M is mostly a function of temperature and much approaches. In another comprehensive study articulated by less pressure that reflects the primary dependence of both Otto et al. (2015), they evaluated 123 reaction pathways to water’s density and viscosity on temperature as previously divert into chemicals (i.e. 100 for fine chemicals and 23 introduced. In the case of CO , density and viscosity have 2 for bulk chemicals). Lee (2016) investigated CO capture significant dependence on both temperature and pressure. and utilisation based on industrial waste-desulphurisation For conditions relevant for fluid injection (i.e. T lower than gypsum ( CaSO ) and waste concrete (Ca(OH) ) t hrough 4 2 50 C ), CO mobility is larger than for water by factors rang- 2 biobutanol and green polymer that utilises nearly 5.55 mil- ing from 4 to 10. For temperatures near 100 C , CO is larger 2 lion tonnes per year of CO . Masel et al. (2016) claimed the by a factor of approximately 4 than that of water. Addition- successful conversion (98%) of CO to CO with an over- ally, the mobility ratio between CO and brine depends on 2 all energy efficiency of 80%. Besides, they announced the salinity. Figure 22 shows that the mobility ratio is large for economic feasibility of acrylic acid, carbon monoxide, for- a more saline aqueous solution than those with less salinity. maldehyde and formic acid of CO separation costs of $60 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 825 Fig. 22 Thermophysical properties of the CO -brine system calcu- Interfacial tension, (Middle): CO Solubility in aqueous solution and 2 2 lated for brine with molality (mol/kg) of 0.66 (left column) reflect- (bottom): Mobility ratio between CO and brine (inverse of kinematic ing the salinity conditions in the Gulf of Suez and 4.63 (right col- viscosity) umn) reflecting the salinity conditions in Aquistore (Canada). (Top): 1 3 826 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 without gaseous state into syngas throughout pyrolysis or gasification of biomass or natural gas conversion, respec- tively. Significant quantities of CO emitted from different industrial installations (i.e. fossil fuel-fired power plants) can be used as feedstocks in various CO recycling routes. The availability of source feedstocks (i.e. CO and H ) is the 2 2 main factor controlling large-scale applications of biofuel developed. Numerous biofuel products such as methanol ( CH OH ) and dimethyl ether ( CH OCH ) may be produced 3 3 3 from CO utilisation. This direction opens up the possibility of developing a wide variety of fuels for both stationary and mobile applications. Production of methanol ( CH OH ) based on CO 3 2 Generally, methanol is one of the most appropriate alter- native fuels due to its relatively high energy content of 726.3 kJ/mol (Din et al. 2019). Its productivity is the third in the world after ethylene and propylene. It is exploited in the manufacturing of different industrial chemicals (i.e. formaldehyde and methyl tertiary butyl ether) in addition to be a good hydrogen carrier. Despite its lower energy content ∼ ∼ (  57,250 Btu/ga) compared with gasoline (  116,090 Btu/ gal), it is suitable for vehicles powered by internal combus- Fig. 23 Specific heat capacity, c [kJ/(kg. C)] of water and supercriti- p tion engines due to its perfect combustion features. The price cal CO as a function of pressure and at a constant temperature. These rate of a gallon for methanol is $3.23 per gallon, which is a thermal conditions correspond to a geological formation at depth little bit lower than that of a gallon of gasoline $3.80 (Olah ranges from 0.8 to 5.7 km and with three different geothermal gradi- ents. The figure is prepared from the data published by Lemmon et al. et al. 2009). Despite, its cetane number value is low, it can (2018) operate in the diesel engines; nevertheless, it cannot be con- sidered the best alternate for diesel fuel. The self-ignition per tonne and without a tax on emissions. Lifecycle and propensity of the fuel under environmental conditions of techno-economic analyses were performed for CO (waste high temperature and pressure defines the fuel’s cetane num- gas) recovery from power plant into algal biomass produc- ber. Higher cetane number is required for providing feasible tion system (annual CO production rate of 30.3 million kg operation of the engine. Chemists have studied the reaction per year). The algal process captured 70% of the flue-gas of CO conversion into methanol for more than 80 years. In CO and produced 42,400 ton of dry algal biomass per year. fact, in the 1920s and 1930s, the emitted CO (waste gases) 2 2 produced from other process was subjected into methanol Production of fuel, biofuel and chemicals from CO production in the first methanol operating plant located in USA (Dinca et al. 2018). Commonly, the catalytic conver- Because of the growing reliance on fossil fuels and dwin- sion of CO in the presence of hydrogen is the most studied dling resources, seeking alternatives to them is considered scenario to produce methanol-based CO as given by Eq. (9): a high priority worldwide. Generally speaking, the sustain- CO + 3H ↔ CH OH + H O (9) 2 2 3 2 able alternative of converting CO from harmful greenhouse gas, causing global warming into a renewable carbon source The use of captured CO can be considered as an accept- has become a critical issue. CO can be converted directly able alternative over the traditional synthesis method. From into a number of valuable chemicals via either exergonic or the technical, financial and environmental aspects, produc- endergonic reactions (Rafiee et al. 2018). During the reform- tion of methanol using CO and H has been commercially 2 2 ing process, converting non-value-materials into valuable developed (Quadrelli et al. 2011). Numerous plants in Ice- fuels and chemicals is associated with the release of syn- land and Japan have already been developed via integrat- gas (intermediate product). Often, it consists of major frac- ing CO with renewable H plants (González-Aparicio et al. 2 2 tions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide accompanied by 2017). In 2011, Carbon Recycling International opened the small fractions of water and carbon dioxide (Ayodele et al. first plant in Iceland with a productivity of 5 Mt/year of 2015). Reforming can take place in a solid state and with or 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 827 methanol production in order to boost the plant economy attributing to the similarity of its own properties with the for larger scales. Besides, Carbon Research International is properties of liquid petroleum gas, dimethyl ether can be interested in the Horizon 2020 project, which aims to subject produced via infrastructure with minor adjustment. Besides, overabundant and intermediate sources of renewable energy it is proven as a higher quality propellant utilised to pro- for the development of CO chemicals and fuels obtained duce healthcare commodities safer than other prepared via from coal-fired power plants (An et al. 2007). Besides, for traditional petroleum-based scenarios. Also, it is believed this conversion, an effective catalyst (i.e. metals and their to be a substitute for various chemicals (i.e. chlorofluoro- oxides) was proposed, for instance combining zinc and cop- carbons, ethylene and propylene (Saravanan et al. 2017). per oxides. In order to promote the synthesis of methanol, Dimethyl ether is usually produced via two pathways; indi- carbon monoxide (CO) found in the syngas can be diverted rect synthesis (dual-step) and direct synthesis (single-step). into CO employing the water gas shift reaction (WGSR) to The indirect route comprises two consecutive steps. Firstly, produce excessive H and CO forms. After that, methanol the feedstock is converted into syngas, followed by the pro- 2 2 is produced based on the reaction of CO with hydrogen motion of methanol synthesis process and finally methanol (Jadhav et al. 2014): dehydration as given by Eqs. (11) and (12), respectively The overall reaction for the synthesis of methanol is given (Vafajoo et al. 2009). Mitsubishi Gas Company, Toyo Udhe by Eq. (10): and Lurgi companies are producers of dimethyl ether via the indirect strategy. CO + 2H ↔ CH OH (10) 2 2 3 Methanol synthesis: Iaquaniello et al. (2017) defined a methodology to exploit untapped municipal solid wastes (carbon source) for pro- CO + 2H ↔ CH OH (11) 2 3 ducing methanol via gasification pathway. The estimated economic analysis reported that running plant generates Methanol dehydration: methanol at 110 €/t with manipulating of 300 t/d of wastes 2CH OH ↔ CH OCH + H O 3 3 3 2 (12) in term of waste to methanol. Efficacy of waste to metha- nol plant operates with a capacity of 40% under 30–35% However, direct synthesis of dimethyl ether is applied in decrement in greenhouse gas emissions. Other study estab- the hydrogenation process of CO via various catalysts lished by Rezaei and Catalan (2020) aimed to investigate the (i.e. ZnO–Al O ). Zhang et al. (2014) stated that 15% of 2 3 operability of a plant to afford 2000 tonnes/day of methanol the obtainable dimethyl ether with a CO conversion rate of using CH tri-reforming for syngas production. The opti- 4 30.6% was achieved under the optimum concentration of as- mised operational parameters in terms of feed composition used Cu/ZnO/Zeolite catalyst. Economically, it is expected ( CO ∶ H O ∶ O ) were 0.20, 0.35 and 0.48, respectively, 2 2 2 that the total worth of dimethyl ether facility to be roughly $ for each mole of CH . This has led to a successful CO con- 4 2 9.7 billion by the end of 2020 including its main categories; version of 50% and a stoichiometric number of 1.57. The net (1) liquid petroleum gas blend, (2) diesel, (3) gas turbine fuel current value of the facility was evaluated to be $161 million and (4) precursor for various chemicals (i.e. acetic acid and for a 15-year economic life considering the advertised sell- ethers oxygenates). China is the biggest dimethyl ether pro- ing price of $390 for tonne methanol. Economically, Monte ducer employing 90% of its productivity in liquid petroleum Carlo studies affirmed the applicability of 84% for the plant, gas blending (Mondal and Yadav 2019). simultaneously considered the uncertainties of the global economy. Environmentally, the net CO emissions of the 2 Production of methane ( CH ) based on CO (methanation) 4 2 plant are 0.91 kg CO /Kg methanol, which is 50% and 35% lower than the traditional running methanol plants based on Methane (natural gas) is a prevalent energy carrier globally. methane steam reforming and other running plants based on It is the major contributor of natural gas supplies, being the CH tri-reforming, respectively. 4 most heat supplier to in Germany. Given the strong dynamic characteristics, natural gas power plants have gained a grow- Production of dimethyl ether (DME) based on CO 2 ing share of Germany’s power generation compared with the current coal-fired power plants (Billig et al. 2019). Further - Dimethyl ether (methoxymethane) is a colourless, environ- more, its utilisation in vehicles instead of gasoline minimises mentally benign and clean gas, widely provided as an addi- CO emissions compared with the traditional counterpart tive in diesel engines referring to its autoignition character due to its higher H:C ratio. The following are the reactions (Semelsberger et al. 2006). Its high oxygen content improved occurring within the methanation reactor (Bailera et  al. the combustion, which is evident by a fewer of CO, NOx, 2017): SOx and particulate matter (Cai et  al. 2016). Besides, 1 3 828 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 Production of biofuel (green fuel) using CO CO + 4H ↔ CH + 2H O (13) 2 2 4 2 In contrast to traditional fuels, biofuels derived from renew- CO + H ↔ CO + H O (14) 2 2 2 able sources are ultimately the best appropriate choice given its environment and economic benefits (Santamaría and CO + 3H ↔ CH + H O (15) 2 4 2 Azqueta 2015). Algae are a promising green energy source due to their high protein and oil content. Conversion of The inertness of CO hinders its transformation into value- algal biomass into biofuel was successfully implemented added chemicals and causes difficulty in its implementation. as shown in Fig. 24. Atmospheric carbon, either inorganic However, this issue can be overcome with the help of certain or organic origin, can be fixed using different algal species catalysts (Wannakao et al. 2015). Park et al. (2015) reported (Singh and Olsen 2011). Successful absorption of CO (i.e. a twofold increase in the yield of CH formation from CO 4 2 1.83 kg CO /kg biomass) using algal biomass in non-mild through photocatalytic conversion using TiO /Cu–TiO 2 2 water condition was efficiently recorded (Wu et al. 2018). (double layer) catalyst compared with traditional TiO The generated waste (flue) gases released from industrial (film catalyst). Besides, hydrogenation of carbon oxides activities as well as power stations containing a high CO to methane was carried out to purify syngas in ammonia concentration, which, in turn, enhances the algal photosyn- plants. This could also produce carbon-neutral (methane) thetic activity (Faried et al. 2017). For instance, the flue gas fuel (Rafiee et al. 2018). Biological processes such as the emitted from ammonia production units (reforming phase) use of methanogens may also transform CO into methane. with highly concentrated CO , can be directly delivered to An anoxic enrichment of waste activated sludge generates the vicinity algal production sites. Direct injection of these methane-producing organisms (methanogens). The utilisa- waste streams (carbon source) into the algal production tion of the organism’s activated cultures caused roughly 70 ponds provides a clean and green opportunity to cultivate the folds enhancement in the efficacy of methane production microalgal biomass and hence mitigate the negative impacts (Mohd Yasin et al. 2015). on the biosphere as well as their high operational costs (Col- lotta et al. 2018). Numerous studies have been registered Production of liquid hydrocarbons based on CO (Fischer– for microalgal cultivation through flue gas pathway. The Tropsch) substitute utilisation of biofuel effectively declined the net carbon emissions (78%), comparing with the non-renewable Liquid hydrocarbons are a suitable alternative for the storage petroleum-based fuels (Ali et al. 2017). One of the largest of renewable energy. They are the primary source of energy biofuel production centres in the world is located in Western for transportation and aviation purposes Pietzcker et  al. Australia. It was located 50 km