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A new rare-isotope beam (RIB) accelerator complex, RAON, is under construction in South Korea. RAON employs two RIB production methods, namely, isotope separation online (ISOL) and in-flight fragmentation (IF). According to the original design, ISOL and IF can run independently, and RAON ultimately combines them to provide more neutron- rich ion beams for the experiments. In 2021, due to the delay in developing high-energy superconducting cavities and modules, it was decided to proceed with the RAON construction project in two steps. In the first phase, the injec- tor system, the low-energy accelerator system, ISOL, the IF separator, and all experimental devices will be completed by the end of 2022. The high-energy accelerator system will be developed, manufactured, installed, and commis- sioned in the second phase. In this article, the status of the superconducting accelerators, RIB production systems, and experimental equipment for RAON is reviewed. Keywords: RAON, Superconducting linac, ISOL, In-flight fragmentation, Rare-isotope beams, Nuclear structure, Nuclear astrophysics, Equation of state to push forward the technological advancement of RIB 1 Overview production and acceleration. The task of RISP is to con - The primary goal of nuclear physics is to understand the struct a novel RIB accelerator complex, called RAON, origin of elements, the detailed structure and shape of in Korea [1–3]. RAON is the acronym for Rare isotope exotic nuclei, and the strong interaction in dense nuclear Accelerator complex for ON-line experiments; nonethe- matter. The answers to these questions are closely related less, it also means “joyful” in the Korean language. RAON to the evolution of the Universe and the states of various comprises a high-energy and high-power (200 MeV/u astrophysical objects such as neutron stars, supernovae, and 400 kW, respectively) RIB accelerator, and it is one of and gravitational waves. A heavy−ion accelerator is an the most advanced accelerator systems of its type. RAON essential tool for investigating these subjects, and in par- is expected to provide high-quality RIBs via both ISOL ticular, the RIB accelerator can provide crucial data to and IF production methods for nuclear physics and appli- solve many fundamental problems. However, technical cations. ISOL uses direct-fission processes initiated by challenges have been prevalent in developing RIB accel- intense proton beams, and IF uses projectile fragments of erators and experimental devices, as nuclear physicists heavy nuclear beams. require rarer isotope beams with unprecedented intensi- Figure 1 shows the layout of the original design for the ties to test novel ideas. RAON facility. The color of the boxes in Fig. 1 distin- The Institute of Basic Science (IBS) in Korea decided guishes the nature of the components: the items in green to contribute to such a worldwide endeavor by launch- and brown boxes are the accelerator systems and the RIB ing the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in 2011. production systems, respectively. The components in the RISP aims not only to provide an additional RIB facility purple boxes represent the seven experimental systems. to the worldwide nuclear physics community but also In the original design of RAON, an independent opera- tion of the ISOL and IF systems were possible; however, *Correspondence: email@example.com due to budget shortage, one of the low-energy super- Center for Extreme Nuclear Matters (CENuM) and Department of Physics, conducting linac systems, SCL1, and the two connected Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea ECR ion sources were canceled. With this modification, © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/. Hong AAPPS Bulletin (2023) 33:3 Page 2 of 11 Fig. 1 Layout of the overall RAON facility. The items written in green and brown are the accelerator systems and RIB production systems, respectively. The items in purple are the experimental setups. One of the low-energy superconducting linac SCL1 and the associated ECRs were canceled because of the budget shortage, and the SCL3 and another set of ECRs play their role instead. The small panel in the upper-right corner shows the recent bird’s-eye-view image of the RAON area another low-energy superconducting linac SCL3 and the image of the RAON area is shown on the small panel in associated set of ECRs assumed the role of the canceled the upper-right corner of Fig. 1. SCL1 and ECRs. Consequently, the implementation of Figure 2 shows the schematic of the accelera- the important feature for the simultaneous operation tion scheme, the RIB production systems, and the of ISOL and IF is a future task. A recent bird’s-eye-view beam