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Strategies to achieve a carbon neutral society: a review

Strategies to achieve a carbon neutral society: a review The increasing global industrialization and over-exploitation of fossil fuels has induced the release of greenhouse gases, leading to an increase in global temperature and causing environmental issues. There is therefore an urgent necessity to reach net-zero carbon emissions. Only 4.5% of countries have achieved carbon neutrality, and most countries are still planning to do so by 2050–2070. Moreover, synergies between different countries have hampered synergies between adaptation and mitigation policies, as well as their co-benefits. Here, we present a strategy to reach a carbon neutral economy by examining the outcome goals of the 26th summit of the United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP 26). Methods have been designed for mapping carbon emissions, such as input–output models, spatial systems, geographic information system maps, light detection and ranging techniques, and logarithmic mean divisia. We present decarbonization technolo- gies and initiatives, and negative emissions technologies, and we discuss carbon trading and carbon tax. We propose plans for carbon neutrality such as shifting away from fossil fuels toward renewable energy, and the development of low-carbon technologies, low-carbon agriculture, changing dietary habits and increasing the value of food and agricultural waste. Devel- oping resilient buildings and cities, introducing decentralized energy systems, and the electrification of the transportation sector is also necessary. We also review the life cycle analysis of carbon neutral systems. Keywords Carbon neutrality · Net-zero carbon plan · Worldwide initiatives · Carbon emissions · Carbon neutral system · Life cycle analysis Abbreviations UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on COP26 The 26th United Nations Climate Change Climate Change Conference of the Parties PCCC Paris Climate Change Conference LiDAR Light detection and ranging IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LMDI-I Log arithmic mean divisia index ICEFN Indirect carbon emissions flow network CCUS Carbon capture utilization and storage WHO World Health Organization BECCS Bioenergy and carbon capture and storage EULUF European Union using the European Union CO Carbon dioxide Land Use Futures SO Sulphur dioxideN/A Not available NOx Nitrogen oxides URL Uniform resource locator NSPG North and South Pole Glaciers ArcGIS Aeronautical reconnaissance coverage geo- graphic information system SCPRC State Council of the People's Republic of * Ahmed I. Osman China aosmanahmed01@qub.ac.uk ha Hectare −1 * Pow-Seng Yap ha Per hectare −1 PowSeng.Yap@xjtlu.edu.cn yr Per year m Cubic meter Department of Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool t Tonne University, Suzhou 215123, China Mg Megagram School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, David Keir Mt Megatonne Building, Queen’s University Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Northern Ireland, Belfast BT9 5AG, UK Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 2278 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Gt Gigatonne is necessary to not only reduce CO emissions but also to GW Gigawattremove CO from the atmosphere to achieve net-zero car- PWh Petawatt hour bon or negative carbon emissions through various social, kg Kilogram economic, environmental and technological measures. −1 GJ Per Gigajoule Carbon neutrality, a state of net-zero carbon emissions, ppm Parts per million can be achieved by balancing the total amount of carbon Pg Petagram dioxide or greenhouse gas emissions produced directly or indirectly by a country, company, product, activity, or indi- vidual over a certain period via carbon offset or removal Introduction initiatives. Furthermore, to achieve carbon neutrality, the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), in its With the increasing global industrialization and over- special report on global warming of 1.5 °C, also empha- exploitation of non-renewable energy sources, a large sized the need to reduce and phase out fossil fuels, use number of greenhouse gases have been released, leading to more renewable energy, improve energy efficiency, and an increase in global temperature and causing a series of highlighted the importance of implementing these meas- environmental degradation issues (Wang et al. 2021). From ures in cities to achieve carbon neutrality (Masson-Del- pre-industrialization, around 1850, until 2022, the global motte et al. 2018). Moreover, to achieve net-zero carbon average atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO ) concentration emissions and sustainable development, carbon removal or increased substantially from 285 to 419 ppm (Chen 2021; sequestration in terrestrial and marine ecosystems must be CO Daily 2022). As a result, the United Kingdom meteoro- promoted (Cheng 2020). Different regions, countries, and logical office estimates a global average surface temperature cities have developed strategies to improve carbon removal increase of about 0.97 to 1.21 °C throughout 1850–2022, or sequestration and achieve carbon neutrality (Hepburn with a central estimate of 1.09 °C; they also predict that et al. 2021; Pedersen et al. 2020; Huang and Zhai 2021), 2022 will continue the trend of the warmest years in the yet achieving net-zero carbon emissions is challenging world (Sangomla 2022). Furthermore, global greenhouse (Wang et al. 2021). gas emissions are expected to rise by 50% by 2050, owing Herein, this literature review presents a systematic primarily to CO emissions from non-renewable energy use discussion of the implications of the 26th summit of the (Rabaey and Ragauskas 2014). Without effective measures United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties or technologies to reduce or control CO emissions, the for achieving carbon neutrality, specifically addressing the global average atmospheric C O concentration, as well as implications of achieving such a target by 2050 or 2060 for the global surface and ocean temperatures, will continue to most member countries. Furthermore, the review explores rise. The rising global temperature caused by these green- global initiatives, primarily referring to the policies or house gases has already caused significant damage to the measures put in place by individual countries to achieve human living environment, including the extinction of some net-zero carbon emissions. The review also investigates in species, loss of biodiversity, droughts, floods, forest fires, detail the interrelationships and synergies between adap- ocean acidification, melting of north and south pole glaciers tation and mitigation strategies, maps direct and indirect (NSPG), and sea-level rise (Maximillian et al. 2019; Mora carbon emissions and proposes two main approaches to et al. 2018; Yang et al. 2022). achieving carbon neutrality: emissions reduction and In response to rising global greenhouse gas concen- atmospheric carbon removal. Moreover, the review pre- trations and temperatures, on December 12, 2015, 197 sents carbon-free plans for the future in transportation, member parties of the United Nations framework conven- agriculture, food waste, industry, and other areas and tion on climate change (UNFCCC) unanimously agreed at examines the life cycle analysis of various carbon neutral the Paris climate change conference (PCCC) to adopt the systems for the technologies or measures to achieve these Paris agreement, which lays out plans for global action to plans. Finally, the review provides relevant and up-to- address climate change after 2020 (Berndes et al. 2016). date information, policies, and technologies for achieving Under the Paris agreement, each country agreed to limit carbon neutrality and assists governments and people in the global temperature increase to less than 2 °C and work different regions and countries in understanding the posi- to limit the global temperature increase to less than 1.5 °C tive environmental, social, and economic consequences of (Agreement 2015). As of February 2021, 124 countries carbon neutrality. worldwide have declared their intention to become carbon neutral and achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 or 2060 (Chen 2021). To attain the targets stipulated by the Paris agreement and support sustainable development, it 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2279 Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties. For the United Nations Climate Change Conference first time ever, a major event occurred in 2015. At the 21st of the Parties United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties, every country agreed to combat the negative impacts of cli- Background of the Conference mate change by working together to keep global warming in a range well below 2 °C, with a target value of 1.5 °C At a critical time for green recovery on a global scale, the (Vogler 2020). At the same time, each nation party agreed 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the to provide funding to achieve these goals (van den Berg et al. Parties was held in Glasgow from 31st October to 12th 2022). This marked the birth of the Paris agreement. November 2021 (Masuda et  al. 2022). It is well known that greenhouse gas emission reductions are a key factor in human health. The 2030 enhanced emission reduction Outcomes of the Conference targets (in the form of nationally determined contributions) and the mid-century long-term low greenhouse gas emis- The 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the sion development strategies that the worldwide governments Parties made progress in four key areas: coal, cars, cash, and are supposed to submit to the 26th United Nations Climate trees. Progress in the first two goals requires a consensus Change Conference of the Parties have only been submitted among countries to rapidly phase out coal, the most pollut- by countries accounting for 55% and 32% of global green- ing fossil fuel. The second is to replace fuel-based transport house gas emissions, respectively (Wyns and Beagley 2021). with electric transport as soon as possible and to develop At the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of electric vehicles. Regarding the latter two goals, the $100 the Parties, climate change moved from a marginal issue to billion in annual financial support pledged by developed a worldwide priority. With the attention of world leaders, countries to developing countries in 2010 will have to be government representatives, businesses and citizens focused delivered. At the same time, climate change solutions, which on the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of are part of the biology of global change, should be imple- the Parties in Glasgow, expectations are high for countries mented and delivered (Smith et al. 2022). Figure 1 presents to make new commitments on reducing carbon emissions. In the four main outcomes of the 26th United Nations Climate the meantime, it is essential to look back at another United Change Conference of the Parties. Fig. 1 The main outcomes of the United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties. Figure 1 illustrates the four main outcome goals of the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Par- ties: secure global net-zero by mid-century and keep 1.5 °C within reach, adapt to protect communities and natural habi- tats, mobilize finance, and work together to deliver. These four outcome goals focus on coal, electric vehicles, cash, and trees 1 3 2280 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Secure global net-zero by mid-century and keep 1.5 °C much of the public funds into climate-resilient investments within reach (dos Santos 2022). It is critical to note that businesses must understand the risks climate change poses to their operations and plan accordingly. National banks and regulators must To avoid the looming problem of global environmental ensure that local financial systems are resilient to climate change, global warming needs to be limited to less than change’s adverse effects and assist companies in transition- 1.5  °C. At present, the world has not yet limited global ing to zero emissions. warming to 1.5 °C (Arasaradnam and Hillman 2022; COP26 2021; Dwivedi et  al. 2022). Without targeted improve- Work together to deliver ments, global temperatures will continue to rise, leading to more catastrophic floods, bushfires, extreme weather, and species destruction. Experts have made some progress in The agreement reached in the 26th United Nations Climate combating global warming, bending the temperature curve Change Conference of the Parties negotiations is a shared to 2 °C. Nevertheless, scientific data show that much work responsibility of the member  parties towards a net-zero remains to be done to keep the temperature curve at 1.5 °C economy through national efforts. The 26th United Nations (Kelly 2021). Developed countries and those with large Climate Change Conference of the Parties negotiations are carbon emissions need to take the lead, and goals must be focused on the rules needed for the eventual implementation quickly translated into action. Countries worldwide (espe- of the Paris agreement, known as the Paris rulebook. This cially developed countries) must rapidly phase out fossil would require cooperation at the global level among gov- fuel power generation and provide support to developing ernments, national functional sectors, and financial institu- countries for clean energy technologies (COP26 2021; Lay- tions (Arora and Mishra 2021). Each country is expected to bourn-Langton and Smith 2022). At the same time, clean- develop policies appropriate to its own circumstances and ing up the air and reducing carbon emissions by shifting to not just make commitments to the global citizens but to work zero-emission cars, vans and trucks are also very important together to face and solve the global problem of climate factors (COP26 2021). change (Buchanan et al. 2022). Governments must reach an agreement that drives the world to maintain a temperature Adapt to protect communities and natural habitats of 1.5 °C in the coming years. This section explained the four important goal outcomes of the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of People worldwide are already living in devastating climate the Parties. The outcomes of these four goals are very sig- scenarios as a result of global warming. Human security is at nificant in guiding the worldwide efforts to address carbon risk, and humankind must act and be proactive in addressing emissions and enhance the participation of countries in the severe challenges caused by climate change. Govern- achieving net-zero carbon emissions. ments must unite to assist those most vulnerable. It is vital to take adequate precautionary measures to avoid or miti- gate the damage caused by climate change. Simultaneously, Worldwide initiatives to achieve carbon building financial plans for early warning systems and robust neutrality infrastructure is critical. Protecting and restoring habitats is critical for mitigating the harmful consequences of climate Environmental degradation and global warming are the most change and addressing natural storm and flood management important ecological and environmental problems facing challenges (WHO 2021). humanity in today’s world. Without effective initiatives, policies, and other measures taken by various countries Mobilize finance worldwide, the deteriorating ecological environment will continue to affect future generations (Li et al. 2021). Due to the continuous use of fossil fuels, global carbon dioxide In order to achieve the stated climate goals, every practi- emissions have reached an unprecedented peak in 2020 (IEA tioner in the financial industry requires change. To reduce 2021), which has significantly contributed to global warm- the negative impacts of climate change on residential life, ing. As a result, the increased awareness of reducing fossil governments need to provide a certain amount of funding to fuel use has also contributed to the enactment of global cli- do this. Governments should provide greener, more climate- mate agreements. One of them is the Paris climate agree- resilient infrastructure development and support technologi- ment (Nations 2015), issued by the United Nations, which cal innovation (Jacobs 2021). Developed countries need to aims to keep global warming below 1.5 °C and states that provide assistance to developing countries and help translate each country needs to enact policies or develop measures to 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2281 reduce carbon emissions effectively. Although the ultimate Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bermuda, Brazil, Cuba, Algeria, Egypt, goal of this initiative is to achieve carbon neutrality in all Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Sri Lanka, Morocco, Mol- countries, different regions, cities, and institutions have dif- dova, Republic of Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic ferent initiatives, approaches, or measures to reduce carbon of Panama, Philippines, North Korea, Paraguay, Palestinian emissions. Territory, Qatar, San Marino, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, In China, the Chinese government formulated the “guid- Venezuela, the Bolivarian Republic of, and Singapore. In ance on accelerating the establishment of a sound green addition, 93 countries, including Afghanistan, Angola, low-carbon circular development economic system”, which Argentina, Armenia, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh, specifies reaching peak carbon by 2030, achieving carbon and The Bahamas, along with others, are proposing or dis- neutrality by 2060, and striving to gradually achieve net- cussing documents related to achieving carbon neutrality zero CO emissions (SCPRC 2021; Zhao et al. 2022). In targets (see Table 1). addition to this, in their study, Cheng et al. pointed out that Overall, of the 198 countries that have committed to some Nordic countries have developed and implemented achieving carbon neutrality goals, 4.5% have already Pigouvian tax mechanisms to help achieve carbon neutral- achieved carbon neutrality, 10.6% have declared or commit- ity through tax policies (Cheng et al. 2021). A study by Sen ted to achieving carbon neutrality goals, 8.6% have legislated et al. from Victoria University, Australia, suggested that the for achieving carbon neutrality goals, 29.3% have formulated creation, expansion, and dissemination of knowledge and relevant policies to achieve carbon neutrality goals, and the learning about carbon neutrality would help to achieve the remaining 47% are in the process of discussing relevant country’s goal of achieving carbon neutrality eventually and documents to achieve carbon neutrality. In addition, 120 out that this initiative and policy is clearly reflected in university of 198 countries, or 60.6%, aim to achieve carbon neutral- educational institutions (Sen et al. 2022). The development ity by 2050–2070. Based on the analysis of 198 countries of initiatives, policies, and measures related to reducing worldwide on carbon neutrality initiatives, we found that greenhouse gas emissions in each country is essential to most countries are discussing the development of documents fully achieve the goal of carbon neutrality by 2050 or 2060. related to achieving carbon neutrality, and most countries Therefore, Table 1 summarizes the relevant documents of aim to achieve carbon neutrality after 2050. various countries worldwide that have developed initiatives, laws, or referred to carbon neutrality in their policies for achieving carbon neutrality goals. Interrelationships and synergies According to Table 1, a global count of 198 countries between adaptation and mitigation on initiatives to achieve carbon neutrality, we find that as strategies of February 2022, all of these countries are committed to achieving carbon neutrality in the future, with Benin, Bhu- While climate change mitigation strategies are critical, adap- tan, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Cambodia, Liberia, tation strategies are also essential. Historically, policymak- Madagascar, and Suriname already have achieved carbon ers separated adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, neutrality. In addition, 21 countries have declared or com- there has been a recent trend toward investigating synergies mitted to be carbon neutral between 2030 and 2070; this between adaptation and mitigation techniques. The synergies includes Congo, Estonia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Andorra, are beneficial more than separate treatment of adaptation and United Arab Emirates, Australia, Bahrain, Côte d’Ivoire, mitigation (Fig. 2). A mitigation strategy of implementing Cameroon, Ghana, India, Israel, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, distributed solar power in buildings instead of fossil fuel Nigeria, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Eswatini, Thai- energy leads to low carbon emissions in the energy sector. land, and Vietnam. Additionally, 17 countries have proposed The use of distributed solar power is in synergy with adap- carbon-neutral legislation, and these countries are Canada, tation, as solar power leads to a more resilient power sup- Germany, Denmark, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Hun- ply system than over-the-ground grids that are vulnerable to gary, Ireland, Japan, South Korea, Norway, New Zealand, storms and temperature changes caused by climate change Portugal, Sweden, Guatemala, Netherlands, and European (Ripple et al. 2022). In nature, the planting and maintenance Union. Furthermore, 58 countries have mentioned carbon of forests is a synergy between mitigation and adaptation neutrality targets in their policy documents, including Anti- strategies. The forests mitigate climate change by reducing gua and Barbuda, Austria, Belize, Barbados, Chile, China, and storing carbon. In addition, the forests adapt to climate Dem. Rep. Congo, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Djibouti, change by offering protection to droughts, fires, floods, Dominica, Ecuador, Finland, Fiji, Greece, Croatia, Iceland, and heatwaves (Moomaw et al. 2019). Other examples of Italy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Lithuania, Luxem- energy and nature sector strategies in synergy and benefit bourg, Latvia, Monaco, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Malta, both mitigation and adaptation are wind energy and urban Slovenia, Uruguay, United States of America, Albania, green spaces. 