away from the power plant (2014). Among several technologies subjected to upcycling and biocrude oil refinery sites. The anticipation of environ- of waste CO , Fischer–Tropsch is a notable scenario for liq- mental, economic and sustainable benefits was elucidated uid fuels production. It is hydrogenation of CO (heteroge- regarding the input and output analyses derived from algal neous catalysis) with a polymerisation character. At most, biocrude producing plant and conventional crude oil-pro- liquid hydrocarbons (i.e. kerosene) can be produced through ducing plant using life cycle assessment (LCA) tool. The this process. As a consequence of the catalytic process, the obtained results revealed the applicability of algal biocrude synthesis products are sulphur-free and contain less soot dur- operating plant over the traditional crude oil-operating plant. ing combustion (König et al. 2015). For Fischer–Tropsch The rate of carbon capturing/biocrude output/carbon emis- process, syngas may be generated from variable feedstock; sion was (1.5:1:0.5 tons), respectively. From an economic (1) steam reforming and (2) gasification in term of gas-to- point of view, the analysis approximately evidences that liquid and biomass-to-liquid, respectively. Typically, two one million tons of the biocrude production would generate stages integrating reverse WGSR and Fischer–Tropsch are roughly 13,200 new jobs employment along with a $4 billion involved, as shown in Eqs.  (16) and (17). economic stimulus (Malik et al. 2015). CO + H ↔ CO + H O ΔH = 415 kJ∕mol (16) 2 2 2 r298K Bioalcohols nCO + 2nH ↔ −CH − n + nH O ΔH =− n ∗ 152 kJ∕mol 2 2 2 r298K Alcohol-based fuels (bioalcohols) are other strategic prod- (17) ucts based on carbon dioxide emissions feedstock. Normally, The produced hydrocarbons are segregated from non-reacted they are derived from biological sources rather than petro- feed and gaseous hydrocarbons, and after that, they can be leum sources. Commonly, four bioalcohols; methanol, etha- upgraded via undergoing of hydrocracking and isomerisation nol, propanol and butanol are employed as motor fuels. In (Piermartini et al. 2017). particular, the economic and technical features characterised 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 829 Different scenarios for algal biomass conversion into biodiesel Direct Anaerobic Pyrolysis Transesterificaon Gasificaon Fermentaon combuson digeson Bio-gas Bio-jet Bio-diesel Carbon Bio-char dioxide Bio-oil Bio-ethanol Energy Bio-gas Fig. 24 Scenarios for algal biomass conversion into biodiesel and other biofuels. This can be achieved via various processes such as pyrolysis, direct combustion, anaerobic digestion, gasification, fermentation and transesterification to methanol and ethanol, allowing them to be suitable as 2NH + CO ↔ NH CONH + H O (18) 3 2 2 2 2 fuels for the internal combustion engines (Demirbas 2008). Despite, the lower energy density of methanol compared The above reaction comprises two subsequent stages. Firstly, with gasoline, its higher-octane rating enhances its compres- the heterogeneous reaction between ammonia and carbon sion character before the initiation of the ignition process. dioxide results in the formation of ammonium carbamate Whereas ethanol can be used as a petrol additive through ( NH OCONH ), as shown in Eq. (19). After that, ammo- 2 4 mixing (combining) it with gasoline (Niven 2005), the nium carbamate (liquid form) dehydration results in the for- developed gasohol with the chemical composition of etha- mation of urea as given by Eq. (20): nol/gasoline (10:90%), respectively, can be further applied 2NH + CO ↔ NH OCONH (19) 3 2 2 4 in the internal combustion engines of most modern automo- biles (Larson 2006). NH OCONH ↔ NH CONH + H O (20) 2 4 2 2 2 Production of urea from CO Moreover, CO usage in the manufacture of urea has great economic feasibility taking into account the growing global Urea is another non-toxic commodity derived from carbon demand on it. Globally, more than 50% of the produced CO dioxide. Being a rich with nitrogen qualifies it to be exces- has subjected to the urea synthesis process. Barzagli et al. sively used in fertilisers facilities. Furthermore, it can be (2016) studied the potential of CO capture via aqueous and used as feedstock (backbone) in various chemicals industries gaseous ammonia under ambient conditions. Based on the (i.e. adhesives, plastics and synthetic resins) (Ishaq et al. ammonia concentrations, they emphasised that capturing 2020). Other derivatives-based urea such as urea (nitrate, amounts achieved up to 99%. Also, urea synthesis process formaldehyde and melamine–formaldehyde) are prepared. from the produced ammonium carbamate was experimen- About 180 Mt/year of urea were estimated to be produced tally performed at 120–140 C . Apak presented research on globally. Mathematically, to achieve this aimed amount of investigating the role of ammonia to mitigate the emissions urea, 132 Mt/year of CO is needed (Koohestanian et al. of CO . Indeed, he discussed the possibility of urea forma- 2018). The most prevalent way for its synthesis is reforming tion via a reaction between the emitted CO and ammonia of natural gas which results in the formation of ammonia and (Apak 2007). carbon dioxide. Urea synthesis equation is given, as shown in Eq. (18): 1 3 830 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 toxic chemicals generated during the pyrolysis process of Utilisation of CO in different thermochemical processes benzene derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Lee et al. 2017b). The profile of as-designed temperature- CO as a gasifying agent in biomass gasification programmed oxidation confirmed that CO -char gasification and N -char gasification was portrayed by a single reaction Gasification is a critical thermochemical process that trans - pathway and multiple reaction pathways, respectively. An increase in the secondary char formation may occur by the forms biomass into gaseous products. As natural sequenc- ing of incomplete combustion, combustible gases emit- action of one of these pathways. Deposition of great amounts of impurities (i.e. hydrogenated and oxygenated groups) on ted. Biomass gasification operates at a lower temperature ( ∼ 900 C ) compared with conventional coal gasification the engineered CO char has probably led to blocking off of its pores and hence decreases its surface area. referring to biomass nature (Molino et al. 2016). From the viewpoint of CO consumption, the injection of CO as a 2 2 Impact of CO on the produced chars gasifying agent has numerous benefits compared over the conventional gasification atmospheres. Large quantities of Surface area and porosity CO caused by different industrial processes can be recycled as feedstock for post-consumers. Theatrically, the water gas Numerous studies investigated the impact of CO as a gasi- shift unit needed for syngas amendment can be averted (Ye et al. 2020). Additionally, syngas with controllable H ∕CO fying agent on the textural properties (i.e. surface area, morphology and porosity) on the produced char (Lee et al. ratio can be obtained. Parvez et al. 2016 explored an Aspen TM Plus estimation on CO assisted gasification, clarifying the 2017a, b, c, d, e). Lee et al. (2017d) used a tubular reactor to study the influence of atmospheric CO on the textural impacts of CO on the performance of biomass gasification. 