extraction positions for the seven experimental Fig. 2 Schematic of RAON for the accelerator components, RIB production system, and beam extraction positions for seven experimental setups. The bottom table shows the full names of acronyms used in this article Hong AAPPS Bulletin (2023) 33:3 Page 3 of 11 systems. In the absence of SCL1, the stable ion beams 2 Status of the accelerator system from the ECR ion sources or RIBs from the ISOL sys- 2.1 Injector system tem are transported and accelerated by the injector A schematic of the injector system for RAON is dis- system and the SCL3. Possible RIB generation and played in the top panel of Fig. 3. It consists of two ECR acceleration methods can be summarized as follows: ion sources, LEBT, RFQ, and MEBT before SCL3. The two ECR ion sources are the 14.5-GHz source made of • KoBRA: Stable ion beams from the SCL3 bom- a permanent magnet and the 28-GHz source made of bard the production target of KoBRA. Direct or a superconducting magnet. The beams from the LEBT multi-nucleon transfer reactions mostly produce are accelerated by the RFQ from 10 keV/u to 500 keV/u light radioactive ions up to a few tens of MeV at the frequency of 81.25 MHz, matching the character- per nucleon. Because this method uses stable ion istics of the QWR of the SCL3. beams, it will be attempted in the early phase of The commissioning of the injector system started in 40 8+ 40 9+ RAON operation. October 2020 by using Ar and Ar beams from • ISOL: RIBs are produced by impinging high-inten- the 14.5-GHz ECR ion source. The pulse length of the sity proton beams from a cyclotron on the target beam was 100 μ s and the repetition rate was 1 Hz. The ion source (TIS). In this method the SCL3 plays peak currents of the commissioning beams were 47 and 40 8+ 40 9+ the role of a post-accelerator, increasing the energy 30 eμ A at the LEBT for Ar and Ar , re sp e c tively. of RIBs to a few tens of MeV per nucleon. From the beam currents measured by the monitoring • IF: This method can be applied after the SCL2 sys- detectors at LEBT and MEBT, the transmission rate of tem is completed. A wide spectrum of beam spe- the RFQ was estimated to be larger than 92%, agree- cies is available based on different combinations ing with the simulation results. The beam energy was of beam production techniques and accelerator measured by the time-of-flight information by the two systems. For example, one possibility is to use the beam-position monitors (BPMs) in the MEBT. Cur- stable ion beams from the ECR ion source that are rently, the 28-GHz superconducting ECR ion source is accelerated by SCL3 and, consecutively, the SCL2 under a high-voltage test. and bombard the IF target. The projectile frag- mentation provides various RIBs to the experi- ments at the highest energies, for example, up to 2.2 Superconducting linac approximately 250 MeV/u for the Sn beam. Ulti- Figure 4 shows the detailed compositions of the super- mately, RAON bombards RIBs from the ISOL sys- conducting linac systems. The SCL3 system consists of tem on the IF target to generate more neutron-rich 22 QWR and 32 HWR modules. The HWR modules ion beams. The simulations have shown that the have two different types: 13 type A modules with two combination of ISOL and IF can produce new RIB cavities in each module and 19 type B modules with species close to the neutron dripline or increase four cavities in each module. Furthermore, the SCL2 the yields of certain isotopes by several orders . system that is under development consists of 23 SSR1 modules and the same number of SSR2 modules. The In 2021, the Korean government and IBS decided to SSR1 and SSR2 modules are designed to have three and proceed with RISP in two phases because of the delay six cavities, respectively, in each module. Presently, the in developing the high-energy superconducting linac performance test of the prototype SSR1 and SSR2 cavi- system SCL2. As indicated in Fig. 2, the SCL2 employs ties and modules is in progress. the Single-Spoke-Resonator-type (SSR) cavities for the RISP has set up the superconducting radio frequency first time in ion-beam acceleration. Because it requires (SRF) test facility for testing the performance of the more time than that anticipated to develop cavities superconducting cavities and cryomodules. The onsite and cryomodules, the R&D, construction, and com- SRF test facility is presently equipped with three ver- missioning of SCL2 belong to the second phase. There- tical test pits (each pit for testing three cavities simul- fore, the first phase to be completed by the end of 2022 taneously) and three horizontal test bunkers. Two includes the installation and beam commissioning of additional vertical test pits with two cavities per pit will the injector