1 3 2282 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 1 3 Table 1 Worldwide initiatives to achieve carbon neutrality by countries. In Table 1, N/A indicates not available, URL indicates uniform resource locator, and COP26 is the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties, which provides statistics on the status of different countries in achieving carbon neutrality and the specific year in the future in which this will be achieved Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Benin’s first nationally determined contri- Benin 2000 Achieved (self-declared) 2020https:// cop25. mma. gob. cl/ wp- conte nt/ uploa bution under the Paris agreementds/ 2020/ 02/ Annex- Allia nce- ENGLI SH. pdf Kingdom of Bhutan intended nationally Bhutan 2000 Achieved (self-declared) 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ submi ssions/ determined contributionINDC/ Publi shed% 20Doc uments/ Bhutan/ 1/ Bhutan- INDC- 20150 930. pdf Enhanced ambition in national climate Gabon 2000 Achieved (self-declared) 2020https:// cop25. mma. gob. cl/ wp- conte nt/ uploa plansds/ 2020/ 12/ 1312- Annex- Allia nce- ENGLI SH- VF- 2012. pdf Updated nationally determined contribu- Guinea-Bissau 2030 Achieved (self-declared) 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion in the framework of the Paris climate Publi shedD ocume nts/ Guinea- Bissau% agreement20Fir st/ NDC- Guinea% 20Bis sau- 12102 021. Final. pdf Nationally determined contribution Guyana 2019 Achieved (self-declared) 2020http:// spapp ssece xt. world bank. org/ sites/ indc/ PDF_ Libra ry/ gy. pdf Enhanced ambition in national climate Cambodia 2000 Achieved (self-declared) 2020https:// cop25. mma. gob. cl/ wp- conte nt/ uploa plansds/ 2020/ 02/ Annex- Allia nce- ENGLI SH. pdf Intended nationally determined contribu- Liberia 2000 Achieved (self-declared) 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tionsPubli shedD ocume nts/ Liber ia% 20Fir st/ INDC% 20Fin al% 20Sub missi on% 20Sept% 2030% 202015% 20Lib eria. pdf Madagascar’s intended nationally deter- Madagascar 2010 Achieved (self-declared) 2019https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ mined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Madag ascar% 20Fir st/ Madag ascar% 20INDC% 20Eng. pdf Nationally determined contribution 2020 Suriname N/A Achieved (self-declared) 2014https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Publi shedD ocume nts/ Surin ame% 20Sec ond/ Surin ame% 20Sec ond% 20NDC. pdf N/A Congo 2030 Declaration/pledge 2020https:// ndcpa rtner ship. org/ count ries- map/ count ry? iso= COG Climate action in Estonia: latest state of Estonia 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. europ arl. europa. eu/ think tank/ playde/ docum ent. html? refer ence= EPRS_ BRI% 282021% 29690 684 South Africa Low Emission Development South Africa 2050 Declaration/pledge 2020https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ Strategy 2050South% 20Afr ica% 27s% 20Low% 20Emi ssion% 20Dev elopm ent% 20Str ategy. pdf Zimbabwe Revised Nationally Determined Zimbabwe 2030 Declaration/pledge 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ ContributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Zimba bwe% 20Fir st/ Zimba bwe% 20Rev ised% 20Nat ional ly% 20Det ermin ed% 20Con tribu tion% 202021% 20Fin al. pdf Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2283 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Andorran Nationally Determined Contribu- Andorra 2050 Declaration/pledge N/Ahttps:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Andor ra% 20Fir st/ 20200 514-% 20Act ualit zaci% C3% B3% 20NDC. pdf Second Nationally Determined Contribu- United Arab Emirates 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion of the United Arab EmiratesPubli shedD ocume nts/ United% 20Arab% 20Emi rates% 20Sec ond/ UAE% 20Sec ond% 20NDC% 20-% 20UNF CCC% 20Sub missi on% 20-% 20Eng lish% 20-% 20FIN AL. pdf Australia’s nationally determined contribu- Australia 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion communication 2021Publi shedD ocume nts/ Austr alia% 20Fir st/ Austr alia% 20Nat ional ly% 20Det ermin ed% 20Con tribu tion% 20Upd ate% 20Oct ober% 202021% 20WEB. pdf Bahrain pledges to reach net zero emissions Bahrain 2060 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. arabi anbus iness. com/ indus tries- by 2060energy/ 470085- bahra in- pledg es- to- reach- net- zero- emiss ions- by- 2060 Nationally determined contribution key Côte d’Ivoire 2030 Declaration/pledge N/Ahttps:// www. ndcs. undp. org/ conte nt/ ndc- parameterssuppo rt- progr amme/ en/ home/ our- work/ geogr aphic/ africa/ Coted Ivoire. html#: ~: text= NDC% 20KEY% 20PAR AMETE RS,manag ement% 20and% 20rec overy% 20of% 20was te Contribution determinee au niveau Cameroon 2030 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ national—actualiseePubli shedD ocume nts/ Camer oon% 20Fir st/ CDN% 20r% C3% A9vis% C3% A9e% 20CMR% 20fin ale% 20sept% 202021. pdf N/A Ghana N/A Declaration/pledge N/Ahttps:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ NDCSt aging/ Pages/ Party. aspx? party= GHA PM Modi sets India’s 2070 zero carbon India 2070 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. hindu stant imes. com/ world- emission target at COP26 summitnews/ pm- modi- sets- india- 2070- zero- car- bon- emiss ion- target- at- cop26- summit- 10163 57859 45035. html COP26: Israel to hit zero net emissions by Israel 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. jpost. com/ clima te- change/ 2050, Bennett pledgescop26- israel- to- aim- for- zero- net- emiss ions- by- 2050- 683470 N/A Kazakhstan 2050 Declaration/pledge 2020https:// www. clima teamb ition summi t2020. org/ ondem and. php Twelfth Malaysia Plan Malaysia 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// rmke12. epu. gov. my/ bm Nigeria Pledges to Reach Net-Zero Emis- Nigeria 2060 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. bloom berg. com/ news/ artic les/ sions by 2060, Buhari Says2021- 11- 02/ niger ia- targe ts- to- reach- net- zero- emiss ions- by- 2060- buhari- says 2284 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL The government is instructed to limit Russian Federation 2060 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. econo my. gov. ru/ mater ial/ news/ greenhouse gas emissions and approve pravi telst vu_ poruc heno_ ogran ichit_ vybro the country’s low-carbon development sy_ parni kovyh_ gazov_i_ utver dit_ strat strategyegiyu_ nizko ugler odnogo_ razvi tiya_ strany. html Saudi Arabia Commits to Net-Zero Emis- Saudi Arabia 2060 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. bloom berg. com/ news/ artic les/ sions by 20602021- 10- 23/ world-s- bigge st- oil- expor ter- commi ts- to- net- zero- emiss ions An Ambitious, Stakeholder-Driven Climate Eswatini N/A Declaration/pledge N/Ahttp:// www. ipsne ws. net/ 2021/ 10/ ambit ious- Change Commitment Ahead of COP26: stake holder- driven- clima te- change- commi Eswatini’s Revised Nationally Deter-tment- ahead- cop26- eswat inis- revis ed- natio mined Contribution Processnally- deter mined- contr ibuti on- ndc- proce ss/ N/A Thailand 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. youtu be. com/ watch?v= xiu_ 91tJa 0o Viet Nam to take stronger measures to Vietnam 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021http:// news. chinh phu. vn/ Home/ Viet- Nam- to- achieve net-zero emissions by 2050take- stron ger- measu res- to- achie ve- netze ro- emiss ions- by- 2050/ 202111/ 46000. vgp Net-Zero Emissions by 2050 Canada 2050 In law 2021https:// www. canada. ca/ en/ servi ces/ envir onment/ weath er/ clima techa nge/ clima te- plan/ net- zero- emiss ions- 2050. html Net-Zero Emissions by 2050 Germany 2045 In law 2021https:// www. bunde sregi erung. de/ breg- de/ themen/ klima schutz/ clima te- change- act- 2021- 19368 46 During the Conference of the Parties, Denmark 2050 In law 2020https:// en. kefm. dk/ news/ news- archi ve/ 2019/ Denmark passes Climate Act with a 70 dec/ during- the- cop- denma rk- passes- clima percent reduction targette- act- with-a- 70- perce nt- reduc tion- targe tws- page- eng Consolidated legislation on climate change Spain 2050 In law 2021https:// boe. es/ buscar/ act. php? id= BOE-A- and energy transition2021- 8447# top Law on Energy and Climate France 2050 In law 2020https:// www. legif rance. gouv. fr/ affic hTexte. do? cidTe xte= JORFT EXT00 00393 55955 & categ orieL ien= id Net Zero Strategy: build Back Greener United Kingdom 2050 In law 2020https:// www. gov. uk/ gover nment/ publi catio ns/ net- zero- strat egy On the debate on the commission amend- Hungary 2050 In law 2020https:// www. parla ment. hu/ irom41/ 07021/ ment to the bill on the declaration of the 07021- 0010. pdf climate emergency Climate action 2019 to tackle climate Ireland 2050 In law 2021https:// www. gov. ie/ pdf/? file= https:// assets. breakdowngov. ie/ 42213/ 752d5 346b9 c6407 b9125 fdadf a0738 a4. pdf# page=1 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2285 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Japan’s Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduc- Japan 2050 In law 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion TargetPubli shedD ocume nts/ Japan% 20Fir st/ JAPAN_ FIRST% 20NDC% 20(INTER IM- UPDAT ED% 20SUB MISSI ON). pdf The Republic of Korea’s Update of its First South Korea 2050 In law 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Nationally Determined ContributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Repub lic% 20of% 20Kor ea% 20Fir st/ 201230_ ROK’s% 20Upd ate% 20of% 20its% 20Fir st% 20NDC_ edito rial% 20cha nge. pdf N/A Norway 2050 In law 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ NDCSt aging/ pages/ Party. aspx? party= NOR Climate change response (zero-carbon) New Zealand 2050 In law 2020https:// www. legis lation. govt. nz/ act/ public/ amendment act 20192019/ 0061/ latest/ LMS18 3848. html long-term low greenhouse gas emission Portugal 2045 In law 2021https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ development strategy of the European HR- 03- 06- 2020% 20EU% 20Sub missi on% Union and its member states20on% 20Long% 20term% 20str ategy. pdf The Swedish climate policy framework Sweden 2045 In law 2018https:// www. gover nment. se/ 495f60/ conte ntass ets/ 883ae 8e123 bc4e4 2aa8d 59296 ebe04 78/ the- swedi sh- clima te- policy- frame work. pdf Expected and nationally determined con- Guatemala 2030 In law 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Guate mala% 20Fir st/ Gobie rno% 20de% 20Gua temala% 20INDC- UNFCCC% 20Sept% 202015. pdf Climate change Netherlands 2050 In law 2019https:// www. rijks overh eid. nl/ onder werpen/ klima atver ander ing/ klima atbel eid 2050 long-term strategy European Union 2050 In law 2020https:// ec. europa. eu/ clima/ eu- action/ clima te- strat egies- targe ts/ 2050- long- term- strat egy_ en Antigua and Barbuda updated nationally Antigua and Barbuda 2040 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Antig ua% 20and% 20Bar buda% 20Fir st/ ATG% 20-% 20UNF CCC% 20NDC% 20-% 202021- 09- 02% 20-% 20Fin al. pdf Integrated national energy and climate plan Austria 2040 In policy document 2020https:// ec. europa. eu/ energy/ sites/ ener/ files/ for Austriadocum ents/ at_ final_ necp_ main_ en. pdf Belize updated nationally determined Belize 2050 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Belize% 20Fir st/ Belize% 20Upd ated% 20NDC. pdf 2286 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Barbados’ second national communica- Barbados 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ Submi ssion tion under the United Nations framework sStag ing/ Natio nalRe ports/ Docum ents/ convention on climate change46938 51_ Barba dos- NC2-1- Barba dos% 20SNC% 20FIN AL% 20Apr il% 202018. pdf Chile’s nationally determined contribution Chile 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Publi shedD ocume nts/ Chile% 20Fir st/ Chile% 27s_ NDC_ 2020_ engli sh. pdf China’s mid-century long-term low green- China 2060 In policy document 2020https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ house gas emission development strategyChina% E2% 80% 99s% 20Mid- Centu ry% 20Long- Term% 20Low% 20Gre enhou se% 20Gas% 20Emi ssion% 20Dev elopm ent% 20Str ategy. pdf Nationally determined contribution key Dem. Rep. Congo 2030 In policy document 2015https:// www. ndcs. undp. org/ conte nt/ ndc- parameterssuppo rt- progr amme/ en/ home/ our- work/ geogr aphic/ africa/ DRC. html National decarbonization plan Costa Rica 2050 In policy document 2020https:// cambi oclim atico. go. cr/ wp- conte nt/ uploa ds/ 2020/ 01/ Natio nalDe carbo nizat ionPl an. pdf Climate action in Czechia Czech Republic 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www. europ arl. europa. eu/ RegDa ta/ etudes/ BRIE/ 2021/ 689329/ EPRS_ BRI(2021) 689329_ EN. pdf Intended nationally determined contribu- Djibouti 2030 In policy document 2016https:// www. clima tewat chdata. org/ ndcs/ count tion of the Republic of Djiboutiry/ DJI/ full? docum ent= first_ ndc Intended nationally determined contribution Dominica 2030 In policy document 2016https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ of the Commonwealth of DominicaPubli shedD ocume nts/ Domin ica% 20Fir st/ Commo nweal th% 20of% 20Dom inica-% 20Int ended% 20Nat ional ly% 20Det ermin ed% 20Con tribu tions% 20(INDC). pdf Ministry launches the Ecuador zero carbon Ecuador 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www. ambie nte. gob. ec/ minis terio- programpone- en- marcha- el- progr ama- ecuad or- carbo no- cero/ Finland's national climate change policy Finland 2035 In policy document 2015https:// ym. fi/ en/ finla nd-s- natio nal- clima te- change- policy Fiji low emission development strategy Fiji 2050 In policy document 2020https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ 2018–2050Fiji_ Low% 20Emi ssion% 20Dev elopm ent% 20% 20Str ategy% 202018% 20-% 202050. pdf Climate change mitigation and adaptation Greece 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www. oecd- ilibr ary. org/ sites/ ff34a 34b- en/ index. html? itemI d=/ conte nt/ compo nent/ ff34a 34b- en Low-carbon development strategy of the Croatia 2050 In policy document 2020https:// mingor. gov. hr/ UserD ocsIm ages/ klima Republic of Croatia until 2030 with a tske_ aktiv nosti/ odrzi vi_ razvoj/ NUS/ lts_ view to 2050nus_ eng. pdf Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2287 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Iceland’s 2020 climate action plan Iceland 2040 In policy document 2020https:// www. gover nment. is/ libra ry/ 01- Minis tries/ Minis try- for- The- Envir onment/ 201004% 20Umh verfi sradu neytid% 20Adg erdaa aetlun% 20EN% 20V2. pdf Long-term Italian strategy on reducing Italy 2050 In policy document 2021https:// ec. europa. eu/ clima/ sites/ lts/ lts_ it_ it. greenhouse gas emissions pdf Updated nationally determined contribution Saint Kitts and Nevis 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Publi shedD ocume nts/ Saint% 20Kit ts% 20and% 20Nev is% 20Fir st/ St.% 20Kit ts% 20and% 20Nev is% 20Rev ised% 20NDC_ Updat ed. pdf Saint Lucia’s updated nationally determined Saint Lucia 2030 In policy document 2016https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ contribution communicated to the United Publi shedD ocume nts/ Saint% 20Luc ia% Nations framework convention on climate 20Fir st/ Saint% 20Luc ia% 20Fir st% 20NDC% change20(Updat ed% 20sub missi on). pdf Environmental performance reviews: Lithu- Lithuania 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www. oecd- ilibr ary. org/ envir onment/ ania 2021oecd- envir onmen tal- perfo rmance- revie ws- lithu ania- 2021_ 48d82 b17- en Luxembourg’s integrated national energy Luxembourg 2050 In policy document 2019https:// ec. europa. eu/ energy/ sites/ ener/ files/ and climate plan for 2021–2030docum ents/ lu_ final_ necp_ main_ en. pdf Intended nationally determined contribution Latvia 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ of the European Union and its member Publi shedD ocume nts/ Austr ia% 20Fir st/ LV- states03- 06- EU% 20INDC. pdf 15 world leaders commit to delivering new Monaco 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www. docdr oid. net/ gavlB 6o/ 190922- Paris targets by early 2020 and to achiev-rmi- unsg- summit- relea se- leade rs- state ing net-zero global emissions by 2050 on ment- final- combi ned- pdf eve of the United Nations summit Update of nationally determined contribu- Maldives 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion of MaldivesPubli shedD ocume nts/ Maldi ves% 20Fir st/ Maldi ves% 20Nat ional ly% 20Det ermin ed% 20Con tribu tion% 202020. pdf Tile Til Eo 2050 climate strategy “lighting Marshall Islands 2050 In policy document 2020https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ the way”180924% 20rmi% 202050% 20cli mate% 20str ategy% 20fin al_0. pdf Malta low carbon development strategy Malta 2050 In policy document 2020https:// meae. gov. mt/ en/ Public_ Consu ltati ons/ MECP/ Publi shing Images/ Pages/ Consu ltati ons/ Malta sLowC arbon Devel opmen tStra tegy/ Malta% 20Low% 20Car bon% 20Dev elopm ent% 20Str ategy. pdf On Slovenia’s long-term climate strategy Slovenia 2050 In policy document 2020https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ until 2050LTS1_ SLOVE NIA_ EN. pdf 2288 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Enhanced ambition in national climate Uruguay 2050 In policy document 2020https:// cop25. mma. gob. cl/ wp- conte nt/ uploa plansds/ 2020/ 02/ Annex- Allia nce- ENGLI SH. pdf Pathways to net-zero greenhouse gas emis- United States of America 2050 In policy document 2021https:// www. white house. gov/ wp- conte nt/ sions by 2050uploa ds/ 2021/ 10/ US- Long- Term- Strat egy. pdf Intended nationally determined contribu- Albania 2030 In policy document N/Ahttps:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion of the Republic of Albania following Publi shedD ocume nts/ Alban ia% 20Fir st/ decisionAlban ia% 20Fir st. pdf N/A Azerbaijan 2030 In policy document 2017https:// zerot racker. net/ N/A Belarus 2030 In policy document N/Ahttps:// eu4cl imate. eu/ belar us/ Government of Bermuda—protecting the Bermuda 2035 In policy document N/Ahttps:// www. gov. bm/ artic les/ gover nment- environmentbermu da-% E2% 80% 93- prote cting- envir onment Paris agreement Brazil’s nationally deter- Brazil 2060 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ mined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Brazil% 20Fir st/ Bra- zil% 20Fir st% 20NDC% 20(Updat ed% 20sub missi on). pdf Summary of the first nationally determined Cuba 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ contribution updated (2020–2030)Publi shedD ocume nts/ Cuba% 20Fir st/ Cuban% 20Fir st% 20NDC% 20Sum mary% 20(Updat ed% 20sub missi on). pdf N/A Algeria 2030 In policy document N/Ahttps:// zerot racker. net/ Egyptian intended nationally determined Egypt 2030 In policy document 2017https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Egypt% 20Fir st/ Egypt ian% 20INDC. pdf Irap nationally determined contribution Iraq 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Publi shedD ocume nts/ Iraq% 20Fir st/ Iraq% 20NDC% 20Doc ument. docx st Updated submission of Jordan’s 1 nation- Jordan 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ ally determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Jordan% 20Fir st/ UPDAT ED% 20SUB MISSI ON% 20OF% 20JOR DANS. pdf Submission of Kenya’s updated nationally Kenya 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Kenya% 20Fir st/ Kenya ’s% 20Fir st% 20% 20NDC% 20(updat ed% 20ver sion). pdf The Kyrgyz Republic intended nationally Kyrgyzstan 2050 In policy document 2015https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Kyrgy zstan% 20Fir st/ Kyrgy zstan% 20INDC% 20_ ENG_% 20fin al. pdf Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2289 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Sri Lanka updated nationally determined Sri Lanka 2060 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Sri% 20Lan ka% 20Fir st/ NDCs% 20of% 20Sri% 20Lan ka- 2021. pdf Nationally determined contribution— Morocco 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ updatedPubli shedD ocume nts/ Moroc co% 20Fir st/ Moroc can% 20upd ated% 20NDC% 202021% 20_ Fr. pdf Republic of Moldova’s intended national Moldova, Republic of 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Repub lic% 20of% 20Mol dova% 20Fir st/ INDC_ Repub lic_ of_ Moldo va_ 25. 