2 2 The susceptibility of dimethyl ether produced from biomass properties of the as-formed char. The outlined results con- firmed that CO promotes the formation of new pores on gasification to improve the biomass gasification was suc- cessfully researched. CO contributes to controlling the syn- the produced char. The higher surface area ( 93 m ∕g ) under CO atmosphere compared with the other measured under gas ratio and hence offers flexibility for the whole process adjustment, which ensures the less effect of the presented N atmosphere (85 m ∕g ), may be referred to the hetero- geneous reaction between char surface and CO . Anot her biomass on the gasification process (Parvez et al. 2016). study established by Lee et al. (2017c) aimed to compare the physiochemical properties characterised to the pyrolysis CO as an activating medium in biomass pyrolysis products prepared from red pepper stalk under a different atmospheric medium ( CO and N ). This greatly confirms Biochar is a product (solid form) resulted from biomass 2 2 pyrolysis in the absence of oxygen content (oxygen-free the role of CO as an expediting agent towards the improve- ment of the char properties through the thermal cracking of atmosphere) (Dhyani and Bhaskar 2018; Balajii and Niju 2019). It is beneficial as an energy supplier because of its different volatile organic carbons. remarkable merits (i.e. high energy density) (Weber and Quicker 2018). Besides, it has been used in different appli- Tar reduction cations (i.e. wastewater treatment and soil amendment). The physicochemical characters of the produced char dif- Numerous studies investigated the impact of CO as a gasify- ing agent on the tar reduction (Wang et al. 2018; Luo et al. fer depending on the operational pyrolysis parameters (i.e. feedstock, heating rate and residence time) (Cha et al. 2016). 2016; Jeremiáš et al. 2018). For this purpose, various bio- masses such as seaweed (Cho et al. 2016), rice (Pinto et al. Physiochemical features of biochar (i.e. surface area, poros- ity and constituent functional groups) were optimised in CO 2016) and swine manure (Lee et al. 2019) were tested as feedstock for these studies. Results showed that CO has atmosphere rather than pure N atmosphere. The presence of 2 2 CO has led to inhibition of polymerisation reaction; crack- multiple effects on the tar reduction as well as an enhance- ment in the syngas production throughout the pyrolysis ing of tar compounds into light gases and consequently reducing the secondary char formation and an enhancement process. Briefly, it accelerates the thermal cracking rate of volatile organic carbons and consequently increases the in the yield of the produced gas (Guizani et al. 2015). Moreover, the chemical reaction between CO fraction formation of benzene derivatives via carbonisation and dehydrogenation, (2) less formation of polycyclic aromatic and hydrogenated or oxygenated groups spontaneously occurs and thus enhances the yield of high carbon content- hydrocarbon and (3) homogenous reaction directly occurs between CO and volatile organic carbons (gas phase reac- char. Decrement of the secondary char amount associates with an improvement in its microporosity as well as carbon tion). As stated by (Luo et al. 2016), the operating pressure of the gasification process directly affects tar reduction. content. Notably, CO had a crucial role in the mitigation of 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 831 At pressure lower than 5 atm, fewer char was produced reverses osmosis (RO). Distillation is a heat-based treat- in N atmosphere compared with the formed one in CO ment process at which a large volume of warm seawater 2 2 atmosphere, whereas, at higher pressure higher than 5 atm, was predominantly treated. Contrarily, reverse osmosis is a fewer tar amounts were produced at atmospheric CO . Even membrane-based treatment process at which brackish water though, the magnitude of CO sensitivity on the gasification was manipulated. process and CO emissions mainly depends on other key fac- tors (i.e. feedstock type, temperature and pressure) which Seawater desalination working mechanism using CO directly influence on the gasification products. For example, tar reduction was observed to be 23% (Lee et al. 2017a), 45% Naturally, the reaction between CO and water in a specific (Pinto et al. 2016) and 70% (Cho et al. 2016). In the same depth of ocean (low temperature and high pressure) pro- way, CO generation often differs with feedstock type in the duces crystalline CO hydrates in the form of crystalline CO atmosphere. aggregates, as shown in Fig. 25. They characterise by pos- sessing a three-dimensional, hydrogen bounded and CO Syngas production molecules can be entrapped inside them. An induced of pres- sure transition between orthorhombic and cubic hexagonal Numerous studies evaluated the effect of CO addition on the forms has dependently brought by the crystalline nature of production of syngas from the pyrolysis process (Kim and CO hydrates. They are denser than water and so that they Lee 2020). An increase in the production rate of CO from sink to the seafloor and stay on it for a longer period without the pyrolysis process was announced by several researchers returning to the atmosphere. Due to of their negative charge, (Lee et al. 2017a)–Jung et al. 2016). This attributes to the they are suitable for CO sequestration. However, a posi- chemical composition of CO (C and O source), which raise tively charged hydrates are approached for seawater desali- the CO emissions resulting from the conversion of volatile nation purpose. Therefore, it can be achieved by injecting the organic carbons. An increment in the C H and H production dense CO (liquid form) to an ocean depth (below 1000 m) 4 2 2 rates was successfully investigated to be associated with the where the surrounding temperature of the medium is slightly existence of CO , attributing to its expedition ability towards above 0 C . Moreover, injection of CO (liquid form) will 2 2 thermal cracking of volatile organic carbons species (Kim positively mitigate the harmful threats associated with injec- et al. 2017). tion of CO (gas form). CO injection at the stability zone of 2 2 the formed hydrates, especially at these conditions of low Desalination of seawater by CO temperature and high pressure retained formation of hydrant shells ( 4–10 μm thick) on the water surface. These shells Currently, water scarcity has become one of the most critical rise and are collected before the unstable hydrate zone. The challenges facing our world due to different reasons impli- rounded shape crystals (solid form) can be easily removed cated in this global problem such as climate change, environ- from saline water. By sudden shifting the temperature and mental contamination and uncontrollable population growth. pressure to ambient conditions, purified water can be deliv - An urgent necessity of clean water for different biota cannot ered. Recycling of CO is suggested to continue in the next be ignored (Dadson et al. 2017). Recently, World Bank states cycle, and because of its nature as a chemicals-free tech- that about 450 million people around the world in about 29 nique, membrane separation is not required. countries do not have the accessibility for clean freshwater