system, SCL3, and the ISOL system with a be available in the future. cyclotron. The first phase also includes the installation The QWR and HWR cavities and modules for SCL3 and commissioning of all experimental devices as well were tested and assembled with the warm sections in as the IF separator. a clean booth in the tunnel. In Fig. 5, the left panel shows the assembly of the SCL3 cryomodules and Hong AAPPS Bulletin (2023) 33:3 Page 4 of 11 Fig. 3 Schematic (top) and images (bottom) of the injector system. The bottom-right panel shows the 28-GHz superconducting ECR ion source Fig. 4 Overview of the superconducting linac systems. The left panel shows the SCL3 system that is completed in Phase 1, and the right panel shows the SCL2 system that is under development as Phase 2 Hong AAPPS Bulletin (2023) 33:3 Page 5 of 11 Fig. 5 Assembly of the cryomodules (CM) and warm sections (left) and the completed low-energy superconducting linac SCL3 (right) Fig. 6 Images of the cryoplant system. From left to right, a cold box, warm compressors, and the liquid-He distribution system along with a cold box are shown warm sections, and the right panel displays the SCL3 system completely installed in 2021. The operation of the superconducting linac requires the cryoplant system. The two cryoplant systems and the cryogenic distribution system for liquid helium (LHe) were installed. Figure 6 shows a cold box, warm compressors, and the liquid-He distribution system for the cryoplant system. The SCL3 cryoplant has a cool- ing capacity of 4.2 kW as the equivalent heat load at 4.5 K. The larger SCL2 cryoplant for SCL2 and the IF separator has a cooling capacity of 13.5 kW as the equivalent heat load at 4.5 K. The installation of the cryoplants was completed in 2021. The Site Accept- ance Test (SAT) for the SCL3 cryoplant was completed at the end of July 2022. Cooling down of the SCL3 cry- oplant and conditioning of RF started at the beginning of September 2022. The first beam extraction of the 40 9+ Ar beam through the first six QWR cavities was successfully performed in October 2022. Beam com- 40 9+ missioning for the entire SCL3 with the Ar beam Fig. 7 Schematic of the ISOL system is in progress. Hong AAPPS Bulletin (2023) 33:3 Page 6 of 11 3 RIB production system charge separation capability of the current ISOL beam- 3.1 ISOL lines. Accordingly, the mass resolving power of the A/q Figure 7 shows the schematic of the ISOL system and separator was determined to be approximately 250 in 2 σ . beamlines for RAON. The ISOL system consists of the However, the mass resolving power can be improved sig- driver cyclotron, TIS, pre-mass separator, RFQ cooler nificantly to 400 with more careful tuning of the system. buncher (RFQ-CB), electron beam ion source (EBIS), and In April 2022, Sn ions were also extracted by using RILIS A/q separator. The installation of the cyclotron was per - and the natural abundances of the Sn isotopes were suc- formed in April 2022, and SAT is expected shortly. The cessfully reproduced. Figure 9 shows the mass spectrum cyclotron accelerates the protons up to 70 MeV with a of the pre-mass separator for the Sn isotopes extracted by maximum beam current of 0.75 mA. As an ISOL target, RILIS at TIS and the measured A/q spectrum. SiC, BN, MgO, LaC , and UC have been prepared for 2 x producing various RIB species. At the beginning stage of 3.2 IF the ISOL operation, SiC will be used. The UC target will The RAON IF separator consists of two parts: (1) the be used in 2025 or later. pre-separator (PS), following the beam delivery sys- In addition, the surface ion source, resonant ioniza- tem (BDS), for the production and separation of RIBs tion laser ion source (RILIS), and plasma ion sources of interest and (2) the main separator (MS) for identi- are available for TIS. To avoid any radiation hazard a full fication and supply of the selected isotope for experi - remote handling system is installed for changing the tar- mentations, as shown in the top panel in Fig. 10. IF gets in the TIS module. The ISOL system will provide was designed with a maximum rigidity of 9.6 Tm, the RIBs with 6 ≤ A ≤ 250 and 10 ≤ K ≤ 80 keV. The purity angular acceptance of ±40 mrad, and the momentum of the beam species is expected to be higher than 90% for acceptance of ±3% for the fragments and in-flight fis - experiments. sion products, considering the future upgrade of 400 While waiting for the cyclotron to supply proton beams MeV/u for uranium beams in SCL2. for ISOL, the Cs ion source in TIS was used to test the PS consists of a high-power target, beam dump, and ISOL system and beamlines. For this exercise the Cs high-temperature superconducting quadrupole and source was placed in a hot-cavity Ta heater, as shown in hexapole magnets in large vacuum chambers for radia- the left panel of Fig. 8. The Cs ion beams with a cur- tion protection and maintenance. The high-power rent of 4.0 nA were extracted and transported down to target and beam dump that could handle up to 80 kW the A/q separator. From the measurement of the horizon- were manufactured using graphite. The offline test of tal beam size in the pre-mass separator, the mass resolv- the target and beam dump was completed, and the heat ing power was determined to be approximately 1000 in loading test using induction heating is being prepared. 