09. 2015. pdf Enhanced nationally determined contribu- Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion ofPubli shedD ocume nts/ The% 20Rep ublic% 20of% 20Nor th% 20Mac edonia% 20Fir st/ Maced onian% 20enh anced% 20NDC% 20(002). pdf Updated nationally determined contribution Panama 2050 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Publi shedD ocume nts/ Panama% 20Fir st/ CDN1% 20Act ualiz ada% 20Rep% C3% BAbli ca% 20de% 20Pan am% C3% A1. pdf Nationally determined contribution com- Philippines 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ municated to the United Nations frame-Publi shedD ocume nts/ Phili ppines% 20Fir st/ work convention on climate changePhili ppines% 20-% 20NDC. pdf Updated nationally determined contribution North Korea 2030 In policy document 2019https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ of the Democratic People’s Republic of Publi shedD ocume nts/ Democ ratic% 20Peo Koreaple’s% 20Rep ublic% 20of% 20Kor ea% 20Fir st/ 2019. 09. 19_ DPRK% 20let ter% 20to% 20SG% 20spe cial% 20env oy% 20for% 20NDC. pdf Update of the nationally determined contri- Paraguay 2030 In policy document N/Ahttp:// www. mades. gov. py/ wp- conte nt/ uploa bution of the Republic of Paraguayds/ 2021/ 07/ ACTUA LIZAC ION- DE- LA- NDC- DEL- PARAG UAY_ Borra dor- final_ Julio- 2021-1. pdf The State of Palestine’s first nationally Palestinian Territory, Occupied 2040 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributions “updated Publi shedD ocume nts/ State% 20of% 20Pal submission”estine% 20Fir st/ Updat ed% 20NDC_% 20Sta te% 20of% 20Pal estine_ 2021_ FINAL. pdf N/A Qatar 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Pages/ Party. aspx? party= QAT& proto type=1 2290 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL San Marino’s intended nationally deter- San Marino 2030 In policy document 2015https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ mined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ San% 20Mar ino% 20Fir st/ SAN% 20MAR INO% 20INDC% 20EN. pdf Intended nationally determined contribution Turkey 2053 In policy document 2021https:// www2. tbmm. gov. tr/ d27/2/ 2- 3853. pdf Updated nationally determined contribution Ukraine 2060 In policy document N/Ahttps:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ of Ukraine to the Paris agreementPubli shedD ocume nts/ Ukrai ne% 20Fir st/ Ukrai ne% 20NDC_ July% 2031. pdf Republic of Uzbekistan updated nationally Uzbekistan 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Uzbek istan% 20Fir st/ Uzbek istan_ Updat ed% 20NDC_ 2021_ EN. pdf First nationally determined contribution of Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of 2030 In policy document 2015https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela for Publi shedD ocume nts/ Venez uela% 20(Boliv the fight against climate change and its arian% 20Rep ublic% 20of)% 20Fir st/ Prime effectsra% 20% 20NDC% 20Ven ezuela. pdf Singapore’s climate action Singapore N/A In policy document 2020https:// www. nccs. gov. sg/ docs/ defau lt- source/ publi catio ns/ nccsl eds. pdf N/A Target proposed/In discussion/Not available Afghanistan, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh, The Bahamas, Central African Republic, Switzerland, Colombia, Comoros, Cape Verde, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Micronesia, Guinea, The Gambia, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Kiri- bati, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Mexico, Mali, Myanmar, Mozambique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Malawi, Namibia, Niger, Nicaragua, Nepal, Nauru, Pakistan, Peru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Sierra Leone, Sao Tome and Principe, Slovakia, Seychelles, Chad, Togo, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Vanuatu, Samoa, Yemen, Zambia, Burundi, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bolivia, Brunei Darussalam, Botswana, Cayman Islands, Georgia, Equatorial Guinea, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Islamic Republic of Kuwait, Libya, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Mongolia, Oman, Poland, Romania, Sudan, El Salvador, Somalia, Serbia, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Turk- menistan, Tunisia, Tanzania, South Sudan, Niue (Total of 93 countries) (TRACKER, 2022) Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2291 Fig. 2 A summary of how interrelationships and synergies between climate change as solar power is resilient to climate change problems mitigation and adaptation strategies co-benefit each other. For exam- like storms and high temperatures, unlike the centralized grid systems ple, the usage of solar power for electricity or heating lowers carbon that are vulnerable. The authors recommend that new carbon neutral- emissions as solar power is a renewable energy source hence mitigat- ity policies focus on mitigation and adaptation together rather than ing climate change. Additionally, the usage of solar power adapts to mitigation alone Reduced forest conversion to agricultural land through zero-carbon industry incentives, and mitigation and adapta- the promotion of agroforestry, regenerative agriculture, and tion policies can all contribute to the circular economy’s polyculture contributes to climate change mitigation and transformation. adaptation in the agricultural sector (Montanaro et al. 2018). Constructing green walls and rooftops are one method Reduced forest conversion helps mitigate climate change of mitigating and adapting to climate change in buildings by lowering greenhouse gas emissions and increasing car- (Grafakos et al. 2019). Green walls and rooftops can mitigate bon storage. Additionally, improving efficient agricultural climate change by reducing heat islands, lowering energy practices aids in climate change adaptation by increasing usage, and sequestering carbon. Additionally, green roofs soil carbon and water efficiency, resulting in resilient crops increase stormwater management, allowing for adaptation and food security. A transition from a linear to a circular to climate change-related flooding. Additional examples of economy, in which end-of-life goods can be used to cre- agricultural, economic, and building sector methods that ate new goods, is one strategy to mitigate and adapt to cli- work in tandem and assist both mitigation and adaptation mate change. Government initiatives such as carbon taxes, include genetically enhanced crops, funding net-zero carbon regulations, and geothermal energy use. 1 3 2292 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Promoting public transportation, increasing vehicle effi- consumption. In Helsinki, strong national policies on energy- ciency, electrifying transportation, and encouraging car- efficient building design compelled municipal governments sharing services are all approaches to mitigate and adapt to to prioritize mitigation measures such as building insulation climate change in the transportation sector (Sharifi 2021). over adaptation measures such as using durable materials to All of these measures will reduce carbon emissions, ulti- safeguard buildings from flooding. The authors advise that a mately mitigating climate change; simultaneously, they better knowledge of cross-scale interactions be developed to will result in cost and energy savings, thereby increasing minimize conflicts and maximize the synergies of mitigation economic and energy resilience and thus enabling climate and adaptation efforts. change adaptation. In urban design, compact urban devel- Grafakos et al. researched the integration of mitigation and opment with an appropriate density, land use mix, and adaptation in European cities by assessing 885 climate change accessibility contributes to climate change mitigation and action plans, of which only 147 had considered both mitiga- adaptation. Compact urban development reduces per capita tion and adaptation policies. The research showed that about travel demand, energy demand for heating and cooling, and 50% of climate change action plans address adaptation and provides energy systems that are more efficient, so lowering mitigation by considering both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon emissions and mitigating climate change. Addition- vulnerability profiles initial assessments (Grafakos et al. 2020). ally, compact urban development decreases land demand, However, only a quarter of the climate change action plans avoids risky locations, and is less susceptible to intense heat consider an in-depth analysis of the mitigation and adaptation events than urban sprawl, allowing for climate change adap- synergies and co-benefits. The sectors with the most synergies tation. Congestion pricing and water-sensitive urban designs were green urban infrastructures, construction, energy effi- are two other examples of transportation and urban design ciency, and buildings. Another study used a qualitative method sector strategies in synergy and enhance both mitigation and to examine the policy implementation of Cameroon’s climate adaptation. mitigation and adaptation initiatives (Ngum et al. 2019). While The synergies and trade-offs between mitigation and several policies address climate change, the findings indicated adaptation must be implemented carefully to not adversely that they are all focused on mitigation rather than adaptation. influence one another. Positive synergies are mitigation Several constraints to synergies include a lack of finance, col - measures that do not increase vulnerability and adapta- laboration, implementation, transparency, and public engage- tion measures that do not increase greenhouse gas emis- ment. Synergies can be achieved by forming a technical com- sions (Zhao et al. 2018). For example, afforestation creates mittee to advise the government on scientific issues related to a beneficial synergy since afforestation works as a carbon climate change, private sector investment, community aware- sink and protects from calamities. Certain mitigation and ness, and collaboration with other countries that have experi- adaptation techniques include trade-offs with unfavourable ence with climate change mitigation and adaptation synergies. consequences. For instance, constructing a hydroelectric Overall, the interrelationships and synergies between power plant will reduce greenhouse gas emissions due to its mitigation and adaptation methods, as well as their co-ben- renewable energy source. However, a hydroelectric power efits, were discussed. Additionally, the detrimental impacts plant will increase competition for water with local commu- of certain strategies were demonstrated. The implication of nities, compromising adaptation. On the other hand, while synergies in different countries was shown not to progress constructing a dam to prevent seawater intrusion will secure well. For example, in Europe, only a quarter of the climate water supply and so reduce vulnerability, dam construction change action plans considered an in-depth analysis of the will generate greenhouse gases as a result of the cement and mitigation and adaptation synergies. In Cameroon, climate steel needed in construction, thereby impairing mitigation. change initiatives were solely focused on mitigating the Prior to implementing mitigation and adaptation techniques, effects of climate change. Finally, methods for promoting policymakers should conduct an in-depth analysis to ensure mitigation and adaptation synergies were recommended, that co-benefits are realized rather than negative impacts. including investments and community awareness. The integration of climate mitigation and adaptation in the European cities of Copenhagen and Helsinki was investigated (Landauer et al. 2018). The study concentrated on two con- Mapping direct and indirect carbon texts: (1) urban densification and buildings’ energy manage- emissions ment for mitigation, and (2) urban heat and runoff management for adaptation. Synergies have been discovered in Copenha- Carbon emissions mapping using statistical approaches is gen between energy ec ffi iency and flood protection criteria for critical for determining the magnitude of emissions and building design. Furthermore, the study discovered a contra- developing strategies for reducing them in order to attain car- diction in which a higher capacity of groundwater pumps was bon neutrality (Table 2). Research was conducted on map- necessary to regulate floodwater, resulting in increased energy ping CO emissions of various industrial sectors in China 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2293 (Bai et al. 2018). The findings indicated that the majority of 25.1 t  CO -eq/capita (Wiedmann et  al. 2016). Among CO exporters are involved in (1) the production and supply these emissions, the industries’ emissions incorporated in of electric and thermal energy, (2) petroleum processing and local and exported products are 4.3  t  CO -eq/capita and coking, and (3) metals mining and dressing. Nearly 80% of 5.3 t  CO -eq/capita, respectively. Additionally, power gen- CO emissions were attributed to these three sectors. On the eration and demand emissions totalled 10 t  CO -eq/capita, 2 2 other hand, the construction sector was the primary recipient while import-related emissions totalled 10.8 t  CO -eq/capita. of embodied carbon due to China’s fast urbanization, which The primary contributors to Melbourne’s carbon footprint resulted in significant infrastructure expansion. The study are households, government, and businesses, accounting recommended promoting energy efficiency in manufactur - for 64%, 15%, and 21% of total emissions, respectively. ing processes and reducing downstream industry usage of Here, policymakers are urged to concentrate their efforts energy-intensive products to reduce carbon emissions. on the social aspect of carbon emission reduction so that Another study examined the carbon emissions in the residents can learn how to reduce carbon emissions in their Chinese cities of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. The findings households. indicated that per capita CO emissions in Beijing and Tian- Another mapping was conducted in the urban area of jin’s metropolitan areas were lower than provincial averages, Sumida in Tokyo, with an emphasis on direct and indirect implying that intensive human activities were recorded (Cai emissions from buildings and transportation (Yamagata et al. et al. 2018). In comparison to Beijing and Tianjin, Hebei 2018). The study examined 46,352 and 7928 buildings and province’s urban areas were dominated by industries with road links and discovered that road emissions were particu- the most diverse functions. Urbanization reduced per capita larly high between 6:00 and 9:00 and between 15:00 and CO emissions from the transportation sector, with Hebei 18:00 due to intensive commuting. Emissions from buildings benefiting the most. Policymakers are encouraged not to were particularly high between 9:00 and 18:00. Addition- embrace a single solution but rather to impose options that ally, carbon emissions were highest during July compared consider the urban area’s breakdown. to other months, indicating that more energy was required Skole et al. used spatial and quantitative measurements for cooling, necessitating increased attention, particularly as to determine the rates of deforestation and forest degrada- global temperatures continue to rise. tion in Malawi’s forests and agricultural areas. The analy- The road links had significant direct emissions from fos- sis indicated that deforestation rates between 2000–2009 sil fuels compared to indirect emissions, indicating that the −1 −1 and 2009–2015 were 22,410 ha  yr and 38,937 ha  yr , transition from gasoline to electric vehicles will substantially respectively. Additionally, the forest degradation rates reduce carbon emissions. However, the use of electric vehi- −1 between 2000–2009 and 2009–2015 were 42,961 ha  yr cles will lead to indirect emissions from electricity usage; −1 and 71,878 ha  yr , respectively. The rates revealed in this hence more research is required in this area. The study study were higher than those obtained by global forest watch also discovered that carbon emissions around the commer- since the study carried out by global forest watch consid- cial district of Kinshi-Cho were higher than those around ered deforestation only in government forests, excluding SkyTree due to Kinshi-Cho being unplanned and densely agricultural lands and community forests. The updated esti- packed compared to SkyTree, which has well-planned mates are critical for developing a national policy for forest energy-efficient buildings (Yamagata et al. 2018). Here, the resource management (Skole et al. 2021). authors propose an improvement in commuting patterns to Another study of the ecosystem’s carbon footprint con- reduce carbon emissions throughout the morning and even- ducted in Romania discovered a density of 2949 ha and a ing hours. Additionally, a shift to more efficient and renew - projected crown coverage of 7616 ha. Additionally, the for- able energy systems will reduce carbon emissions associated est had 27,800 m of green biomass and 13,066 t of car- with building cooling and heating systems. Figure 3 sum- bon (Mihut et al. 2019). Another study on forest degrada- marizes the various types of carbon emissions, both direct tion as a result of logging was conducted in Venezuela’s and indirect. Amazon (Pacheco-Angulo et al. 2021). The findings indi- Another study examined indirect emissions across house- cated that forest degradation directly impacted 24,480 ha holds in China and the United States of America using an of the Imataca forest reserve. With a harvest intensity of input–output model (Ma et al. 2016). The findings indicated −1 2.8 ± 1.2  trees  ha , selective logging released around that the United States has historically emitted more indirect −1 61 ± 21.9 MgC  ha . The findings of these studies are criti- CO than China. However, there has been a recent trend in cal for executing projects for reducing emissions from defor- which China’s household emissions have increased while estation and forest degradation (REDD +). those in the United States of America have decreased. The Several researchers have attempted to map emissions trend is evident from 2000 to 2010; the United States of by creating city carbon maps. Wiedmann et al. created a America have maintained indirect household emissions at carbon footprint map for Melbourne, revealing a total of 400 million tonnes while China increased from 150 to 500 1 3 2294 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Table 2 Methods used to map the direct and indirect carbon emissions. The mapping sectors, locations, used models, and data sources by differ - ent research on mapping carbon emissions are briefly described Mapping sectors Location Mapping methods References Industrial China The hypothetical extraction method (Bai et al. 2018) was used to check interdepend- ent methods. The data used were obtained from the input–Output Table of China 2012 and the Energy Statistical Yearbook 2013 All sectors Worldwide The spatial estimates of emissions (Kanemoto et al. 2016) and economic activities were related to the standard multi- regional input–output model. Then, an extension of the mone- tary transaction between countries and sectors to embodied carbon emission flows was done Industry, agriculture, household, Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei-China Industrial emissions data were (Cai et al. 2018) transport obtained from China industrial facility database, energy consump- tion data from the Chinese Energy Statistical Yearbook 2013, and transport data were calculated by authors. Then, socioeconomic data were obtained from provincial statistical yearbooks and popula- tion data from provincial popula- tion and employment statistics yearbooks. Then, the authors built a 1 km gridded spatial mapping system and used the Kaya equation for decomposition Forests Malawi The data were sourced from 30 m (Skole et al. 2021) Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM +), and Operational Land Imager of 2000, 2009, and 2015. Then, the authors used the fC Tool to map deforestation and forest degradation Ecosystem Romania Authors created Geographic Infor- (Mihut et al. 2019) mation System maps from satellite and aero-photographs. Then biom categories associated with fauna were selected, and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology was used for analysis City Melbourne-Australia Authors made city maps based on (Wiedmann et al. 2016) environmental input–output analy- sis and Leontief-inverse demand- pull Input–Output calculus 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2295 Table 2 (continued) Mapping sectors Location Mapping methods References Forests Venezuelan Amazon 50 Landsat 4, 5, 7, and 8-time (Pacheco-Angulo et al. 2021) series were used from US Geo- logical Survey. The field data were obtained from the Indus- tria Técnica de Maderas C.A (INTECMACA) and Empresa Nacional Forestal (ENAFOR) inventories, and reports from logging companies were used to obtain trees properties. Then, the analytical approach was done by mapping selective logging using the TerraAmazon system and vali- dating them, then construction and validation of degradation maps, then the estimation of Above- ground Biomass and Carbon, and estimation of Committed Carbon Emissions Buildings, transportation Sumida, Tokyo, Japan The authors used spatial micro–Big (Yamagata et al. 2018) Data, 3D carbon mapping, and a bottom-up approach model. Total