supply. Roughly, 71% of the world’s population suffers from Utilisation of CO in construction and building water shortage for a minimum one month per year, which materials leads to sociopolitical instability (Hanjra and Qureshi 2010). Mostly, surface water and seawater have a salinity content Globally, the prolonged usage of cement and concrete based of 10,000 ppm and (35,000 and 45,000 ppm), respectively materials in construction materials are attributed to their (Zhou and Tol 2005). World Health Organization reports remarkable merits (i.e. high strength and durability). The that the acceptable limits of salinity content in water to be cement industry is one of the most intensive CO emitters, 500 ppm (Tavakkoli et al. 2017). Desalination scenario was accounting for 5–8% of global anthropogenic CO emissions adapted by different countries to face the global issue of (Scrivener and Kirkpatrick 2008). Incorporation of CO water scarcity. The global quota of desalination (i.e. services into cement-based materials involves a chemical reaction and products) was expected to be $13.4 billion in 2015. More between CO and cement hydrates which can be summarised than 11,000 water desalination treatment plants located in in term of the carbonation process of (calcium hydroxide, 150 countries supply fresh water to 300 million people with calcium silicate hydrates, calcium sulphoaluminate hydrates, an annual enhancement of 8% (Morad et al. 2017). Com- cement clinker minerals, magnesium-derived hydrates and monly, desalination is operated in two ways: distillation and supplementary cementitious materials). 1 3 832 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 Atmosphere Reuse Liquid CO Pure water Ocean Unstable hydrate zone Collecon dense Crystalline CO hydrate Hydrant shells pressure orthorhombic hexagonal rise 1000 metre sink light 0 °C dense Hydrant shells Crystalline CO hydrate H O + CO 2 2 Lithosphere Fig. 25 Seawater desalination working mechanism using CO . (1) of 1000 m and temperature around 0 C , (5) formation of hydrant Formation of CO crystalline hydrates resulting from CO and water shells round in shape ( 4–10 μm thick), (6) rising of the produced 2 2 reaction under specific conditions (low temperature and high pres- shells and their collection before the unstable hydrate zone and (7) sure), (2) inducing in the pressure transition between orthorhombic producing of pure water by shifting temperature and pressure to and cubic hexagonal forms, (3) sinking of the CO hydrates (aggre- ambient, followed by the possible recycling of CO in the next cycles 2 2 gates) to the seafloor, (4) injection of CO (liquid form) below a depth Carbonation of calcium hydroxide Carbonation of cement clinker minerals During the carbonation reaction, cement paste hardening As time proceeds, hydration of cement clinker minerals is was expressed, as shown in Eqs.  (21) and (22): carried out. As conducted by Papadakis, within the curing period of 28 days, hydration degrees of 67%, 79%, 91% and Ca(OH) (s → aq)+ CO (g → aq) → CaCO (aq → s)+ H O(aq) 2 2 3 2 96% were recorded for C S , C AF , C S and C A , respec- 2 4 3 3 (21) tively (Jang and Lee 2016). Once, the hydration reaction + 2− CO + H O → H CO → 2H CO 2 2 2 3 ends, carbonation is suggested to be initiated. The unreacted (22) C S and C S through carbonation in the first stage can form Ca(OH) + 2H CO → CaCO + 2H O 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 calcite and C–S–H, respectively. Finally, calcite and silica CO is proceeded to react with calcium hydroxide and upon con- 2 gel are produced in the last stage, as expressed in Eqs. (24) tinuing the reaction, decrement in the content of calcium hydrox- and (25). ide, an opposite increment of calcium carbonate content and 3CaO ⋅ SiO + 3CO + nH O → SiO ⋅ nH O + 3CaCO reduction in the pH value of the hardened paste (Jang et al. 2015). 2 2 2 2 2 3 (24) 2CaO ⋅ SiO + 2CO + nH O → SiO ⋅ nH O + 2CaCO 2 2 2 2 2 3 Carbonation of calcium silicate hydrates (25) The proportion of each hydration product, calcium silicate CO ‑curing of cement‑based materials hydrate (C–S–H), calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) and calcium sulphoaluminate hydrates, varies considering the cement The utilisation of CO in cement industries (carbonation) composition (Jang and Lee 2016). Once most of calcium has been proposed during the product-curing stage (Jang and hydroxide amount is consumed, carbonation of (C–S–H) is Lee 2016). Numerous studies have shown the role of CO suggested to be initiated as shown in Eq. (23): (23) xCaO ⋅ ySiO ⋅ zH O + xCO → xCaCO + y SiO H O +(z − y)H O 2 2 2 3 2.t 2 2 1 3 Vercal delivery pipe Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 833 in improving the characteristics of cement-based materials the copolymerisation process. On the contrary of aromatic (i.e. microstructure densification, mechanical stability and polycarbonates, aliphatic polycarbonates are thermoplastic durability). Additionally, CO -curing is preferred over the polycarbonates with repeating carbonate backbone linkages conventional methods of curing using (i.e. heat, water and with no aromatic groups between these linkages. Alternat- steam) (Zhan et al. 2016). Shao and Morshed (2013) con- ing aliphatic polycarbonate co-polymers are produced by cluded that CO significantly decreased the duration of the copolymerising of CO with some cyclic ethers (i.e. aziri- 2 2 curing stage and increased the strength compared with the dines and cyclohexene). Other aliphatic polycarbonates such heat curing technique. Incorporation of different admixtures as poly (ethylene, propylene, butylene, hexane, styrene, during CO curing of cement-based products was retained cyclohexene, cyclopentene and cyclohexadiene) carbonates as a pursuit of environmental-friendliness. For instance, fly are synthesised through copolymerisation of CO with epox- ash concrete cured with CO for less than 12 h had higher ides (Darensbourg et al. 2013; Honda et al. 2014). Among achievable strength and better durability, accompanied by them, poly (propylene, ethylene, butylene and cyclohexene) a reduction in carbon emissions ( 36%). Furthermore, the carbonates are the master of industrial CO applications strength of fly ash was effectively enhanced by inoculation (Klaus et  al. 2011). Significantly, fixation of waste CO of magnesium oxide (Mo et al. 2015). Tu et al. (2016) stated into polypropylene carbonate is an exceptional accomplish- that CO pressure strongly impacted on the calcium carbon- ment referring to its versatility in different polypropylene ate form; poorly crystalline calcium carbonate and highly carbonate-related products (i.e. foaming, electrolyte, etc.). crystalline calcium carbonate polymorphs are formed under In 2006, a polypropylene carbonate production facility with lower and higher CO pressure, respectively. a design capacity of 5000  t/annum (t/a) was established in Tian-Guan Enterprise (Group) Co. Ltd, Henan, China. Utilisation of CO for co‑polymers and polymer With the tremendous scientific progress, the capacity has blends raised to 25,000 t/annum (t/a) in 2012 (Murcia Valderrama et al. 2019). Annually, the company produces nearly 550 The development of engineered polymers based on sustain- (kt/a) of ethanol using corn via the alcoholic fermentation able feedstocks has become necessary to face the growing