2 σ . At RFQ-CB, the Cs ions were bunched into 1.66×10 The production of the magnets for IF was completed, 27+ 7 133 /s, and subsequently, EBIS measured 5.0×10 Cs and the performance test of the low-temperature ions with a breeding efficiency of approximately 44%. superconducting (LTS) quadrupole-magnet triplets The measured A/q spectrum of the Cs beam is shown is underway. The particle identification system, con- on the right panel of Fig. 8, demonstrating an excellent sisting of parallel plate avalanche counters (PPACs), Fig. 8 Cs ion source placed in a hot-cavity Ta heater in TIS for commissioning the ISOL system and beamlines (left) and the measured A/q spectrum for the Cs beams (right) Hong AAPPS Bulletin (2023) 33:3 Page 7 of 11 Fig. 9 Mass spectrum of the pre-mass separator for the Sn isotopes extracted by RILIS at TIS (left) and the measured A/q spectrum (right) Fig. 10 Schematic of the overall IF system shown in the top panel. The bottom panels show the images of the IF target, beam dump, and large vacuum chamber in the pre-separator plastic scintillators, and silicon detectors, is being pre-4 Experimental systems pared. The images of the IF target system, beam dump, 4.1 KoBRA and large vacuum chamber in PS are displayed in the KoBRA is a dedicated spectrometer for studying nuclear bottom panels of Fig. 10. The installation of all mag- structure and astrophysics at low energies below 40 nets and subsystems for IF is expected to be completed MeV/u [5, 6]. Figure 11 shows the low-energy experimen- by the end of 2022. tal halls. Presently, the two rooms are used for setting Hong AAPPS Bulletin (2023) 33:3 Page 8 of 11 the high-order aberrations up to the fourth order with two hexapole magnets, and fifteen quadrupole magnets. The swinger magnet bends the beam direction up to 12 for the rigidity of 3 Tm. The horizontal and vertical angu - lar acceptances are 80 and 200 mrad, respectively, and the momentum acceptance is 8%. The magnetic rigidity of RIBs can be analyzed at F1. The momentum and maximum mass resolving powers are 2100 and 750, respectively, for the horizontal beam size of 2 mm. Either homogeneous or curved degrader can be inserted at F1 to increase the beam purification. There are two double achromatic foci (F2 and F3) located downstream of F1. The installation of the KoBRA com - ponents was completed in June 2021 except for the Wien filter, which will be installed between F2 and F3 in 2023 to cause a mass dispersion at F3. The beam transportation test was performed by install - ing the Am α source at F0. The magnetic rigidities of α particles emitted from the source were analyzed by using the position information at F1 for each particle. The posi - tion at F1 was measured by the large area PPAC. The rel - Fig. 11 Layout of the low-energy experimental halls at RAON. ative abundances of α ’s at three different energies (5.388, Presently, the two rooms are used for KoBRA and NDPS, respectively, 5.442, and 5.486 MeV) and the transversal distributions and the other two rooms are reserved for future experiments at F1, F2, and F3 were consistent with the Monte−Carlo simulations, confirming the momentum resolving power at F1. up the KoBRA and NDPS systems, respectively, and the The startup plan for KoBRA is to experiment with the other two rooms (E2 and E3) are reserved for future first commissioning Ar beams at 25 MeV/u in 2023. experiments. The schematic of the KoBRA setup is dis - RIBs, e.g., Mg, will be produced by bombarding the played in the left panel of Fig. 12. The right side of Fig. 12 Ar beams on a graphite production target at F0, and shows two recent images for the production-target- the subsequent part of the magnetic spectrometer will chamber (F0) area on top and the dispersive focus (F1) select the desired RIBs for the experiments. However, the area at the bottom. KoBRA consists of a swinger mag- true strength of KoBRA can be recognized when ISOL net right before the production target chamber, the two provides exotic nuclei with high purity. For the experi- curved-edge bending magnets (D1 and D2) to minimize ments at KoBRA, several detector systems, such as the Fig. 12 Schematic of KoBRA on the left. The two images