emissions were estimated from Japan’s greenhouse gas Inven- tory Office, and unit emissions were estimated from the Japan Institute of Energy report. Then, the results were visualized in aeronautical reconnaissance cover- age geographic information system (ArcGIS) 10.5 Urban indirect emissions China The authors used data from Global (Cui and Zhang 2018) Change Research Data Publish- ing and Repository. Then used the Input–output method and logarith- mic mean divisia method (LMDI-I method) Industries indirect emissions China The authors used the Input–output (Du et al. 2018) analysis, carbon emissions inten- sity, and network theory to make the indirect carbon emissions flow network (ICEFN) Tourism direct and indirect emis- China The authors combined Tourism (Meng et al. 2016) sions Satellite Account and the input– output model to calculate tourism industry carbon emissions. Then, the authors obtained the energy input of different industries from the China Statistical Yearbook and calculated the direct emissions of the tourism industry. Then, using input–output balance, the indirect emissions data were obtained Household consumption indirect United States of America and China The authors used the Input–out- (Ma et al. 2016) emissions put model. The China data were obtained from the China Statistical yearbook, and the United States of America data were obtained from the Energy Information Adminis- tration website 1 3 2296 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Fig. 3 Carbon emissions are classified into three main categories, electricity or heat. Indirect value-chain emissions include those asso- including direct, indirect and indirect value-chain emissions. Direct ciated with the processing of products and waste management, among emissions are generated by mobile and stationary sources of direct others fuel combustion. Indirect emissions are a result of the consumption of million tonnes. In 2010, the United States of America’s resi- The input–output model, spatial systems, geographic dence; education, culture, and recreation; and transportation information system maps, light detection and ranging and communication sectors accounted for 39.5%, 15.85%, (LiDAR) technology, and the logarithmic mean divisia and 17.65%, respectively, of total indirect emissions. In method (LMDI-I) are just a few of the methodologies and comparison, China’s indirect emissions were accounted for technologies used. The findings of these mapping studies by residence; education, culture, and recreation; and trans- assist policymakers in determining which sectors or sec- portation and communication, which accounted for 50%, tions of cities deserve attention, allowing for more efficient 2.28%, and 2.48%, respectively. Here, several policies such climate change policies than general approaches. as government guidence to people, the development of new technology, and the promotion of energy-saving initiatives can be used to reduce emissions. Another study estimated the direct and indirect carbon Achieving carbon neutrality emissions produced by China’s tourism industry (Meng et al. 2016). The tourism industry generated total carbon emis- There are generally two viable approaches explored in the sions of 111.49 Mt, 141.88 Mt, 169.76 Mt, and 208.4 Mt literature concerning achieving carbon neutrality. The first in 2002, 2005, 2007, and 2010, respectively, accounting approach entails initiatives, policies, and technologies to for 2.489%, 2.425%, 2.439%, and 2.447% carbon emissions reduce  CO emissions. In addition to emissions reductions, from all industries in China. Apart from transportation, the further measures are required to achieve a net-zero carbon other tourism sectors emitted three to four times the amount system. A second approach focuses on carbon removal of direct carbon emissions indirectly. Due to the complex- from the atmosphere, also referred to as negative emis- ity of tourism carbon emissions, more research should be sions, via a variety of emerging engineered technologies conducted on mapping the industry’s direct and indirect and nature-based solutions. emissions. This section discussed the various approaches used by researchers to map direct and indirect carbon emissions. 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2297 gains realized through the implementation of energy-effi- Carbon emissions reduction cient processes and sector-specific technologies that reduce energy consumption, as well as end-use fuel switching Policies from fossil-based to renewable fuels and the deployment of renewable energy technologies (Fawzy et al. 2020). Another Carbon emissions are reduced when low-carbon policies are implemented. Wang et al. used synthetic control and important sector contributing to carbon emissions is agricul- ture and animal farming. difference-in-differences methodologies to examine China’s carbon trading policies from 2008 to 2018. The findings Energy Investment in clean energy and energy efficiency are indicated that carbon emissions decreased dramatically in several provinces following the implementation of the car- critical elements of reducing carbon emissions. Juan et  al. examined the impact of globalization and renewable energy bon trading policy. Additionally, the research demonstrated that the continued implementation of a carbon trading pol- on Brazil, India, China, and South Africa’s carbon neutral- ity targets (Juan et al. 2021). The study examined economic icy would result in carbon neutrality (Wang et al. 2022). Another study examined the feasibility of carbon tax incen- and energy indicators from 1980 to 2018 utilizing statisti- cal models such as fixed effect and random effect models. tive programmes for reducing the aviation industry’s carbon emissions using algorithms and airline data (Qiu et al. 2020). The findings indicated that increasing globalization by 1% increases carbon emissions by 0.0342%, whereas increasing The findings indicated that, under the right circumstances, such as a low fuel price differential, incentive schemes could a unit of renewable energy consumption such as wind and hydropower reduces carbon emissions by 0.0143%. These incentivize airline businesses to increase fuel efficiency, hence lowering carbon emissions. Carbon trading and tax findings demonstrate that renewable energy sources are an efficient way to reduce carbon emissions. policies help reduce carbon emissions and eventually lead to carbon neutrality. Based on carbon footprint measurements, another study conducted in Bangladesh quantified the environmental Another study examined the influence of vehicle emis- sions policies on carbon emissions reductions by monitoring implications of energy consumption from 1975 to 2016. The findings indicated that increasing per capita hydroelec- vehicle pollution in the European cities of Rome, London, and Florence using global positioning system tracing. The tricity consumption by 1% reduced the carbon footprint by 0.02–0.03%, all other things being equal. Renewable energy results indicated that particular cars and roads emit signifi- cantly more C O than others; thus, interventions such as sources improve environmental quality; nevertheless, their use in Bangladesh for electricity production is as low as 1%, electrification or changing travel patterns should target these large polluters rather than enacting broad carbon emission which is insufficient to reduce carbon emissions (Murshed et al. 2021). Another study conducted in China found that policies (Böhm et al. 2021). Low carbon policies are criti- cal for lowering carbon emissions; yet, policymakers should wind and solar capacity of 2495 and 2674 GW can meet 67% of China’s total energy consumption in 2050, respectively examine the economies of their particular communities to ensure that economic development is not adversely affected. (Liu et al. 2022a). Additionally, the analysis revealed that supplying 10.4 PWh of renewable energy annually would Overall, the role of policies implemented towards carbon emissions reduction such as carbon trading, carbon tax and result in a reduction of 2.08  Mt  SO and 1.97  Mt  NO , 2 x bringing the country closer to meeting its carbon neutral- targeted policies is critical and requires careful examination by policymakers. ity targets. In summary, achieving carbon neutrality is not a one-day accomplishment. Long-term strategies that pro- Sector specific technologies and initiatives mote renewable energy and energy efficiency are necessary to reduce carbon emissions and attain carbon neutrality. Energy-related emissions are the primary contributor to ris- A transition away from fossil fuel energy sources and toward renewable energy sources is critical to attaining ing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere; hence, typical emission reduction strategies and efforts should tar - future carbon neutrality. Millot and Maïzi examined pre- vious energy transitions and discovered that they occurred get both the energy supply and demand sides. The literature generally discusses emission reduction efforts regarding spontaneously as a result of technology advancements, eco- nomic, social, and political benefits such as lower prices technologies and strategies used in four primary sectors: power on the supply side and industrial, buildings and trans- and increased living comfort (Millot and Maïzi 2021). On the other hand, the shift to carbon neutrality cannot occur portation, on the demand side. Emission reduction can be accomplished within the power sector by introducing renew- spontaneously because carbon neutrality is primarily moti- vated by environmental concerns and offers no immediate able energy, carbon capture and storage, nuclear power, and supply-side fuel switching to low-carbon fuels. Additionally, financial benefits to individuals or corporations. As a result, low-carbon technologies must be competitive in order to demand-side emission reduction efforts include efficiency 1 3 2298 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 facilitate this energy transition. Additionally, governments China’s iron and steel industry by 2030 (Li et al. 2019). The should work to price carbon, support research and develop- simulation considered many scenarios, including business, ment, and advance technological innovation. as usual, industrial upgrading, carbon taxation, carbon trad- Another study was conducted on future energy systems in ing, and a combination of all scenarios. Carbon emissions Europe in order to achieve carbon neutrality by mid-century were well controlled in the industrial upgrade’s scenario, utilizing the European TIMES model (ETM-UCL), price- while carbon taxes encouraged low emissions technolo- induced market equilibrium system (PRIMES), and regional gies. Furthermore, a combination of all scenarios resulted model of investments and development (REMIND) energy in the most effective carbon emission reductions, meeting environment-economy models (Rodrigues et al. 2022). The China’s target. In summary, the iron and steel industries’ findings indicated that carbon neutrality is technically fea- key to emissions reductions is the use of sustainable techni- sible with future energy technologies by mid-century. The cal processes and energy sources. Furthermore, Arens et al. energy transition solutions proposed include electrifying examined worldwide steel production and its transition away energy services such as vehicles and heat pumps, alter- from coal-fired power generation, as coal-fired steel manu- ing lifestyles, improving energy efficiency, and promoting facturing currently accounts for 8% of global energy CO renewable energy. Because renewable energy is critical to emissions. According to the analysis, the steel industry is not reaching carbon neutrality, governments, financiers, legisla- well-positioned to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. Except tors, and academics should make renewable energy a major for members of the European Union, other countries have priority (Fawzy et al. 2020). Schiffer and Trüby examined not demonstrated a strong commitment to energy transition Germany’s energy strategy, dubbed the “Energiewende”, and decarbonization (Arens et al. 2021). which was implemented in 2010 with the goal of achiev- Another study examined the glass manufacturing sector ing carbon neutrality in the country. Until 2018, the energy and its decarbonization process, noting that the container programme was well-executed but fell short of reducing CO and flat glass industries alone release over 60 million tonnes emissions. A recommendation is that the energy transfor-of CO per year and that around 75–85% of energy is used mation should begin with electricity generation and expand to heat raw materials in a furnace (Furszyfer Del Rio et al. to the transportation, industrial, and building sectors to cut 2022). Carbon capture and storage, batch preheating, bio- emissions (Schiffer and Trüby 2018). Additionally, inter - fuels, electric furnaces, technical heating and melting, and national cooperation should be fostered to achieve global glass waste recycling were all addressed as approaches to carbon neutrality targets. create a low carbon glass industry. Additionally, the study Overall, the impact of transitioning from fossil-based identified impediments to the glass industry’s decarboni- to renewable energy is well documented and is considered zation, including a shortage of capital, fluctuating energy the most important approach to achieving carbon neutrality prices, and unreliable infrastructure. in the energy sector. However, it is important to note that The forestry industry contributes a substantial amount such transition cannot happen spontaneously. Governments, of CO to the atmosphere, requiring attention. The forestry financiers, legislators, and academics need to focus on pro- industry in Finland and Sweden was studied by identifying moting renewable energy systems. the sectors with the highest emissions, including transpor- tation, non-road machinery, lime kilns and dryers, onsite Industry In relation to the industrial sector, Griffin and energy production, and purchasing power (Lipiäinen et al. Hammond researched the carbon emissions reduction for the 2022). Several techniques for decarbonization have been iron and steel industry in the United Kingdom, accounting proposed, including switching to biofuels for energy and for 26% of the total industry-related greenhouse gas emis- electrifying the forestry industry’s transportation sector. sions in the country. The blast furnace was the most efficient However, effective regulations and incentives are essential to and the highest energy user of all the steel production pro- accomplish a realistic level of decarbonization while avoid- cesses, requiring attention to achieve carbon neutrality. The ing negative consequences. For example, excessive demand research recommended energy-saving technologies such as for biofuels can lead to over-demand in biomass, increasing heat recovery in coke ovens, sinter plants, and electric arc price and scarcity. furnaces. The utilization of such technologies results in an Besides the obvious benefits of fuel-switching and the use 18% reduction in energy consumption and a 12% reduction of renewable energy technologies, there are many oppor- in greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, the study con- tunities for industrial operations to benefit from efficiency cluded that carbon emissions reductions until 2050 are pos- improvements in order to reduce carbon emissions. In the sible with the use of efficient production processes and a steel and cement sectors, waste heat from exhaust gases can shift to bioenergy (Griffin and Hammond 2019). be used for onsite power and heat production via waste-heat Using an environmental-economic simulation model, driven power plants. In process industries that use steam, another study examined the carbon emission reductions of there are various opportunities for efficiency gains, starting 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2299 from efficiency improvements that are carried out in the In conclusion, carbon capture, utilization and storage, boiler, followed by the installation of back pressure tur- where carbon captured can be stored or utilized in produc- bines in areas where pressure reduction is required to gen- tion of chemicals, algae, and concrete building materials erate additional electricity. Furthermore, energy efficiency is an emerging technology that can play a pivotal role in improvements can be realized by deploying advanced equip- achieving carbon emission reductions. However, it should ment control systems across a multitude of industries (Fawzy not be a solution that encourages the continued use of fossil- et al. 2020). based energy. Overall, there are various approaches to reduce carbon emissions in the industrial sector. This includes fuel-switch- Buildings and cities Due to the increasing urban population ing from fossil-based to renewable fuels and the deployment and the amount of time people spend in buildings, buildings of various technologies to promote energy efficiency. Fur - and cities are responsible for significant amounts of carbon thermore, the re-utilization of waste energy sources and the emissions that contribute to climate change. For cities, one introduction of renewable energy systems into the energy- strategy for adapting to climate change is to develop resil- mix of such industrial processes are promising approaches. ient designs capable of withstanding natural disasters while These measures can be implemented across a wide range of minimizing the impact on the natural environment (Wang industries. et  al. 2018). Additionally, mitigation can be attained by deploying decentralized energy systems for cities; however, New carbon emission reduction technologies Furthermore, this option has a significant initial cost. carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) is emerging Buildings can achieve a carbon-free future by utilizing as a promising technology that has been addressed in the lit- improved building envelopes, renewable materials, and 3D erature as a possible strategy to reduce emissions in both the printing. Additionally, this can be achieved by developing power and industrial sectors. The method entails separating heating and cooling systems powered by renewable energy and capturing C O gases produced by processes that utilize and employing energy-efficient technologies (Fawzy et al. fossil fuels. The captured CO is then transported and stored 2020). Furthermore, the use of sensors to monitor and regu- for very long periods of time in geological reserves. Alterna- late smart building equipment such as lighting, as well as the tively, the captured CO can be used to produce chemicals, development of electric and thermal energy storage systems, algae, and concrete building materials, as well as being used are promising approaches. Moreover, electromechanical in enhanced oil recovery. The primary objective is to reduce equipment in buildings should be eco-labelled, and mini- emissions while continuing to use fossil fuels. The literature mum standards for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning discusses three capture technologies: pre-combustion, post- systems should be implemented. combustion, and oxyfuel combustion. Each technique has a The reintroduction of lumber into structures is critical distinct process for CO extraction and capture. However, because a cubic metre of wood stores half a tonne of car- post-combustion capture systems are ideal for retrofit pro- bon; hence, timber buildings and cities can act as carbon jects and have a wide range of applications (Fawzy et  al. sinks. Additionally, combining and covering construction 2020; Osman et al. 2020). materials with nanoparticles improves their characteristics, Furthermore, advancements in capture technologies are increasing their sustainability. In summary, significant work required to enhance efficiency and consequently improve must be done on new construction and retrofitting existing the costs of such systems. Lei et al. reviewed the application structures to align with carbon neutrality programmes and of carbon membrane systems in different processes such as objectives. However, careful planning is essential to avoid hydrogen purification, capturing CO during combustion, poor and optimistic plans that result in unreachable goals, and natural gas sweetening. For CO capture, carbon mem- such as the failed smart cities initiatives in several countries. branes have advantages such as low energy consumption Overall, buildings and cities play a critical role in reduc- and footprint compared to other C O capture methods like ing carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality. Sev- amine absorption. The carbon molecular sieve membrane eral strategies are suggested, including resilient designs, has a high separation performance of C O /NO with a 2140 decentralized energy systems, improved building envelopes, 2 2 Barrer permeability of C O even at high humidity (~ 90%). renewable energies, eco-labelling and the use of lumber in However, the use of carbon molecular sieve membranes in construction. flue gas separation has drawbacks, such as the huge area required to capture a given amount of C O and deteriorating Transportation The transition of the transportation sector performance over time due to carbon matrix species sorp- to renewable energy is challenging, particularly for large, tion. The authors recommended the development of ultra- long-range vehicles and aircraft (Dominković et  al. 2018). thin carbon molecular sieve membranes that are highly Several alternatives to fossil fuels have been proposed, hydrophobic (Lei et al. 2020). including biofuels, hydrogen, electro-fuels, and electricity. 