process. The importance of waste CO recycling instead of utilisation of polymers based on finite fossil resources (i.e. releasing to the atmosphere has been realised in recent years. plastics) (Mekonnen et al. 2014; Chaterjee and Krupadam Copolymerisation of propylene oxide with the recycled CO 2019). For instance, the extraordinary growth of the plastic facilities the production of biodegradable polypropylene synthesising reached about 407 million tons in 2017. Pres- carbonates (43% wt. CO ). Eventually, zero pollution scope ently, 70% of the overall commodity plastics production was accomplished by converting waste CO emissions into process includes polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polysty- biodegradable plastic (Murcia Valderrama et al. 2019). rene, polyethylene terephthalate, low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene and high-density polyethyl- Utilisation of CO in food processing ene. Economically, employing CO for synthesising differ - ent biodegradable polymers is considered a cost-effective In general, CO is usually advantageous in food processing approach. The action of microorganisms can degrade these as it can be used as a food preserving as well as antimicrobial biopolymers under specific optimised conditions. One of the agents (dual benefits) (Puligundla et al. 2012). Frequently, direct ways for CO utilisation is the production of polyes- it is employed as a flushing gas in modified atmosphere ters (polyhydroxyalkanoates) via a biological process (Tro- packaging. Presence of CO in the package’s atmosphere schl et al. 2018). For example, purple sulphur bacteria have may minimise the package’s pressure or volume attributing been reported to generate polyhydroxyalkanoates (intracel- to its high solubility character in food matrices and thus lular energy and carbon storage compound) under anaerobic balancing (managing) the pressure between the inside of conditions, by taking advantage of the fact that CO and headspace and the outside of the package. This is sometimes sunlight are sources for carbon and energy, respectively. helpful for good products marketing in the environment of Despite the nature of CO to be thermo-dynamically stable, low pressure and temperature (Chaix et al. 2014). The CO 2 2 some reactions are not required to be supplied with external -based modified atmosphere packaging strategy should be energy because it can be available through co-reactants (i.e. applied with high professionalism in line with food proper- amines and hydroxides). Moderate energy can be provided to ties and operational conditions to avoid high CO dissolution other reaction types by appending the entire CO moiety to into foods. A high concentration of dissolute CO negatively 2 2 the other reactant in order to produce polycarbonates based results in package collapse associated with very poor quality on CO and epoxides. Due to the stable chemical nature of (i.e. bad texture and a fl vour). Besides, CO is used to prevent 2 2 CO , some active catalysts have been added to promote the food oxidation. N gas is widely used to inhibit oxidation; 2 2 activation of inherently inactive CO and smoothly stimulate 1 3 834 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 however, a combination of CO with N is desirable for anti- operates pressurised CO (1–500 bar) at most microbes can 2 2 2 oxidative food packaging (Lee 2016). be inhibited (inactivation process). Die ff rent operational fac - On the other hand, the antimicrobial behaviour of CO tors directly affect the whole process (i.e. microorganism was documented in different literature. This helps enor - species, cell concentration, pH, water content, the physical mously in the preservation of food freshness and hence, state of CO , operational time, pressure and temperature) enhances its shelf life. The antimicrobial activity is closely (Corbo et al. 2009). Briefly, the subjected CO can dam- related to the solubility rate as well as the dissolved amount age and disturb cell surface and intracellular organisation, of CO in the food product. Readily, it is soluble in aqueous respectively. There is an alteration in the microbial cell mor- and fatty food with observable high solubility rate at a lower phology intracellular organisation, respectively. An altera- temperature. Besides, its solubility differs considering food tion in the microbial cell morphology after HPCD treatment properties (i.e. pH, surface area and composition) in addition was clarified by scanning and transmission electron micro- to the partial pressure of the as-used gas. Numerous pub- scopes (SEM and TEM). A great number of bulges appeared lished papers largely focused on high-pressure carbon diox- on the extracellular surface of HPCD-treated cell, intracel- ide (HPCD) as a novel methodology for the food facilities, lular organisation, respectively. An alteration in the micro- as shown in Fig. 26 . Briefly, it is nonthermal pasteurisation, bial cell morphology after HPCD treatment was clarified by Fig. 26 High-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) inactivation mecha- the membrane permeabilisation and fluidity, (6) destroying the charge nisms on vegetative microbial cells. (1) subjecting of bacterial cells to balance of membrane surface attributing to decrement in the pH and high pressurised CO (HPCD), (2) higher clumping of bacterial cells HCO generated from CO , (7) loss of activity characterised to some 2 2 because of severe shear force effect resulting from HPCD technique, proteins and enzymes due to HPCD treatment, (8) inducing of intra- 2− (3) disruption of the intracellular organisation (cell surface damage) cellular precipitation by the internal ribosomes and CO produced associated with numerous bulges presence on the extracellular surface from CO and (9) stimulation and inhibition of metabolic pathways of HPCD-treated cells, (4) enhancement in the CO diffusion rate as that require and produce CO , respectively 2 2 − 2− well as the conversion of CO into HCO and CO , (5) an increase in 3 3 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 835 scanning and transmission electron microscopes (Del Pozo- CO ‑based geothermal system: U1 Insfran et al. 2006). The base CCU S system is a so-called CO -plume geother- CO utilisation: turning CO into a power resource mal power system (CPGs), where the captured CO is cir- 2 2 2 culated underground in deep saline aquifers or hydrocarbon Carbon capture and permanent geologic storage of CO reservoirs (e.g. during enhanced oil recovery) (Randolph can be utilised (U) threefold to U1) CO -based geothermal and Saar 2011; Adams et al. 2015; Garapati et al. 2015; energy extraction and conversion to electricity at about twice Ezekiel et al. 2020). In these reservoirs, the CO is naturally the efficiency of standard water-based geothermal power geothermally heated and produced to the surface, where plants, U2) provide grid-scale subsurface energy storage it is expanded in a turbine to generate electricity. At the that can operate over a range of duration from a diurnal to surface power plant, CO is subsequently cooled using wet biannual (seasonal) energy storage cycle and U3) operate as cooling towers to increase its density, compressed and then a heat sink that provides cold for district cooling and cryo- combined with any CO stream, from a CO emitter, before 