on the right show the production-target-chamber (F0) area (top) and the dispersive-focus (F1) area (bottom) Hong AAPPS Bulletin (2023) 33:3 Page 9 of 11 Fig. 13 Schematic of NDPS. The proton or deuteron beams from the SCL3 are transported from the upper-right corner of the schematic on the left figure. The top image shows the neutron beam dump. The two bottom images show part of the 4-m-long neutron collimator (left) and the target room (right) high-resolution γ detector system, Si detectors, and evaporation of neutron-deficient nuclei, fusion reactions active-target time-projection chamber (AT-TPC), are related to stellar evolution, a lifetime of isotopes near being prepared. doubly magic N = Z nuclei, fusion-evaporation reactions In the early operational stage of RAON, these detectors of three neutrons for mirror energy differences (MEDs) will be used for several nuclear astrophysics and struc- for T = 3/2 mirror pair nuclei, optical model poten- ture experiments, for example, the proton-induced fusion tial studies using stable beams, spectroscopy of proton, Fig. 14 Layout of the high-energy experimental halls for nuclear physics at RAON. Presently, the room on the right side is used for LAMPS, and the one on the left side is reserved for future experiments Hong AAPPS Bulletin (2023) 33:3 Page 10 of 11 Fig. 15 Schematic of LAMPS. The ion beams from IF are transported to the LAMPS from the left. The middle row shows the images of the superconducting solenoid magnet, TPC, installation of TPC in the magnet, and the forward neutron detector array. The bottom row shows the BToF, FToF, BDC, and SC, and the image of the beam diagnostic vacuum chamber after BDC and SC is installed is placed approximately 35 m downstream from the exit neutron and α emitters, measurement of RI production of the neutron collimator. cross-section, and decay spectroscopy using fast-timing measurement. 4.3 LAMPS Figure 14 shows the high-energy experimental halls at 4.2 NDPS RAON. One of the rooms is used for LAMPS, which is NDPS is a dedicated system for nuclear data production presently the only detector system for nuclear physics and other industrial applications. NDPS provides both in high-energy experimental halls, and another room is white neutrons and monoenergetic pulsed neutrons. For reserved for future experiments, such as the zero-degree white neutrons, the deuteron beams at 49 MeV/u bom- spectrometer (ZDS). LAMPS was originally designed to bard a thick graphite target. For monoenergetic neutrons, investigate the nuclear equation of state (EoS) and the the proton beams at 83 MeV bombard a thin Li target. symmetry energy at the supra-saturation baryon den- The NDPS system consists of two production target sities; nonetheless, it can also be useful for studying chambers, four quadrupoles and one dipole magnet, a the nuclear structure. LAMPS accepts high-intensity proton beam dump for monoenergetic neutrons, and a and high-energy RIBs, for example, Sn beams at 250 4-m-long neutron collimator. Figure 13 shows the sche- MeV/u with intensity as large as 10 pps. matic of the NDPS system with two images of the target The top panel of Fig. 15 shows the schematic of the room and neutron collimator. The neutron beam dump, LAMPS system [7, 8]. It consists of a beam diagnostic which is only a concrete block with a thickness of 1 m, Hong AAPPS Bulletin (2023) 33:3 Page 11 of 11 Acknowledgements chamber and an almost azimuthally symmetric charged The author is grateful to all members of RISP for their dedication to the RAON particle tracking system surrounded by a supercon- construction project. Special thanks go to Drs. Seung-Woo Hong, Taeksu Shin, ducting solenoid with a maximum field strength of 1 T. Myun Kwon, Yeonsei Chung, and Young Jin Kim for their support. The revision of the manuscript by Director Seung-Woo Hong is greatly appreciated. In addition, the neutron detector array is located in the forward region. In the beam diagnostic vacuum cham- Authors’ contributions ber, the starting counter (SC) coupled with movable veto The author wrote the manuscript. The author read and approved the final manuscript. paddles and beam drift chambers (BDC) are placed. For the charged particle tracking system, the time-projection Funding chamber (TPC) consisting of eight octant sectors and The RAON project was supported by the National Research Founda- tion of Korea (NRF) grants funded by the Korea government (MSIT ) the barrel and forward Time-of-Flight arrays (BToF and (2013M7A1A1075765 and 2013M7A1A1075764). The LAMPS project was also FToF, respectively) are used. Most of the detector com- supported partially by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grants ponents and a magnet are developed, fabricated, and funded by