1 3 2300 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Electricity offers the greatest number of benefits, including such as travel demand management and the promotion of higher efficiency, reduced CO emissions, and improved air sharing economies. quality in the transportation sector. For instance, electricity can provide 72.3% of the total  energy necessary for trans- Agriculture, food, and  waste Agricultural land use, food port in the European Union using existing technologies. consumption habits, and waste disposal all contribute sig- Another study examined the life expectancy of electric nificantly to greenhouse gas reduction. Strapasson et  al. vehicle batteries in the context of a circular and low-carbon used the European Union land-use futures (EULUF) economy (Bonsu 2020). The study identified several issues model to examine the effect of food consumption and associated with electric car batteries, including ethical con- agricultural practices on greenhouse gas emissions in the cerns, excessive extraction of raw materials for batteries, a European Union. The study concluded that shifting to a lack of policies addressing manufacturing emissions, and a more vegetarian diet, consuming less meat, and reducing lack of research and a market for end-of-life batteries. The food waste will mitigate climate change. Additionally, analysis demonstrated that a circular economy can achieve increased livestock yields and soil carbon in pasture lands net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. However, the circular minimize the livestock sector’s carbon impact (Strapasson economy should not be limited to recycling raw materials et al. 2020). and repurposing batteries; circular economy should also Another study in South America examined the pos- consider issues such as equitable employment, value chain sibilities for low-carbon agriculture to help reduce cli- emissions, environmental protection, and responsible natural mate change and promote food security. South America resource consumption. accounts for 31.3% of global annual  greenhouse gas Wu et al. investigated the obstacles and solutions to the emissions from land use and land-use change, according deployment of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in China, identi- to the study (Sa et  al. 2017). Between 2016 and 2050, fying barriers such as insufficient supporting infrastructure, South America’s potential as a carbon sink through low- a scarcity of manufacturers, and concerns about hydrogen carbon agriculture was 8.24 PgC. Agriculture’s contri- fuel safety. To accelerate the transition to carbon-neutral bution to climate change mitigation was estimated to be transportation, the study recommended developing hydrogen 31% through pasture restoration, 25.6% through the crop, supply chains, ensuring the safety of hydrogen supplies, and livestock, and forestry integration, 24.3% through no-till expanding financial support and research (Wu et al. 2021). farming, 12.8% through forestation, 4.2% through biologi- Another study examined the use and potential of biogas in cal nitrogen fixation, and 2% through industrial organic transportation in the European Union by upgrading biogas to waste recycling. Additionally, low carbon agriculture −1 biomethane (Prussi et al. 2019). By 2030, the usage of biom- can improve food and meat output by 17.6 Mt.year and −1 ethane in vehicles for compressed natural gas and liquified 1.6  Mt.year , respectively. A recommendation to poli- natural gas will increase to 30 billion m3/yr. Additionally, cymakers is to devise means of incentivizing the public biomethane will be used in maritime and inland waterway to adopt sustainable land-use practices and healthy diets. transportation. In summary, decarbonizing the transporta- Global population growth results in a rise in agricul- tion sector is feasible through the use of electricity, biofuels, tural and food waste. Incineration and landfilling both have hydrogen, and electro-fuels, with electricity being the most drawbacks in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and envi- practical alternative. However, adequate research should be ronmental pollution. Rao and Rathod investigated various conducted on the proper disposal of end-of-life batteries in methods for repurposing food and agricultural waste in order to ensure sustainable energy for the transportation sec- order to attain carbon neutrality. Food and agro-waste can tor’s entire lifecycle. be used to produce new pharmaceuticals, phytochemicals, Other forms of efficiency measures are viable in the trans- enzyme immobilization, heavy metal removal from waste- portation sector. The introduction of travel demand man- water, and waste cooking oil that can be converted to bio- agement to reduce travel frequency and distance may also diesel. The study concluded that while these applications contribute to efficiency improvements in the transportation have been investigated in the laboratory, they should be sector (Fawzy et al. 2020). Furthermore, the growth of shar- scaled up to realize their benefits (Rao and Rathod 2019). ing economies, such as sharing rides, parking spaces, and In summary, adopting low carbon agriculture, changing crowdsourcing information, would increase the sector’s effi- eating behaviours, and valorizing food and agro-waste ciency, resulting in decreased carbon emissions. implementation is essential to achieving a carbon-free In conclusion, the electrification of the transportation future. sector was found to be the best way to lower the sector’s Overall, the main strategies to reduce carbon emissions carbon emissions. Other strategies to reduce carbon emis- around agriculture, food and waste include shifting to veg- sions in the transportation sector include electro-fuels, etarian diets, reducing food waste, pasture restoration, no-till hydrogen, biofuels, as well as other efficiency measures farming, and repurposing food and agricultural wastes. 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2301 General societal initiatives technologies are required to attain a carbon-free world. The primary negative emissions techniques that have been exten- Apart from corporations and governments, individuals and sively discussed in the literature include bioenergy carbon households are critical in reducing carbon emissions. Pul- capture and storage, direct air carbon capture and storage, selli et al. quantified greenhouse gas emissions from house- biochar, soil carbon sequestration (Fawzy et al. 2020). This holds in European cities and examined mitigation strategies. is along with afforestation and reforestation, enhanced ter - A typical household’s carbon footprint was determined to be restrial weathering, wetland construction and restoration, 6.93 t CO -eq/yr, which corresponds to the annual carbon ocean alkalinity enhancement, and ocean fertilization, as absorbed by 0.51 hectare of forest (Pulselli et al. 2019). well as alternative storage approaches such as mineral car- Another study examined the carbon footprints of house- bonation and the use of biomass in construction (Fawzy holds in Berlin, Germany, comparing voluntary carbon et al. 2020). Each of these techniques carries its costs, chal- emission reductions in 2018 to involuntary carbon emis- lenges, limitations and merits. sion reductions during the coronavirus disease 2019. Carbon In Scotland, a study was conducted to determine the trackers were installed in the households to monitor their energy and economic costs associated with adopting land- carbon footprints associated with electricity use, mobility, based negative emissions technologies (Alcalde et al. 2018). and food intake. The findings indicated that households Bioenergy carbon capture and storage, direct air capture, saved an average of 11% in carbon emissions, with some enhanced weathering, forest sink capacity, soil carbon people saving up to 40% (Reusswig et al. 2021). The house- sequestration, and biomass conversion to biochar are the holds highlighted various difficulties in reducing emissions, technologies investigated. Economically, the enhanced such as concerns about road safety, which prevented them weathering approach had the highest costs, with lower and from converting to bicycles. The emergence of the corona- upper costs of $US 25/t CO and $US 1600/t CO , respec- 2 2 virus disease 2019 resulted in a 10% reduction in carbon tively. On the other hand, bioenergy carbon capture and stor- emissions in Germany, but scientists expected that emis- age and forestation were less expensive, whereas biochar sions would increase when economies recovered following and soil carbon sequestration could be cost-effective. The the coronavirus disease 2019. Households can implement study advised implementing a mix of bioenergy carbon cap- several low-cost mitigation strategies to help reduce carbon ture and storage, soil carbon sequestration, and enhanced emissions, including shading facades, efficient lighting use, weathering technologies, which has the potential to reduce walking or cycling to work, carpooling, and public trans- emissions by 8.3–36.8 Mt CO . The combined maximum portation use. capacity could eliminate up to 89.8% of Scotland’s annual Apart from households, universities can help reduce emissions. In addition, bioenergy can be produced through carbon emissions. Carbon emissions were quantified at the thermochemical processes which are more efficient in time NED University of engineering and technology in Karachi, and conversion rate or biochemical processes which produce Pakistan, using a carbon calculator, and mitigating strategies more volatile organic compounds and require less energy were identified (Mustafa et al. 2022). The data indicated that and temperature (Liu et al. 2022b). When compared to a the campus produced 21,500 Mt C O -eq in 2017, equating single negative emissions technology, a combination of dif- to 1.79 Mt CO -eq per student. The key mitigation methods ferent negative emissions technologies that act in concert suggested were the adoption of renewable energy sources, produces the best results with the least amount of resource the use of energy-efficient appliances, the conversion to elec- use. tric vehicles, and the planting of trees. Thus, because house- Fuhrman et al. investigated the negative emissions tech- holds and individuals are critical components of achieving nologies’ impacts on food, energy, and water resources. carbon neutrality, climate change education should be pro- According to the study, direct air carbon capture technology −1 vided to educate individuals about strategies to minimize can achieve negative emissions of 3 Gt  CO yr by 2035 at carbon emissions at home, school, and work. current pricing and efficiency levels. Additionally, direct air As noted, society can play an important role in carbon carbon capture avoids the land use demand and food crop emission reduction. The suggested strategies include shading crisis difficulties associated with bioenergy carbon capture facades, efficient lighting use, walking or cycling to work, and storage and afforestation. The study concluded that energy-efficient appliances, converting to electric vehicles, policymakers considering negative emission technologies planting of trees, and climate change education. should take into account non-climate-related environmental implications (Fuhrman et al. 2020). Atmospheric carbon removal Negative emission technologies, on the other hand, have some drawbacks. Utilizing the impulse response function, a Carbon neutrality cannot be achieved solely through car- study investigated the risk of carbon leakage into the atmos- bon emissions reduction; therefore, negative emissions phere as a result of using negative emissions technologies. 1 3 2302 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 The results indicated that over various time scales of leak- neutrality, life cycle analysis has been used to assess biologi- age and assuming that 80% carbon was permanently stored, cal, building, materials, chemical, and other carbon-neutral the leakage to the environment was negligible at 3 parts per systems. Table 3 summarizes various carbon-neutral systems million CO (Lyngfelt et al. 2019). In conclusion, leakage is in different countries and sectors that have used life cycle unlikely to have a substantial negative impact on the accom- analysis. plishment of carbon-negative emissions unless an excessive Carbon neutrality expresses a state in which individu- amount of leakage occurs. als, products, and the activities of countries, cities, com- Another study concluded that negative emissions technol- panies, and other organizations strive to emit zero carbon ogies are not yet ready for widespread use due to uncertainty dioxide. Net-zero emissions indicate that their activities do regarding their technologies, pricing, and environmental not release greenhouse gases or use other technical means to implications (Chavez 2018). Thus, the research concluded decarbonize emissions or remove atmospheric carbon. While that measures such as renewable portfolio standards, which decarbonization plans are one method of achieving carbon require electricity companies to offer a specific percentage neutrality, all decarbonization techniques must undergo a of their energy supply using eligible renewable sources, life cycle evaluation to avoid greenwashing. Additionally, should be established to expedite the development of nega- carbon removal projects need to be examined from a life tive emissions technologies. Applying a similar policy in cycle perspective. carbon removal will drive investment in negative emissions According to Table 3, which details the adoption of life technologies. In summary, negative emissions technologies cycle assessment studies in various carbon neutral systems have enormous promise for achieving future carbon neutral- across different countries and sectors, we discovered that, ity; hence, additional investment, research, and regulations while the majority of countries signed the Paris agreement in are needed to encourage deployment. 2015 to achieve carbon neutrality, researchers in the United In conclusion, negative emissions technologies can con- Kingdom, Norway, and Italy had already adopted life cycle tribute to achieving carbon neutrality. However, each of assessment in 2012, 2013 and 2014 in the transportation, these technologies requires a different level of investment, biology, and drainage sectors, respectively, to achieve carbon operating conditions, and energy demand, which implement- neutrality. Additionally, between 2017 and 2019, research- ers should consider when scaling them up. Additionally, ers from China, Italy, Germany, and Sweden investigated researchers should conduct a comprehensive life cycle analy- studies that combined life cycle assessment methods with sis of these technologies to ensure they are implemented carbon-neutral systems in the domains of forestry, architec- efficiently and at the lowest possible cost. ture, chemistry, and materials science. The majority of these studies evaluated a model, technology, or material’s abil- ity to achieve carbon neutrality across its entire life cycle. Additionally, carbon neutrality is a twenty-first-century trend Life cycle analysis of various carbon neutral that can integrate a life cycle perspective into organizational systems and decision-making environments, although pure life cycle assessments have not yet accomplished this goal (Finkbeiner A life cycle analysis is a technique for determining the envi- and Bach 2021). ronmental impact of a product system across its useful life In conclusion, we identified that most projects use life (Finnveden et al. 2009; Rebitzer et al. 2004). The life cycle cycle assessment to analyse carbon neutrality technologies analysis process begins with formulating objectives, and the or models and use a life cycle perspective to incorporate scope for a life cycle inventory continues with a life cycle organizational and decision-making environments. The life impact analysis and concludes with the interpretation and cycle analysis of entire systems should be enhanced and translation of the results (Corporation and Curran 2006). detailed from the cradle to the grave in order to ensure over- Life cycle analysis is also frequently utilized in various car- all system carbon neutrality. bon-neutral systems to characterize greenhouse gases, and related climate change impacts objectively (Osman et al. 2021). For example, Wiloso et al. investigated the impact of Sustainability resulting from carbon biochar inventories on bioenergy life cycle analysis (Wiloso neutrality et al. 2016), Petrovic et al. explored the life cycle analysis of building materials for single-family houses in Sweden Carbon neutrality is a new industrial revolution that human- (Petrovic et al. 2019), and Thonemann and Pizzol analysed ity faces, one that will progress toward a carbon-free and the corresponding carbon capture and utilization technolo- sustainable future, which will have a major effect on the gies in the chemical industry (Thonemann and Pizzol 2019). environment, society, and economy (Fawzy et al. 2021). As some nations have established targets to achieve carbon 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2303 1 3 Table 3 Life cycle analysis of various carbon neutral systems. Table  3 investigates different countries that have adopted life-cycle assessment methods in carbon-neutral systems in different areas Sector Project description Country Year Key findings Reference Transportation Transport carbon modelling in the United Kingdom: The United Kingdom 2012 This study presents the United Kingdom Transport (Brand et al. 2012) an integrated life cycle approach to exploring a low Carbon Model, which can develop transport policy carbon future scenarios that explore the full range of technical, fiscal, regulatory, and behavioural change policy interventions to achieve the United Kingdom’s climate change and energy security goals Forestry A critical analysis of carbon-neutral assumptions in life China 2017 This study critically analyses the carbon neutrality (Liu et al. 2017) cycle assessment of forest bioenergy systems assumptions in the life cycle assessment model for assessing the climate change impacts of bioenergy use such that the climate change impacts of bioenergy use can be accurately assessed Building Smart windows for carbon-neutral buildings: a life cycle Italy 2018 The study evaluated the life cycle impact of photocell (Pierucci et al. 2018) approach windows on office buildings and total life cycle energy consumption. Its smart windows have proven benefi- cial technology and a possible solution for commer- cial buildings to meet near-zero energy building and carbon-neutral building standards Biology Key issues and options for accounting for carbon Italy 2013 This paper reviews and discusses six existing methods (Brandão et al. 2013) sequestration and interim storage in life cycle assess- for accounting for the potential climate impacts of ment and carbon footprinting carbon sequestration and temporary storage or release of biogenic carbon in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting Drainage Life cycle assessment of water and wastewater systems Norway 2014 This study presents the results of a life cycle assessment (Slagstad and Brattebø 2014) in Trondheim, Norway: a case study of the water and wastewater systems in the city of Trondheim. The study results were used to plan a new carbon-neutral urban settlement Chemistry Sustainable conversion of carbon dioxide: an integrated Germany 2018 This paper assesses the potential for reducing the (Artz et al. 2018) review of catalysis and life cycle assessment environmental footprint in these applications relative to the current petrochemical value chain. The paper also mentions that advances in synthetic methods with CO as an essential component present a challenge for long-term assessment methods to provide a sound and comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts Biology The impact of biochar inventories on bioenergy life Netherlands 2016 This paper analyses eight scenarios focusing on various (Wiloso et al. 2016) cycle assessment: a challenge to the neutrality carbon flows, including biomass decomposition in the assumption field and alternative uses as a bioenergy feedstock, regarding general bioenergy systems to coordinate future bioenergy life cycle assessments Material Life cycle assessment of building materials for single- Sweden 2019 The life cycle assessment results in this study dem- (Petrovic et al. 2019) family houses in Sweden onstrate the environmental impacts associated with building materials from the production and construc- tion phases, including transportation, replacement, and deconstruction phases 2304 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Impact on the environment The ultimate goal of the Paris climate agreement is to keep global warming below 2 ℃ and try to limit it to below 1.5 ℃ (Rogelj et al. 2016). One of the most severe environmen- tal problems currently facing the world is climate change. The overexploitation of non-renewable resources by global industrial development and other forms of environmental damage such as heavy reliance on fossil fuels, deforestation, and waste incineration have resulted in an increase in green- house gases in the atmosphere, ultimately causing environ- mental degradation such