2 2 genic direct air CO capture. All-above mentioned technolo- it is reinjected into the subsurface reservoir (Fig. 27). The gies are constituting a CCU S system (Fig. 27), which entails reinjection of cold and dense CO results in the continued cyclic fluid(s) injection into (and possibly retrieval from) growth of the subsurface CO plume and ensures that 100% the subsurface geological formations. Therefore, unintended of the subsurface-injected CO is eventually permanently changes in dynamic reservoir properties (e.g. saturation, stored underground. This combined cycle couples CO pressure) will be often induced and need to be quantified and sequestration with geothermal energy utilisation in low-to- properly monitored by the inversion of the geophysical field medium enthalpy systems; the conditions that are widely data (such as time-lapse seismic data). The CCU S system distributed across global sedimentary basins and correspond will be documented in details upon what follows. to a depth range of 2.0–5.0 km (Fig. 19). Fig. 27 A conceptual model on how carbon capture, threefold utilisa- injected into a shallow (temporal storage) reservoir. Power is pro- tion and geological storage ( CCU S ) system operates using the three duced by extracting CO from the shallow reservoir to the surface, different modes: [U1] generate geothermal power that roughly dou- expanded in a turbine to produce power, partially cooled and injected bles the electricity output, compared to using groundwater to extract into a shallow, storage reservoir and [U3] district cooling and cryo- the geothermal heat, all else being equal, [U2] Energy storage where genic direct air CO capture. The figure is a perspective drawing from the system consumes electrical power to cool, compress the CO , and Fleming et al. (2018)’s results 1 3 836 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 Alternatively, when geologic CO storage is uneconomic, Gasometer‑based CO ‑plume geothermal energy storage 2 2 CPGs could be operated with a limited, finite amount of system: U3 CO , initially stored underground and thereafter run with little or no additional makeup CO (Garapati et al. 2015). In the above-described subsurface-CO -based energy storage 2 2 Compared to brine, the favourable properties of CO (Brown system, the “shallow” reservoir may be replaced by a gas- 2000; Adams et al. 2014) are: ometer, which results in a heat sink (cold source), enabling district cooling and cryogenic direct air CO capture (cryo- 1. The density of CO changes substantially between the DACC), powered by geothermal energy (Fig. 27). Thus, if geothermal reservoir and surface plant, resulting in a desired, the system can, after initial priming with sufficient buoyancy-driven convective current—a strong CO ther- CO (to begin operation), capture its own CO from the air 2 2 2 mosiphon phenomenon—that increases the mass flow - and thus grow in size as more CO is captured and perma- rate, compared to water, while reducing or eliminating nently stored in the deep geologic reservoir. parasitic pumping power required for fluid circulation through the injection and production boreholes (Fig. 21). 2. Given the fact that the fluid flow in porous media obeys Bibliometric analysis Darcy’s law and that heat is both advected by the fluids and conducted through the rock-fluid system, an effec- To acquire the appropriate data from the web of science tive heat advection using CPG system can be secured core collection database and the exported data files, some because the kinematic viscosity of supercritical CO is Boolean operator logic was implemented in the search meth- low (i.e. high mobility). odology to find suitable publications and identify evidence 3. CO -based geothermal energy utilisation can result in gaps in the knowledge and research surrounding carbon cap- diminished mineral dissolution-precipitation — a major ture storage and utilisation. The raw data of the bibliometric problem often encountered during water-based geother- mappings in Fig.  28a, b were collected from the Web of mal energy extraction and utilisation. Science then plotted with the VOSviewer software show- ing the co-occurrence of keywords in the literature between Underground grid‑scale energy storage: U2 2010 and 2020. The research methodology is shown below where 1748 results were collected from the Web of Science There will be an urgent need to diversify the portfolio of Core Collection grid-connected storage technologies to ensure inter-seasonal You searched for: Title: (“CO -capture and utilization” energy security from a system that generates power at higher OR “pre-combustion” OR “pre combustion” OR “oxyfuel than 80% from intermittent renewables. For underground combustion” OR “oxy-fuel combustion” OR “post-combus- (solar and wind) energy storage, the CPGs cycle is separated tion” OR “post combustion” OR “carbon capture and stor- into two operations (energy discharge and energy storage) by age utilization” AND “chemical looping” AND “monoetha- temporarily storing the CO , after expansion in the turbine nolamine” AND “membrane separation” AND “chemical and subsequent cooling in a shallow (  1 km deep) reser- absorption” AND “physical adsorption”) voir during the energy discharge mode (Fig. 27). For energy Refined by: DOCUMENT TYPES: (ARTICLE OR PRO- storage, the CO is released from the shallow reservoir and CEEDINGS PAPER OR REVIEW) reinjected into the deep (  2.5 km deep) and thus warm Timespan: 2010–2020. “geothermal” reservoir. Fleming et al. (2018) found that the The bibliometric mapping over the last ten years seasonal energy storage cycle has power ratios (i.e. the total (2010–2020) shows that the post-combustion route is generation energies to the total storage energies) of 1.55 and dominating the keywords in the literature, with significant 1.05, for the 200 kg/s and 300 kg/s mass flowrate cases, keywords such as absorption, amines, optimisation of post- respectively. However, these ratios increase to 2.93 and 1.95, combustion and flue gas. Interestingly, the oxyfuel combus- because of the increase in the storage energy consumption, tion approach has attracted the attention of scientists and the decrease in the generation energy output and variation engineers over the last decade with keywords such as oxy- in the duty cycle. This type of subsurface (solar and wind) fuel combustion, oxy-combustion and oxygen. The oxyfuel energy storage in the deep and warm reservoir is highly effi - combustion route is linked through the literature with bio- cient, as geothermal energy is added during pressurised CO mass and pulverised coal. The pre-combustion technology (energy) storage underground and at the power-grid scale is represented with major keywords such as gasification, (i.e. in the several GWh ranges). hydrogen production and gasification combined cycle, as shown in Fig. 28a. The density visualisation mapping, as shown in Fig. 28b, shows that the literature during the last decade focused on 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 837 Fig. 28 The bibliometric map- ping of technologies used in the carbon capture and storage route: (top) network visualisa- tion of most of the prominent keywords in literature in the period of 2010–2020, (bottom) the density visualisation of most of the prominent keywords in literature in the period of 2010–2020, where