the Korea government (MSIT ) (2018R1A5A1025563). assembled. The machine commissioning of the integrated Availability of data and materials LAMPS system including the LAMPS trigger and data All data and figures presented in this article are based on the materials avail- acquisition system is foreseen by the end of 2022. able in public through the corresponding references with the permissions by RISP. Although the development and construction of SCL2 have been postponed to the second phase, the LAMPS Declarations Collaboration is planning the physics program, for exam- ple, the isospin transport phenomenon and nuclear sym- Ethics approval and consent to participate metry energy, the skin structure of the neutron-rich Not applicable. nuclei, and the measurement of the quasi-free scattering Consent for publication cross sections with the neutron-rich beams. Not applicable. Competing interests 5 Summary The author declares that he has no competing interests. Since the construction project of RAON was launched in Received: 14 November 2022 Accepted: 21 December 2022 2011, there have been many achievements, including the completion of the SCL3 superconducting linac, instal- lation, and operation of the SCL3 and SCL2 cryoplants, installation of the ISOL system with successful transpor- References tation of the Cs beams, and machine commissioning of 1. J.K. Ahn et al., Overview of the KoRIA facility for rare isotope beams. Few the KoBRA system in the low-energy experimental hall. Body Syst. 54, 197–204 (2013) 2. S.C. Jeong, P. Papakonstantinou, H. Ishiyama, Y. Kim, A brief overview of RAON is preparing the SiC target for the ISOL system RAON physics. J. Korean Phys. Soc. 73, 516–523 (2018) to extract certain rare isotope beams by the end of 2022. 3. B. Hong, Prospects of nuclear physics research using rare isotope beams Thereafter, it will be able to deliver Al beams to MMS at RAON in Korea. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 26, S20505 (2015) 4. J.W. Shin, K.J. Min, C. Ham, T.-S. Park, S.-W. Hong, Yield estimation of and CLS in 2023. These beams will be useful for the neutron-rich rare isotopes induced by 200 MeV/u Sn beams by using investigation of isomer separation using the ground and GEANT4. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B. 349, 221–229 (2015) isomer states of Al in MMS and also the isomeric prop- 5. K. Tshoo, Y.K. Kim, Y.K. Kwon, H.J. Woo, G.D. Kim, Y.J. Kim, B.H. Kang, S.J. 26m Park, Y.-H. Park, J.W. Yoon, J.C. Kim, J.H. Lee, C.S. Seo, W. Hwang, C.C. Yun, erties through the isotopic shifts of Al in CLS. RAON D. Jeon, S.K. Kim, Experimental systems overview of the Rare Isotope Sci- also plans to use the non-fissile ISOL targets, such as BN, ence Project in Korea. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B. 317, 242–247 (2013) MgO, and LaC in addition to SiC in 2024 for more RIB 6. J.Y. Moon, J. Park, C.C. Yun, Y.K. Kwon, T. Komatsubara, T. Hashimoto, K. Tshoo, K. Lee, I.-I. Jung, Y.H. Kim, Y.-K. Kim, Development of the RAON species for the experiments. The UC target will be com- recoil spectrometer (KOBRA) and its applications for nuclear astrophysics. missioned in 2025. JPS Conf. Proc. 6, 030121 (2015) As per the plan, the R&D of the high-energy super- 7. B. Hong, J.K. Ahn, Y. Go, G. Jhang, E. Joo, D.G. Kim, E.J. Kim, H.H. Kim, Y.H. Kim, Y.J. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, Y.K. Kim, H.S. Lee, J.W. Lee, K. Lee, K.S. Lee, S.H. Lee, conducting linac SCL2 will be completed to be fin- S.K. Lee, B. Mulilo, H. Shim, C.C. Yun, Plan for nuclear symmetry energy ished by 2025, and the construction of SCL2 needs experiments using the LAMPS system at the RIB facility RAON in Korea. to be followed at the earliest. After the completion of Eur. Phys. J. A. 50, 49 (2014) 8. H. Shim, J. Lee, B. Hong, J.K. Ahn, G. Bak, J. Jo, M. Kim, Y.J. Kim, Y.J. Kim, SCL2, RAON will aim at the stable operation of ura- H. Lee, H.S. Lee, K.S. Lee, B. Mulilo, D.H. Moon, M.S. Ryu, Performance of nium beams at 200 MeV/u up to 80 kW, gradually prototype neutron detectors for Large Acceptance Multi-Purpose Spec- increasing the beam power to the design goal of 400 trometer at RAON. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A. 927, 280–286 (2019) kW. Finally, RAON plans to combine the ISOL and IF systems to provide more neutron-rich radioactive ion Publisher’s Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in pub- beams for experiments. lished maps and institutional affiliations.
AAPPS Bulletin – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 3, 2023
Keywords: RAON; Superconducting linac; ISOL; In-flight fragmentation; Rare-isotope beams; Nuclear structure; Nuclear astrophysics; Equation of state
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