as global temperature increase and melting of the north and south pole glaciers (Tan and Wang 2021). The primary and most direct benefit of achieving car - bon neutrality is to mitigate negative environmental impacts and slow the rising rate of global temperature. As a result, achieving carbon neutrality is a critical objective for a vari- ety of countries today and one of the possible solutions to the problem of climate change (Udemba 2021). Since each country faces unique environmental chal- lenges, its steps vary, but they all eventually aim to reduce negative environmental impacts and attain carbon neutrality. As a result, on the path to carbon neutrality, we can encour- age the development of various measures, including those addressed in this review. Simultaneously, achieving carbon neutrality will help decrease global warming and resolve the world’s energy dilemma while also having good ecologi- cal impacts such as improved air quality, more sustainable landscapes, and ecological restoration (Chen 2021). Carbon neutrality is critical for humanity to coexist in harmony with nature and progress toward a future sustainable environment. Impact on society If the world does not implement a series of measures to control global warming, human beings will confront envi- ronmental deterioration, including increased global tem- peratures, more frequent extreme weather, and significant harm to land and marine ecosystems (Zou et al. 2021). If global temperatures rise by 2 °C, around 13% of terrestrial ecosystems will be destroyed, and many animals and plants will become extinct; sea levels will rise by approximately 36 to 87 cm, and approximately 95% of coral reefs will face extinction (IPCC 2018). Achieving carbon neutrality would decrease the frequency of catastrophic disasters, and its direct impact on society would be to preserve the existing social order, while its indirect impact would be to promote human society’s evolution. Extreme weather frequently results in house collapses, human casualties, and crop failures, resulting in habitat destruction, loss of loved ones, and food scarcity, severely affecting the existing social order. Additionally, the vast number of trees that felled would dramatically reduce forest 1 3 Table 3 (continued) Sector Project description Country Year Key findings Reference Chemistry Corresponding life cycle assessment of carbon capture Germany 2019 The study evaluated 12 CO conversion technologies to (Thonemann and Pizzol 2019) and utilization technologies in the chemical industry provide decision support for each technology’s poten- tial life-cycle environmental impacts to better achieve carbon neutrality in the introduction of carbon capture and utilization technologies in the chemical industry Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2305 cover, and many wild creatures will lose habitat, expedit- neutrality makes a significant contribution to reversing the ing species extinction and severely damaging the biological environmental degradation that has occurred in recent years chain. The collapse of the biological chain will destroy the and to promoting the development of a sustainable environ- ecosystem, eventually resulting in human beings becoming ment for future generations. In terms of society, reaching unable to survive and the destabilization of society. Addi- carbon neutrality contributes to the development of a stable tionally, rising sea levels will result in the global inunda- society, social growth, and the creation of new technolo- tion of some island countries and coastal towns, resulting in gies and measures. Finally, achieving carbon neutrality will enormous human migration and potentially wars, threaten- encourage a shift in economic development models, energy ing global social stability. As countries take various steps production and consumption, and the eventual emergence toward carbon neutrality, humanity is confronted with new of a new economic system based on energy consumption. technologies and measures that contribute to the progress of society at large. Conclusion Impact on the economy This comprehensive assessment of the literature examined Several of the initiatives adopted to attain carbon neutral- the critical nature of achieving net-zero carbon emissions ity will have a substantial economic impact (Ji et al. 2021). in order to support sustainable development. It began with The economic impact of carbon neutrality is mostly due to a systematic review of the 26th United Nations Climate a shift in economic development models, as well as energy Change Conference of the Parties, a once-in-a-generation production and consumption. Carbon neutrality will reorient opportunity to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change economic growth toward green, low-carbon, and sustain- and achieve carbon neutrality in the aftermath of the corona- able development; it will also significantly impact emerg- virus disease 2019 pandemic. Simultaneously, the four out- ing technology trends, such as decarbonization technologies, come targets presented at the 26th United Nations Climate energy efficiency technologies, recycling technologies, and Change Conference of the Parties were studied further. The new power systems energy storage technologies, as well as results of the four targets have far-reaching positive implica- negative emissions technologies. Additionally, new models tions for achieving carbon neutrality globally. Meanwhile, will almost certainly displace certain economic activities this study gave a full and exhaustive overview of worldwide or businesses; for example, the existing coal industry and initiatives to attain carbon neutrality, the majority of which its accompanying infrastructure, manufacturing, and service are policies or measures implemented by specific countries. sectors will likely continue to lose jobs. On the other hand, Only 4.5% of the 198 countries examined have reached car- carbon neutrality will spur job creation in the clean energy, bon neutrality, while most of the remaining countries are carbon-free energy, and renewable energy sectors, resulting still planning to do so, with the majority of them aiming for in economic shocks. carbon neutrality after 2050. Continued advancement of carbon neutrality targets is Additionally, this research systematically examined the projected to considerably impact the development and reor- interconnections and synergies between adaptation and miti- ganization of the energy mix, particularly in the higher car- gation strategies and their associated benefits. Certain strate- bon-emitting oil, coal, and natural gas sectors. Consumption gies found in the analysis may have a detrimental effect on of refined oil will gradually be phased out in the oil sector; the objective of net-zero carbon emissions. The investigation countries with a high demand for crude oil consumption indicated that synergies across countries are lagging. Only a will see their consumption steady and then fall. The coal quarter of Climate Change and Political Stability in Europe sector’s backward production capacity will progressively incorporate an in-depth investigation of mitigation and adap- be phased out; the coal chemical industry, coal power, and tation synergies. It is worth noting that the various methods other coal conversion industries will face limited expansion for mapping direct and indirect carbon emissions (input–out- space; and alternative energy sources will steadily weaken put models, spatial systems, geographic information system and eventually replace coal use. The gradual use of alterna- maps, LiDAR techniques, and LMDI-I methods), as well as tive energy sources will gradually reduce the demand for systematic survey analysis, can be extremely beneficial for natural gas in the energy sector. Meanwhile, in the field of decision-makers in determining precisely which urban areas non-fossil energy, new energy technologies will accelerate should be concerned about in order to develop more effective their development on a wide scale, and the development of and targeted climate change policies. its new power system will continue, gradually building a In addition, this assessment included several sustainable new energy consumption economy. strategies for achieving carbon neutrality in various sectors. In conclusion, the positive impacts of carbon neutrality on The first step is to shift away from fossil fuel energy and the environment, society and the economy are clear. Carbon toward renewable sources of energy, as well as to develop 1 3 2306 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 low-carbon technologies. The strategy for energy transition Declarations should be to electrify energy services, increase energy effi- Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no known com- ciency, and promote renewable energy sources. Simultane- peting financial interests or personal relationships that could have ap- ously, modifying dietary habits (more vegetarian, less meat, peared to influence the work reported in this review. less food waste) can help minimize the negative effects of climate change in terms of agricultural land use, food con- Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attri- sumption patterns, and waste disposal. Pasture restoration, bution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adapta- tion, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems, no-till agricul- as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, ture, afforestation, biological nitrogen fixation, and organic provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes waste recycling are all examples of climate change miti- were made. The images or other third party material in this article are gation techniques. Adopting low-carbon agriculture, alter- included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in ing consumer behaviour, and raising the value of food and the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not agricultural waste are essential steps toward net-zero carbon permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will emissions. need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a In terms of buildings and cities, buildings should be copy of this licence, visit http://cr eativ ecommons. or g/licen ses/ b y/4.0/ . designed to be resilient to natural hazards while minimizing disruption to the natural environment. Cities with decentral- ized energy systems and technology such as electric vehi- cles, the Internet of things, and big data can significantly References contribute to climate change mitigation. 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Strategies to achieve a carbon neutral society: a review

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Springer Journals
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Copyright © The Author(s) 2022
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1610-3653
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10.1007/s10311-022-01435-8
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Abstract

The increasing global industrialization and over-exploitation of fossil fuels has induced the release of greenhouse gases, leading to an increase in global temperature and causing environmental issues. There is therefore an urgent necessity to reach net-zero carbon emissions. Only 4.5% of countries have achieved carbon neutrality, and most countries are still planning to do so by 2050–2070. Moreover, synergies between different countries have hampered synergies between adaptation and mitigation policies, as well as their co-benefits. Here, we present a strategy to reach a carbon neutral economy by examining the outcome goals of the 26th summit of the United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP 26). Methods have been designed for mapping carbon emissions, such as input–output models, spatial systems, geographic information system maps, light detection and ranging techniques, and logarithmic mean divisia. We present decarbonization technolo- gies and initiatives, and negative emissions technologies, and we discuss carbon trading and carbon tax. We propose plans for carbon neutrality such as shifting away from fossil fuels toward renewable energy, and the development of low-carbon technologies, low-carbon agriculture, changing dietary habits and increasing the value of food and agricultural waste. Devel- oping resilient buildings and cities, introducing decentralized energy systems, and the electrification of the transportation sector is also necessary. We also review the life cycle analysis of carbon neutral systems. Keywords Carbon neutrality · Net-zero carbon plan · Worldwide initiatives · Carbon emissions · Carbon neutral system · Life cycle analysis Abbreviations UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on COP26 The 26th United Nations Climate Change Climate Change Conference of the Parties PCCC Paris Climate Change Conference LiDAR Light detection and ranging IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LMDI-I Log arithmic mean divisia index ICEFN Indirect carbon emissions flow network CCUS Carbon capture utilization and storage WHO World Health Organization BECCS Bioenergy and carbon capture and storage EULUF European Union using the European Union CO Carbon dioxide Land Use Futures SO Sulphur dioxideN/A Not available NOx Nitrogen oxides URL Uniform resource locator NSPG North and South Pole Glaciers ArcGIS Aeronautical reconnaissance coverage geo- graphic information system SCPRC State Council of the People's Republic of * Ahmed I. Osman China aosmanahmed01@qub.ac.uk ha Hectare −1 * Pow-Seng Yap ha Per hectare −1 PowSeng.Yap@xjtlu.edu.cn yr Per year m Cubic meter Department of Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool t Tonne University, Suzhou 215123, China Mg Megagram School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, David Keir Mt Megatonne Building, Queen’s University Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Northern Ireland, Belfast BT9 5AG, UK Vol.:(0123456789) 1 3 2278 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Gt Gigatonne is necessary to not only reduce CO emissions but also to GW Gigawattremove CO from the atmosphere to achieve net-zero car- PWh Petawatt hour bon or negative carbon emissions through various social, kg Kilogram economic, environmental and technological measures. −1 GJ Per Gigajoule Carbon neutrality, a state of net-zero carbon emissions, ppm Parts per million can be achieved by balancing the total amount of carbon Pg Petagram dioxide or greenhouse gas emissions produced directly or indirectly by a country, company, product, activity, or indi- vidual over a certain period via carbon offset or removal Introduction initiatives. Furthermore, to achieve carbon neutrality, the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), in its With the increasing global industrialization and over- special report on global warming of 1.5 °C, also empha- exploitation of non-renewable energy sources, a large sized the need to reduce and phase out fossil fuels, use number of greenhouse gases have been released, leading to more renewable energy, improve energy efficiency, and an increase in global temperature and causing a series of highlighted the importance of implementing these meas- environmental degradation issues (Wang et al. 2021). From ures in cities to achieve carbon neutrality (Masson-Del- pre-industrialization, around 1850, until 2022, the global motte et al. 2018). Moreover, to achieve net-zero carbon average atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO ) concentration emissions and sustainable development, carbon removal or increased substantially from 285 to 419 ppm (Chen 2021; sequestration in terrestrial and marine ecosystems must be CO Daily 2022). As a result, the United Kingdom meteoro- promoted (Cheng 2020). Different regions, countries, and logical office estimates a global average surface temperature cities have developed strategies to improve carbon removal increase of about 0.97 to 1.21 °C throughout 1850–2022, or sequestration and achieve carbon neutrality (Hepburn with a central estimate of 1.09 °C; they also predict that et al. 2021; Pedersen et al. 2020; Huang and Zhai 2021), 2022 will continue the trend of the warmest years in the yet achieving net-zero carbon emissions is challenging world (Sangomla 2022). Furthermore, global greenhouse (Wang et al. 2021). gas emissions are expected to rise by 50% by 2050, owing Herein, this literature review presents a systematic primarily to CO emissions from non-renewable energy use discussion of the implications of the 26th summit of the (Rabaey and Ragauskas 2014). Without effective measures United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties or technologies to reduce or control CO emissions, the for achieving carbon neutrality, specifically addressing the global average atmospheric C O concentration, as well as implications of achieving such a target by 2050 or 2060 for the global surface and ocean temperatures, will continue to most member countries. Furthermore, the review explores rise. The rising global temperature caused by these green- global initiatives, primarily referring to the policies or house gases has already caused significant damage to the measures put in place by individual countries to achieve human living environment, including the extinction of some net-zero carbon emissions. The review also investigates in species, loss of biodiversity, droughts, floods, forest fires, detail the interrelationships and synergies between adap- ocean acidification, melting of north and south pole glaciers tation and mitigation strategies, maps direct and indirect (NSPG), and sea-level rise (Maximillian et al. 2019; Mora carbon emissions and proposes two main approaches to et al. 2018; Yang et al. 2022). achieving carbon neutrality: emissions reduction and In response to rising global greenhouse gas concen- atmospheric carbon removal. Moreover, the review pre- trations and temperatures, on December 12, 2015, 197 sents carbon-free plans for the future in transportation, member parties of the United Nations framework conven- agriculture, food waste, industry, and other areas and tion on climate change (UNFCCC) unanimously agreed at examines the life cycle analysis of various carbon neutral the Paris climate change conference (PCCC) to adopt the systems for the technologies or measures to achieve these Paris agreement, which lays out plans for global action to plans. Finally, the review provides relevant and up-to- address climate change after 2020 (Berndes et al. 2016). date information, policies, and technologies for achieving Under the Paris agreement, each country agreed to limit carbon neutrality and assists governments and people in the global temperature increase to less than 2 °C and work different regions and countries in understanding the posi- to limit the global temperature increase to less than 1.5 °C tive environmental, social, and economic consequences of (Agreement 2015). As of February 2021, 124 countries carbon neutrality. worldwide have declared their intention to become carbon neutral and achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 or 2060 (Chen 2021). To attain the targets stipulated by the Paris agreement and support sustainable development, it 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2279 Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties. For the United Nations Climate Change Conference first time ever, a major event occurred in 2015. At the 21st of the Parties United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties, every country agreed to combat the negative impacts of cli- Background of the Conference mate change by working together to keep global warming in a range well below 2 °C, with a target value of 1.5 °C At a critical time for green recovery on a global scale, the (Vogler 2020). At the same time, each nation party agreed 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the to provide funding to achieve these goals (van den Berg et al. Parties was held in Glasgow from 31st October to 12th 2022). This marked the birth of the Paris agreement. November 2021 (Masuda et  al. 2022). It is well known that greenhouse gas emission reductions are a key factor in human health. The 2030 enhanced emission reduction Outcomes of the Conference targets (in the form of nationally determined contributions) and the mid-century long-term low greenhouse gas emis- The 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the sion development strategies that the worldwide governments Parties made progress in four key areas: coal, cars, cash, and are supposed to submit to the 26th United Nations Climate trees. Progress in the first two goals requires a consensus Change Conference of the Parties have only been submitted among countries to rapidly phase out coal, the most pollut- by countries accounting for 55% and 32% of global green- ing fossil fuel. The second is to replace fuel-based transport house gas emissions, respectively (Wyns and Beagley 2021). with electric transport as soon as possible and to develop At the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of electric vehicles. Regarding the latter two goals, the $100 the Parties, climate change moved from a marginal issue to billion in annual financial support pledged by developed a worldwide priority. With the attention of world leaders, countries to developing countries in 2010 will have to be government representatives, businesses and citizens focused delivered. At the same time, climate change solutions, which on the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of