the lighter areas are studied and investi- gated more in the literature and vice versa the area of post-combustion, especially the absorption route. A promising approach for carbon capture Furthermore, keywords such as oxyfuel combustion, flue and conversion into recycled fuel gas, kinetics, coal and separation showed frequent utilisa- tion in carbon capture and storage during the last ten years. One of the most promising approaches in CCUS route is CO The less dense (darker) areas in the bibliometric mapping capture using physical adsorption where the sorbent is in the of Fig. 28b show the research gap in the literature in this form of a metal oxide (MeO, where Me denotes the metal field that need intensive investigation in the near future. species), such as calcium oxide (CaO), as shown in Fig. 29. For instance, the area of designing new and stable ionic After CO adsorption, the metal adsorbent becomes a metal liquids, pore size and selectivity of metal–organic frame- carbonate in the form of MeCO , where the later reacts with works (MOFs) and enhancing the adsorption capacity of renewable hydrogen derived from water electrolysis, and novel solvents needs further examination. Moreover, areas the source of electricity is renewable; either from solar or such as the techno-economic evaluation of novel solvents, wind energies. The interaction between the metal carbonate process design and dynamic simulation need further effort and the renewable hydrogen will lead to the formation of in the laboratory-scale and research & development before methane (Fig. 29), which is the main constituent in natu- pilot- and commercial-scale trials. ral gas, that consequently can be compressed and used as 1 3 838 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 Fig. 29 The loop process where the flue gas derived from power sis, where the source of electricity is either from solar or wind energy plants or any other source of CO is then combined with renewable sources. The recycled methane (main consistent in natural gas) is then hydrogen gas over adsorbent materials to produce methane as recy- dried and compressed before further utilisation in the process cled fuel. The hydrogen fuel could be obtained from water hydroly- a recycled fuel in power plants (Sun et al. 2021; Lux et al. oxy-fuel combustion route, investigating new novel routes 2018). When combusting natural gas (methane), it releases of air separation is quite important herein, such as ion-trans- a large amount of heat along with lower emissions com- port and oxygen-transport membranes along with chemical pared to other hydrocarbons (Osman et al. 2018b). Thus, this looping methods. Traditional and novel technologies that CCUS approach, when integrated with biomass utilisation as are used in carbon capture have been evaluated such as post- a solid fuel, could eventually lead to a negative carbon emis- combustion (traditional) and partial oxy-combustion (novel). sion system if the CO is stored or utilised in applications In the post-combustion technology, there are desirable prop- such as construction, where the possibility of CO entering erties in novel solvents such as the high cyclic capacities, the atmosphere once more is eliminated. low production cost, low corrosiveness, lower degradation and thus lower by-products along with the environmental impact. At the same time, there are many challenges associ- Conclusion ated with membrane separation, such as water condensa- tion on the membrane, rapid diminution of selectivity and Despite the speed of maturity in renewable technologies, we permeance after operation along with emissions (NOx and still rely on fossil-based fuels to generate the energy demand SOx) that pass through the membrane. Although the pre- needed globally. While waiting for renewable energy tech- combustion technology offers higher efficiency than that of nologies to mature enough and replace fossil-based fuel, post-combustion technology, it is more expensive. To reduce carbon capture storage and utilisation of fossil-based emis- the cost associated with the pre-combustion route, finding a sions are crucial as a transition state. Herein, we reviewed superior absorption solvent is crucial. Currently, post-com- the three main routes of carbon capture, storage and utilisa- bustion technology is the most mature and widely used route tion: pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxy-fuel com- among the three main routes of carbon capture and storage. bustion routes along with the carbon storage and utilisation Valorisation of the captured CO was divided into two technologies. main categories; (1) conversion into fuels or chemicals and Pre-combustion technology is promising in carbon cap- (2) physical utilisation of CO . It may be used directly in ture, while there are many challenges to improving its over- other uses, in addition to carbonated beverages (i.e. fire all efficiency. For instance, the solvent regeneration tem- extinguisher, refrigerant and welding medium). Direct appli- perature needs to be conducted at a lower temperature than cations of CO are limited in scope and have a minor impact currently used to avoid any reduction in the solvent. In the on the overall reduction of CO emissions. Additionally, 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2021) 19:797–849 839 Sustain Energy Rev 80:1588–1596. https ://doi.org/10.1016/j. indirect utilisation of CO in large-scale industries is con- rser.2017.08.062 ceived to improve the performance of different processes. Al-Naddaf Q, Rownaghi AA, Rezaei FF (2020) Multicomponent Such geologically stored and geothermally heated CO can adsorptive separation of CO2, CO, CH4, N2, and H2 over be utilised for a base-load power generation with doubles core-shell zeolite-5A@MOF-74 composite adsorbents. Chem Eng J 384:123251. ISSN 1385-8947. https ://doi.org/10.1016/j. of the electricity output, compared to using groundwater to cej.2019.12325 1 extract the geothermal heat, all else being equal. An X, Li J, Zuo Y, Zhang Q, Wang D, Wang J (2007) A Cu/Zn/Al/Zr fibrous catalyst that is an improved CO2 hydrogenation to metha- Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the sup- nol catalyst. Catal Lett 118(3):264–269. https://doi.or g/10.1007/ port given by the EPSRC project “Advancing Creative Circular Econ- s1056 2-007-9182-x omies for Plastics via Technological-Social Transitions” (ACCEPT Apak R (2007) Alternative solution to global warming arising from Transitions, EP/S025545/1). AO wishes to acknowledge the support CO2 emissions–partial neutralization of tropospheric H2CO3 of The Bryden Centre project (Project ID VA5048). The Bryden Centre with NH3. Environ Prog 26(4):355–359. https://doi.or g/10.1002/ project is supported by the European Union’s INTERREG VA Pro- ep.10228 gramme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). Aplin AC, Matenaar IF, McCarty DK, van Der Pluijm BA (2006) Influ- The authors would like to thank Samer Fawzy and Charlie Farrell who ence of mechanical compaction and clay mineral diagenesis on assisted in the proofreading of the manuscript. the microfabric and pore-scale properties of deep-water gulf of mexico mudstones. 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Recent advances in carbon capture storage and utilisation technologies: a review

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