are part of the biology of global change, should be imple- the Parties in Glasgow, expectations are high for countries mented and delivered (Smith et al. 2022). Figure 1 presents to make new commitments on reducing carbon emissions. In the four main outcomes of the 26th United Nations Climate the meantime, it is essential to look back at another United Change Conference of the Parties. Fig. 1 The main outcomes of the United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties. Figure 1 illustrates the four main outcome goals of the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Par- ties: secure global net-zero by mid-century and keep 1.5 °C within reach, adapt to protect communities and natural habi- tats, mobilize finance, and work together to deliver. These four outcome goals focus on coal, electric vehicles, cash, and trees 1 3 2280 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Secure global net-zero by mid-century and keep 1.5 °C much of the public funds into climate-resilient investments within reach (dos Santos 2022). It is critical to note that businesses must understand the risks climate change poses to their operations and plan accordingly. National banks and regulators must To avoid the looming problem of global environmental ensure that local financial systems are resilient to climate change, global warming needs to be limited to less than change’s adverse effects and assist companies in transition- 1.5  °C. At present, the world has not yet limited global ing to zero emissions. warming to 1.5 °C (Arasaradnam and Hillman 2022; COP26 2021; Dwivedi et  al. 2022). Without targeted improve- Work together to deliver ments, global temperatures will continue to rise, leading to more catastrophic floods, bushfires, extreme weather, and species destruction. Experts have made some progress in The agreement reached in the 26th United Nations Climate combating global warming, bending the temperature curve Change Conference of the Parties negotiations is a shared to 2 °C. Nevertheless, scientific data show that much work responsibility of the member  parties towards a net-zero remains to be done to keep the temperature curve at 1.5 °C economy through national efforts. The 26th United Nations (Kelly 2021). Developed countries and those with large Climate Change Conference of the Parties negotiations are carbon emissions need to take the lead, and goals must be focused on the rules needed for the eventual implementation quickly translated into action. Countries worldwide (espe- of the Paris agreement, known as the Paris rulebook. This cially developed countries) must rapidly phase out fossil would require cooperation at the global level among gov- fuel power generation and provide support to developing ernments, national functional sectors, and financial institu- countries for clean energy technologies (COP26 2021; Lay- tions (Arora and Mishra 2021). Each country is expected to bourn-Langton and Smith 2022). At the same time, clean- develop policies appropriate to its own circumstances and ing up the air and reducing carbon emissions by shifting to not just make commitments to the global citizens but to work zero-emission cars, vans and trucks are also very important together to face and solve the global problem of climate factors (COP26 2021). change (Buchanan et al. 2022). Governments must reach an agreement that drives the world to maintain a temperature Adapt to protect communities and natural habitats of 1.5 °C in the coming years. This section explained the four important goal outcomes of the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of People worldwide are already living in devastating climate the Parties. The outcomes of these four goals are very sig- scenarios as a result of global warming. Human security is at nificant in guiding the worldwide efforts to address carbon risk, and humankind must act and be proactive in addressing emissions and enhance the participation of countries in the severe challenges caused by climate change. Govern- achieving net-zero carbon emissions. ments must unite to assist those most vulnerable. It is vital to take adequate precautionary measures to avoid or miti- gate the damage caused by climate change. Simultaneously, Worldwide initiatives to achieve carbon building financial plans for early warning systems and robust neutrality infrastructure is critical. Protecting and restoring habitats is critical for mitigating the harmful consequences of climate Environmental degradation and global warming are the most change and addressing natural storm and flood management important ecological and environmental problems facing challenges (WHO 2021). humanity in today’s world. Without effective initiatives, policies, and other measures taken by various countries Mobilize finance worldwide, the deteriorating ecological environment will continue to affect future generations (Li et al. 2021). Due to the continuous use of fossil fuels, global carbon dioxide In order to achieve the stated climate goals, every practi- emissions have reached an unprecedented peak in 2020 (IEA tioner in the financial industry requires change. To reduce 2021), which has significantly contributed to global warm- the negative impacts of climate change on residential life, ing. As a result, the increased awareness of reducing fossil governments need to provide a certain amount of funding to fuel use has also contributed to the enactment of global cli- do this. Governments should provide greener, more climate- mate agreements. One of them is the Paris climate agree- resilient infrastructure development and support technologi- ment (Nations 2015), issued by the United Nations, which cal innovation (Jacobs 2021). Developed countries need to aims to keep global warming below 1.5 °C and states that provide assistance to developing countries and help translate each country needs to enact policies or develop measures to 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2281 reduce carbon emissions effectively. Although the ultimate Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bermuda, Brazil, Cuba, Algeria, Egypt, goal of this initiative is to achieve carbon neutrality in all Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Sri Lanka, Morocco, Mol- countries, different regions, cities, and institutions have dif- dova, Republic of Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic ferent initiatives, approaches, or measures to reduce carbon of Panama, Philippines, North Korea, Paraguay, Palestinian emissions. Territory, Qatar, San Marino, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, In China, the Chinese government formulated the “guid- Venezuela, the Bolivarian Republic of, and Singapore. In ance on accelerating the establishment of a sound green addition, 93 countries, including Afghanistan, Angola, low-carbon circular development economic system”, which Argentina, Armenia, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh, specifies reaching peak carbon by 2030, achieving carbon and The Bahamas, along with others, are proposing or dis- neutrality by 2060, and striving to gradually achieve net- cussing documents related to achieving carbon neutrality zero CO emissions (SCPRC 2021; Zhao et al. 2022). In targets (see Table 1). addition to this, in their study, Cheng et al. pointed out that Overall, of the 198 countries that have committed to some Nordic countries have developed and implemented achieving carbon neutrality goals, 4.5% have already Pigouvian tax mechanisms to help achieve carbon neutral- achieved carbon neutrality, 10.6% have declared or commit- ity through tax policies (Cheng et al. 2021). A study by Sen ted to achieving carbon neutrality goals, 8.6% have legislated et al. from Victoria University, Australia, suggested that the for achieving carbon neutrality goals, 29.3% have formulated creation, expansion, and dissemination of knowledge and relevant policies to achieve carbon neutrality goals, and the learning about carbon neutrality would help to achieve the remaining 47% are in the process of discussing relevant country’s goal of achieving carbon neutrality eventually and documents to achieve carbon neutrality. In addition, 120 out that this initiative and policy is clearly reflected in university of 198 countries, or 60.6%, aim to achieve carbon neutral- educational institutions (Sen et al. 2022). The development ity by 2050–2070. Based on the analysis of 198 countries of initiatives, policies, and measures related to reducing worldwide on carbon neutrality initiatives, we found that greenhouse gas emissions in each country is essential to most countries are discussing the development of documents fully achieve the goal of carbon neutrality by 2050 or 2060. related to achieving carbon neutrality, and most countries Therefore, Table 1 summarizes the relevant documents of aim to achieve carbon neutrality after 2050. various countries worldwide that have developed initiatives, laws, or referred to carbon neutrality in their policies for achieving carbon neutrality goals. Interrelationships and synergies According to Table 1, a global count of 198 countries between adaptation and mitigation on initiatives to achieve carbon neutrality, we find that as strategies of February 2022, all of these countries are committed to achieving carbon neutrality in the future, with Benin, Bhu- While climate change mitigation strategies are critical, adap- tan, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Cambodia, Liberia, tation strategies are also essential. Historically, policymak- Madagascar, and Suriname already have achieved carbon ers separated adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, neutrality. In addition, 21 countries have declared or com- there has been a recent trend toward investigating synergies mitted to be carbon neutral between 2030 and 2070; this between adaptation and mitigation techniques. The synergies includes Congo, Estonia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Andorra, are beneficial more than separate treatment of adaptation and United Arab Emirates, Australia, Bahrain, Côte d’Ivoire, mitigation (Fig. 2). A mitigation strategy of implementing Cameroon, Ghana, India, Israel, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, distributed solar power in buildings instead of fossil fuel Nigeria, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Eswatini, Thai- energy leads to low carbon emissions in the energy sector. land, and Vietnam. Additionally, 17 countries have proposed The use of distributed solar power is in synergy with adap- carbon-neutral legislation, and these countries are Canada, tation, as solar power leads to a more resilient power sup- Germany, Denmark, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Hun- ply system than over-the-ground grids that are vulnerable to gary, Ireland, Japan, South Korea, Norway, New Zealand, storms and temperature changes caused by climate change Portugal, Sweden, Guatemala, Netherlands, and European (Ripple et al. 2022). In nature, the planting and maintenance Union. Furthermore, 58 countries have mentioned carbon of forests is a synergy between mitigation and adaptation neutrality targets in their policy documents, including Anti- strategies. The forests mitigate climate change by reducing gua and Barbuda, Austria, Belize, Barbados, Chile, China, and storing carbon. In addition, the forests adapt to climate Dem. Rep. Congo, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Djibouti, change by offering protection to droughts, fires, floods, Dominica, Ecuador, Finland, Fiji, Greece, Croatia, Iceland, and heatwaves (Moomaw et al. 2019). Other examples of Italy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Lithuania, Luxem- energy and nature sector strategies in synergy and benefit bourg, Latvia, Monaco, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Malta, both mitigation and adaptation are wind energy and urban Slovenia, Uruguay, United States of America, Albania, green spaces. 1 3 2282 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 1 3 Table 1 Worldwide initiatives to achieve carbon neutrality by countries. In Table 1, N/A indicates not available, URL indicates uniform resource locator, and COP26 is the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties, which provides statistics on the status of different countries in achieving carbon neutrality and the specific year in the future in which this will be achieved Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Benin’s first nationally determined contri- Benin 2000 Achieved (self-declared) 2020https:// cop25. mma. gob. cl/ wp- conte nt/ uploa bution under the Paris agreementds/ 2020/ 02/ Annex- Allia nce- ENGLI SH. pdf Kingdom of Bhutan intended nationally Bhutan 2000 Achieved (self-declared) 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ submi ssions/ determined contributionINDC/ Publi shed% 20Doc uments/ Bhutan/ 1/ Bhutan- INDC- 20150 930. pdf Enhanced ambition in national climate Gabon 2000 Achieved (self-declared) 2020https:// cop25. mma. gob. cl/ wp- conte nt/ uploa plansds/ 2020/ 12/ 1312- Annex- Allia nce- ENGLI SH- VF- 2012. pdf Updated nationally determined contribu- Guinea-Bissau 2030 Achieved (self-declared) 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion in the framework of the Paris climate Publi shedD ocume nts/ Guinea- Bissau% agreement20Fir st/ NDC- Guinea% 20Bis sau- 12102 021. Final. pdf Nationally determined contribution Guyana 2019 Achieved (self-declared) 2020http:// spapp ssece xt. world bank. org/ sites/ indc/ PDF_ Libra ry/ gy. pdf Enhanced ambition in national climate Cambodia 2000 Achieved (self-declared) 2020https:// cop25. mma. gob. cl/ wp- conte nt/ uploa plansds/ 2020/ 02/ Annex- Allia nce- ENGLI SH. pdf Intended nationally determined contribu- Liberia 2000 Achieved (self-declared) 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tionsPubli shedD ocume nts/ Liber ia% 20Fir st/ INDC% 20Fin al% 20Sub missi on% 20Sept% 2030% 202015% 20Lib eria. pdf Madagascar’s intended nationally deter- Madagascar 2010 Achieved (self-declared) 2019https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ mined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Madag ascar% 20Fir st/ Madag ascar% 20INDC% 20Eng. pdf Nationally determined contribution 2020 Suriname N/A Achieved (self-declared) 2014https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Publi shedD ocume nts/ Surin ame% 20Sec ond/ Surin ame% 20Sec ond% 20NDC. pdf N/A Congo 2030 Declaration/pledge 2020https:// ndcpa rtner ship. org/ count ries- map/ count ry? iso= COG Climate action in Estonia: latest state of Estonia 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. europ arl. europa. eu/ think tank/ playde/ docum ent. html? refer ence= EPRS_ BRI% 282021% 29690 684 South Africa Low Emission Development South Africa 2050 Declaration/pledge 2020https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ Strategy 2050South% 20Afr ica% 27s% 20Low% 20Emi ssion% 20Dev elopm ent% 20Str ategy. pdf Zimbabwe Revised Nationally Determined Zimbabwe 2030 Declaration/pledge 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ ContributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Zimba bwe% 20Fir st/ Zimba bwe% 20Rev ised% 20Nat ional ly% 20Det ermin ed% 20Con tribu tion% 202021% 20Fin al. pdf Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2283 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Andorran Nationally Determined Contribu- Andorra 2050 Declaration/pledge N/Ahttps:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Andor ra% 20Fir st/ 20200 514-% 20Act ualit zaci% C3% B3% 20NDC. pdf Second Nationally Determined Contribu- United Arab Emirates 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion of the United Arab EmiratesPubli shedD ocume nts/ United% 20Arab% 20Emi rates% 20Sec ond/ UAE% 20Sec ond% 20NDC% 20-% 20UNF CCC% 20Sub missi on% 20-% 20Eng lish% 20-% 20FIN AL. pdf Australia’s nationally determined contribu- Australia 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion communication 2021Publi shedD ocume nts/ Austr alia% 20Fir st/ Austr alia% 20Nat ional ly% 20Det ermin ed% 20Con tribu tion% 20Upd ate% 20Oct ober% 202021% 20WEB. pdf Bahrain pledges to reach net zero emissions Bahrain 2060 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. arabi anbus iness. com/ indus tries- by 2060energy/ 470085- bahra in- pledg es- to- reach- net- zero- emiss ions- by- 2060 Nationally determined contribution key Côte d’Ivoire 2030 Declaration/pledge N/Ahttps:// www. ndcs. undp. org/ conte nt/ ndc- parameterssuppo rt- progr amme/ en/ home/ our- work/ geogr aphic/ africa/ Coted Ivoire. html#: ~: text= NDC% 20KEY% 20PAR AMETE RS,manag ement% 20and% 20rec overy% 20of% 20was te Contribution determinee au niveau Cameroon 2030 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ national—actualiseePubli shedD ocume nts/ Camer oon% 20Fir st/ CDN% 20r% C3% A9vis% C3% A9e% 20CMR% 20fin ale% 20sept% 202021. pdf N/A Ghana N/A Declaration/pledge N/Ahttps:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ NDCSt aging/ Pages/ Party. aspx? party= GHA PM Modi sets India’s 2070 zero carbon India 2070 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. hindu stant imes. com/ world- emission target at COP26 summitnews/ pm- modi- sets- india- 2070- zero- car- bon- emiss ion- target- at- cop26- summit- 10163 57859 45035. html COP26: Israel to hit zero net emissions by Israel 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. jpost. com/ clima te- change/ 2050, Bennett pledgescop26- israel- to- aim- for- zero- net- emiss ions- by- 2050- 683470 N/A Kazakhstan 2050 Declaration/pledge 2020https:// www. clima teamb ition summi t2020. org/ ondem and. php Twelfth Malaysia Plan Malaysia 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// rmke12. epu. gov. my/ bm Nigeria Pledges to Reach Net-Zero Emis- Nigeria 2060 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. bloom berg. com/ news/ artic les/ sions by 2060, Buhari Says2021- 11- 02/ niger ia- targe ts- to- reach- net- zero- emiss ions- by- 2060- buhari- says 2284 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL The government is instructed to limit Russian Federation 2060 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. econo my. gov. ru/ mater ial/ news/ greenhouse gas emissions and approve pravi telst vu_ poruc heno_ ogran ichit_ vybro the country’s low-carbon development sy_ parni kovyh_ gazov_i_ utver dit_ strat strategyegiyu_ nizko ugler odnogo_ razvi tiya_ strany. html Saudi Arabia Commits to Net-Zero Emis- Saudi Arabia 2060 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. bloom berg. com/ news/ artic les/ sions by 20602021- 10- 23/ world-s- bigge st- oil- expor ter- commi ts- to- net- zero- emiss ions An Ambitious, Stakeholder-Driven Climate Eswatini N/A Declaration/pledge N/Ahttp:// www. ipsne ws. net/ 2021/ 10/ ambit ious- Change Commitment Ahead of COP26: stake holder- driven- clima te- change- commi Eswatini’s Revised Nationally Deter-tment- ahead- cop26- eswat inis- revis ed- natio mined Contribution Processnally- deter mined- contr ibuti on- ndc- proce ss/ N/A Thailand 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021https:// www. youtu be. com/ watch?v= xiu_ 91tJa 0o Viet Nam to take stronger measures to Vietnam 2050 Declaration/pledge 2021http:// news. chinh phu. vn/ Home/ Viet- Nam- to- achieve net-zero emissions by 2050take- stron ger- measu res- to- achie ve- netze ro- emiss ions- by- 2050/ 202111/ 46000. vgp Net-Zero Emissions by 2050 Canada 2050 In law 2021https:// www. canada. ca/ en/ servi ces/ envir onment/ weath er/ clima techa nge/ clima te- plan/ net- zero- emiss ions- 2050. html Net-Zero Emissions by 2050 Germany 2045 In law 2021https:// www. bunde sregi erung. de/ breg- de/ themen/ klima schutz/ clima te- change- act- 2021- 19368 46 During the Conference of the Parties, Denmark 2050 In law 2020https:// en. kefm. dk/ news/ news- archi ve/ 2019/ Denmark passes Climate Act with a 70 dec/ during- the- cop- denma rk- passes- clima percent reduction targette- act- with-a- 70- perce nt- reduc tion- targe tws- page- eng Consolidated legislation on climate change Spain 2050 In law 2021https:// boe. es/ buscar/ act. php? id= BOE-A- and energy transition2021- 8447# top Law on Energy and Climate France 2050 In law 2020https:// www. legif rance. gouv. fr/ affic hTexte. do? cidTe xte= JORFT EXT00 00393 55955 & categ orieL ien= id Net Zero Strategy: build Back Greener United Kingdom 2050 In law 2020https:// www. gov. uk/ gover nment/ publi catio ns/ net- zero- strat egy On the debate on the commission amend- Hungary 2050 In law 2020https:// www. parla ment. hu/ irom41/ 07021/ ment to the bill on the declaration of the 07021- 0010. pdf climate emergency Climate action 2019 to tackle climate Ireland 2050 In law 2021https:// www. gov. ie/ pdf/? file= https:// assets. breakdowngov. ie/ 42213/ 752d5 346b9 c6407 b9125 fdadf a0738 a4. pdf# page=1 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2285 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Japan’s Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduc- Japan 2050 In law 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion TargetPubli shedD ocume nts/ Japan% 20Fir st/ JAPAN_ FIRST% 20NDC% 20(INTER IM- UPDAT ED% 20SUB MISSI ON). pdf The Republic of Korea’s Update of its First South Korea 2050 In law 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Nationally Determined ContributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Repub lic% 20of% 20Kor ea% 20Fir st/ 201230_ ROK’s% 20Upd ate% 20of% 20its% 20Fir st% 20NDC_ edito rial% 20cha nge. pdf N/A Norway 2050 In law 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ NDCSt aging/ pages/ Party. aspx? party= NOR Climate change response (zero-carbon) New Zealand 2050 In law 2020https:// www. legis lation. govt. nz/ act/ public/ amendment act 20192019/ 0061/ latest/ LMS18 3848. html long-term low greenhouse gas emission Portugal 2045 In law 2021https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ development strategy of the European HR- 03- 06- 2020% 20EU% 20Sub missi on% Union and its member states20on% 20Long% 20term% 20str ategy. pdf The Swedish climate policy framework Sweden 2045 In law 2018https:// www. gover nment. se/ 495f60/ conte ntass ets/ 883ae 8e123 bc4e4 2aa8d 59296 ebe04 78/ the- swedi sh- clima te- policy- frame work. pdf Expected and nationally determined con- Guatemala 2030 In law 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Guate mala% 20Fir st/ Gobie rno% 20de% 20Gua temala% 20INDC- UNFCCC% 20Sept% 202015. pdf Climate change Netherlands 2050 In law 2019https:// www. rijks overh eid. nl/ onder werpen/ klima atver ander ing/ klima atbel eid 2050 long-term strategy European Union 2050 In law 2020https:// ec. europa. eu/ clima/ eu- action/ clima te- strat egies- targe ts/ 2050- long- term- strat egy_ en Antigua and Barbuda updated nationally Antigua and Barbuda 2040 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Antig ua% 20and% 20Bar buda% 20Fir st/ ATG% 20-% 20UNF CCC% 20NDC% 20-% 202021- 09- 02% 20-% 20Fin al. pdf Integrated national energy and climate plan Austria 2040 In policy document 2020https:// ec. europa. eu/ energy/ sites/ ener/ files/ for Austriadocum ents/ at_ final_ necp_ main_ en. pdf Belize updated nationally determined Belize 2050 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Belize% 20Fir st/ Belize% 20Upd ated% 20NDC. pdf 2286 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Barbados’ second national communica- Barbados 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ Submi ssion tion under the United Nations framework sStag ing/ Natio nalRe ports/ Docum ents/ convention on climate change46938 51_ Barba dos- NC2-1- Barba dos% 20SNC% 20FIN AL% 20Apr il% 202018. pdf Chile’s nationally determined contribution Chile 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Publi shedD ocume nts/ Chile% 20Fir st/ Chile% 27s_ NDC_ 2020_ engli sh. pdf China’s mid-century long-term low green- China 2060 In policy document 2020https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ house gas emission development strategyChina% E2% 80% 99s% 20Mid- Centu ry% 20Long- Term% 20Low% 20Gre enhou se% 20Gas% 20Emi ssion% 20Dev elopm ent% 20Str ategy. pdf Nationally determined contribution key Dem. Rep. Congo 2030 In policy document 2015https:// www. ndcs. undp. org/ conte nt/ ndc- parameterssuppo rt- progr amme/ en/ home/ our- work/ geogr aphic/ africa/ DRC. html National decarbonization plan Costa Rica 2050 In policy document 2020https:// cambi oclim atico. go. cr/ wp- conte nt/ uploa ds/ 2020/ 01/ Natio nalDe carbo nizat ionPl an. pdf Climate action in Czechia Czech Republic 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www. europ arl. europa. eu/ RegDa ta/ etudes/ BRIE/ 2021/ 689329/ EPRS_ BRI(2021) 689329_ EN. pdf Intended nationally determined contribu- Djibouti 2030 In policy document 2016https:// www. clima tewat chdata. org/ ndcs/ count tion of the Republic of Djiboutiry/ DJI/ full? docum ent= first_ ndc Intended nationally determined contribution Dominica 2030 In policy document 2016https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ of the Commonwealth of DominicaPubli shedD ocume nts/ Domin ica% 20Fir st/ Commo nweal th% 20of% 20Dom inica-% 20Int ended% 20Nat ional ly% 20Det ermin ed% 20Con tribu tions% 20(INDC). pdf Ministry launches the Ecuador zero carbon Ecuador 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www. ambie nte. gob. ec/ minis terio- programpone- en- marcha- el- progr ama- ecuad or- carbo no- cero/ Finland's national climate change policy Finland 2035 In policy document 2015https:// ym. fi/ en/ finla nd-s- natio nal- clima te- change- policy Fiji low emission development strategy Fiji 2050 In policy document 2020https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ 2018–2050Fiji_ Low% 20Emi ssion% 20Dev elopm ent% 20% 20Str ategy% 202018% 20-% 202050. pdf Climate change mitigation and adaptation Greece 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www. oecd- ilibr ary. org/ sites/ ff34a 34b- en/ index. html? itemI d=/ conte nt/ compo nent/ ff34a 34b- en Low-carbon development strategy of the Croatia 2050 In policy document 2020https:// mingor. gov. hr/ UserD ocsIm ages/ klima Republic of Croatia until 2030 with a tske_ aktiv nosti/ odrzi vi_ razvoj/ NUS/ lts_ view to 2050nus_ eng. pdf Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2287 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Iceland’s 2020 climate action plan Iceland 2040 In policy document 2020https:// www. gover nment. is/ libra ry/ 01- Minis tries/ Minis try- for- The- Envir onment/ 201004% 20Umh verfi sradu neytid% 20Adg erdaa aetlun% 20EN% 20V2. pdf Long-term Italian strategy on reducing Italy 2050 In policy document 2021https:// ec. europa. eu/ clima/ sites/ lts/ lts_ it_ it. greenhouse gas emissions pdf Updated nationally determined contribution Saint Kitts and Nevis 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Publi shedD ocume nts/ Saint% 20Kit ts% 20and% 20Nev is% 20Fir st/ St.% 20Kit ts% 20and% 20Nev is% 20Rev ised% 20NDC_ Updat ed. pdf Saint Lucia’s updated nationally determined Saint Lucia 2030 In policy document 2016https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ contribution communicated to the United Publi shedD ocume nts/ Saint% 20Luc ia% Nations framework convention on climate 20Fir st/ Saint% 20Luc ia% 20Fir st% 20NDC% change20(Updat ed% 20sub missi on). pdf Environmental performance reviews: Lithu- Lithuania 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www. oecd- ilibr ary. org/ envir onment/ ania 2021oecd- envir onmen tal- perfo rmance- revie ws- lithu ania- 2021_ 48d82 b17- en Luxembourg’s integrated national energy Luxembourg 2050 In policy document 2019https:// ec. europa. eu/ energy/ sites/ ener/ files/ and climate plan for 2021–2030docum ents/ lu_ final_ necp_ main_ en. pdf Intended nationally determined contribution Latvia 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ of the European Union and its member Publi shedD ocume nts/ Austr ia% 20Fir st/ LV- states03- 06- EU% 20INDC. pdf 15 world leaders commit to delivering new Monaco 2050 In policy document 2020https:// www. docdr oid. net/ gavlB 6o/ 190922- Paris targets by early 2020 and to achiev-rmi- unsg- summit- relea se- leade rs- state ing net-zero global emissions by 2050 on ment- final- combi ned- pdf eve of the United Nations summit Update of nationally determined contribu- Maldives 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion of MaldivesPubli shedD ocume nts/ Maldi ves% 20Fir st/ Maldi ves% 20Nat ional ly% 20Det ermin ed% 20Con tribu tion% 202020. pdf Tile Til Eo 2050 climate strategy “lighting Marshall Islands 2050 In policy document 2020https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ the way”180924% 20rmi% 202050% 20cli mate% 20str ategy% 20fin al_0. pdf Malta low carbon development strategy Malta 2050 In policy document 2020https:// meae. gov. mt/ en/ Public_ Consu ltati ons/ MECP/ Publi shing Images/ Pages/ Consu ltati ons/ Malta sLowC arbon Devel opmen tStra tegy/ Malta% 20Low% 20Car bon% 20Dev elopm ent% 20Str ategy. pdf On Slovenia’s long-term climate strategy Slovenia 2050 In policy document 2020https:// unfccc. int/ sites/ defau lt/ files/ resou rce/ until 2050LTS1_ SLOVE NIA_ EN. pdf 2288 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Enhanced ambition in national climate Uruguay 2050 In policy document 2020https:// cop25. mma. gob. cl/ wp- conte nt/ uploa plansds/ 2020/ 02/ Annex- Allia nce- ENGLI SH. pdf Pathways to net-zero greenhouse gas emis- United States of America 2050 In policy document 2021https:// www. white house. gov/ wp- conte nt/ sions by 2050uploa ds/ 2021/ 10/ US- Long- Term- Strat egy. pdf Intended nationally determined contribu- Albania 2030 In policy document N/Ahttps:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion of the Republic of Albania following Publi shedD ocume nts/ Alban ia% 20Fir st/ decisionAlban ia% 20Fir st. pdf N/A Azerbaijan 2030 In policy document 2017https:// zerot racker. net/ N/A Belarus 2030 In policy document N/Ahttps:// eu4cl imate. eu/ belar us/ Government of Bermuda—protecting the Bermuda 2035 In policy document N/Ahttps:// www. gov. bm/ artic les/ gover nment- environmentbermu da-% E2% 80% 93- prote cting- envir onment Paris agreement Brazil’s nationally deter- Brazil 2060 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ mined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Brazil% 20Fir st/ Bra- zil% 20Fir st% 20NDC% 20(Updat ed% 20sub missi on). pdf Summary of the first nationally determined Cuba 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ contribution updated (2020–2030)Publi shedD ocume nts/ Cuba% 20Fir st/ Cuban% 20Fir st% 20NDC% 20Sum mary% 20(Updat ed% 20sub missi on). pdf N/A Algeria 2030 In policy document N/Ahttps:// zerot racker. net/ Egyptian intended nationally determined Egypt 2030 In policy document 2017https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Egypt% 20Fir st/ Egypt ian% 20INDC. pdf Irap nationally determined contribution Iraq 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Publi shedD ocume nts/ Iraq% 20Fir st/ Iraq% 20NDC% 20Doc ument. docx st Updated submission of Jordan’s 1 nation- Jordan 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ ally determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Jordan% 20Fir st/ UPDAT ED% 20SUB MISSI ON% 20OF% 20JOR DANS. pdf Submission of Kenya’s updated nationally Kenya 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Kenya% 20Fir st/ Kenya ’s% 20Fir st% 20% 20NDC% 20(updat ed% 20ver sion). pdf The Kyrgyz Republic intended nationally Kyrgyzstan 2050 In policy document 2015https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Kyrgy zstan% 20Fir st/ Kyrgy zstan% 20INDC% 20_ ENG_% 20fin al. pdf Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2289 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL Sri Lanka updated nationally determined Sri Lanka 2060 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Sri% 20Lan ka% 20Fir st/ NDCs% 20of% 20Sri% 20Lan ka- 2021. pdf Nationally determined contribution— Morocco 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ updatedPubli shedD ocume nts/ Moroc co% 20Fir st/ Moroc can% 20upd ated% 20NDC% 202021% 20_ Fr. pdf Republic of Moldova’s intended national Moldova, Republic of 2030 In policy document 2020https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Repub lic% 20of% 20Mol dova% 20Fir st/ INDC_ Repub lic_ of_ Moldo va_ 25. 09. 2015. pdf Enhanced nationally determined contribu- Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ tion ofPubli shedD ocume nts/ The% 20Rep ublic% 20of% 20Nor th% 20Mac edonia% 20Fir st/ Maced onian% 20enh anced% 20NDC% 20(002). pdf Updated nationally determined contribution Panama 2050 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Publi shedD ocume nts/ Panama% 20Fir st/ CDN1% 20Act ualiz ada% 20Rep% C3% BAbli ca% 20de% 20Pan am% C3% A1. pdf Nationally determined contribution com- Philippines 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ municated to the United Nations frame-Publi shedD ocume nts/ Phili ppines% 20Fir st/ work convention on climate changePhili ppines% 20-% 20NDC. pdf Updated nationally determined contribution North Korea 2030 In policy document 2019https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ of the Democratic People’s Republic of Publi shedD ocume nts/ Democ ratic% 20Peo Koreaple’s% 20Rep ublic% 20of% 20Kor ea% 20Fir st/ 2019. 09. 19_ DPRK% 20let ter% 20to% 20SG% 20spe cial% 20env oy% 20for% 20NDC. pdf Update of the nationally determined contri- Paraguay 2030 In policy document N/Ahttp:// www. mades. gov. py/ wp- conte nt/ uploa bution of the Republic of Paraguayds/ 2021/ 07/ ACTUA LIZAC ION- DE- LA- NDC- DEL- PARAG UAY_ Borra dor- final_ Julio- 2021-1. pdf The State of Palestine’s first nationally Palestinian Territory, Occupied 2040 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributions “updated Publi shedD ocume nts/ State% 20of% 20Pal submission”estine% 20Fir st/ Updat ed% 20NDC_% 20Sta te% 20of% 20Pal estine_ 2021_ FINAL. pdf N/A Qatar 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ Pages/ Party. aspx? party= QAT& proto type=1 2290 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 1 3 Table 1 (continued) Initiative names Country End target year Target Status Status date Source URL San Marino’s intended nationally deter- San Marino 2030 In policy document 2015https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ mined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ San% 20Mar ino% 20Fir st/ SAN% 20MAR INO% 20INDC% 20EN. pdf Intended nationally determined contribution Turkey 2053 In policy document 2021https:// www2. tbmm. gov. tr/ d27/2/ 2- 3853. pdf Updated nationally determined contribution Ukraine 2060 In policy document N/Ahttps:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ of Ukraine to the Paris agreementPubli shedD ocume nts/ Ukrai ne% 20Fir st/ Ukrai ne% 20NDC_ July% 2031. pdf Republic of Uzbekistan updated nationally Uzbekistan 2030 In policy document 2021https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ determined contributionPubli shedD ocume nts/ Uzbek istan% 20Fir st/ Uzbek istan_ Updat ed% 20NDC_ 2021_ EN. pdf First nationally determined contribution of Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of 2030 In policy document 2015https:// www4. unfccc. int/ sites/ ndcst aging/ the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela for Publi shedD ocume nts/ Venez uela% 20(Boliv the fight against climate change and its arian% 20Rep ublic% 20of)% 20Fir st/ Prime effectsra% 20% 20NDC% 20Ven ezuela. pdf Singapore’s climate action Singapore N/A In policy document 2020https:// www. nccs. gov. sg/ docs/ defau lt- source/ publi catio ns/ nccsl eds. pdf N/A Target proposed/In discussion/Not available Afghanistan, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh, The Bahamas, Central African Republic, Switzerland, Colombia, Comoros, Cape Verde, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Micronesia, Guinea, The Gambia, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Kiri- bati, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Mexico, Mali, Myanmar, Mozambique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Malawi, Namibia, Niger, Nicaragua, Nepal, Nauru, Pakistan, Peru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Senegal, Solomon Islands, Sierra Leone, Sao Tome and Principe, Slovakia, Seychelles, Chad, Togo, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Vanuatu, Samoa, Yemen, Zambia, Burundi, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bolivia, Brunei Darussalam, Botswana, Cayman Islands, Georgia, Equatorial Guinea, Honduras, Indonesia, Iran, Islamic Republic of Kuwait, Libya, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Mongolia, Oman, Poland, Romania, Sudan, El Salvador, Somalia, Serbia, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Turk- menistan, Tunisia, Tanzania, South Sudan, Niue (Total of 93 countries) (TRACKER, 2022) Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2291 Fig. 2 A summary of how interrelationships and synergies between climate change as solar power is resilient to climate change problems mitigation and adaptation strategies co-benefit each other. For exam- like storms and high temperatures, unlike the centralized grid systems ple, the usage of solar power for electricity or heating lowers carbon that are vulnerable. The authors recommend that new carbon neutral- emissions as solar power is a renewable energy source hence mitigat- ity policies focus on mitigation and adaptation together rather than ing climate change. Additionally, the usage of solar power adapts to mitigation alone Reduced forest conversion to agricultural land through zero-carbon industry incentives, and mitigation and adapta- the promotion of agroforestry, regenerative agriculture, and tion policies can all contribute to the circular economy’s polyculture contributes to climate change mitigation and transformation. adaptation in the agricultural sector (Montanaro et al. 2018). Constructing green walls and rooftops are one method Reduced forest conversion helps mitigate climate change of mitigating and adapting to climate change in buildings by lowering greenhouse gas emissions and increasing car- (Grafakos et al. 2019). Green walls and rooftops can mitigate bon storage. Additionally, improving efficient agricultural climate change by reducing heat islands, lowering energy practices aids in climate change adaptation by increasing usage, and sequestering carbon. Additionally, green roofs soil carbon and water efficiency, resulting in resilient crops increase stormwater management, allowing for adaptation and food security. A transition from a linear to a circular to climate change-related flooding. Additional examples of economy, in which end-of-life goods can be used to cre- agricultural, economic, and building sector methods that ate new goods, is one strategy to mitigate and adapt to cli- work in tandem and assist both mitigation and adaptation mate change. Government initiatives such as carbon taxes, include genetically enhanced crops, funding net-zero carbon regulations, and geothermal energy use. 1 3 2292 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Promoting public transportation, increasing vehicle effi- consumption. In Helsinki, strong national policies on energy- ciency, electrifying transportation, and encouraging car- efficient building design compelled municipal governments sharing services are all approaches to mitigate and adapt to to prioritize mitigation measures such as building insulation climate change in the transportation sector (Sharifi 2021). over adaptation measures such as using durable materials to All of these measures will reduce carbon emissions, ulti- safeguard buildings from flooding. The authors advise that a mately mitigating climate change; simultaneously, they better knowledge of cross-scale interactions be developed to will result in cost and energy savings, thereby increasing minimize conflicts and maximize the synergies of mitigation economic and energy resilience and thus enabling climate and adaptation efforts. change adaptation. In urban design, compact urban devel- Grafakos et al. researched the integration of mitigation and opment with an appropriate density, land use mix, and adaptation in European cities by assessing 885 climate change accessibility contributes to climate change mitigation and action plans, of which only 147 had considered both mitiga- adaptation. Compact urban development reduces per capita tion and adaptation policies. The research showed that about travel demand, energy demand for heating and cooling, and 50% of climate change action plans address adaptation and provides energy systems that are more efficient, so lowering mitigation by considering both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon emissions and mitigating climate change. Addition- vulnerability profiles initial assessments (Grafakos et al. 2020). ally, compact urban development decreases land demand, However, only a quarter of the climate change action plans avoids risky locations, and is less susceptible to intense heat consider an in-depth analysis of the mitigation and adaptation events than urban sprawl, allowing for climate change adap- synergies and co-benefits. The sectors with the most synergies tation. Congestion pricing and water-sensitive urban designs were green urban infrastructures, construction, energy effi- are two other examples of transportation and urban design ciency, and buildings. Another study used a qualitative method sector strategies in synergy and enhance both mitigation and to examine the policy implementation of Cameroon’s climate adaptation. mitigation and adaptation initiatives (Ngum et al. 2019). While The synergies and trade-offs between mitigation and several policies address climate change, the findings indicated adaptation must be implemented carefully to not adversely that they are all focused on mitigation rather than adaptation. influence one another. Positive synergies are mitigation Several constraints to synergies include a lack of finance, col - measures that do not increase vulnerability and adapta- laboration, implementation, transparency, and public engage- tion measures that do not increase greenhouse gas emis- ment. Synergies can be achieved by forming a technical com- sions (Zhao et al. 2018). For example, afforestation creates mittee to advise the government on scientific issues related to a beneficial synergy since afforestation works as a carbon climate change, private sector investment, community aware- sink and protects from calamities. Certain mitigation and ness, and collaboration with other countries that have experi- adaptation techniques include trade-offs with unfavourable ence with climate change mitigation and adaptation synergies. consequences. For instance, constructing a hydroelectric Overall, the interrelationships and synergies between power plant will reduce greenhouse gas emissions due to its mitigation and adaptation methods, as well as their co-ben- renewable energy source. However, a hydroelectric power efits, were discussed. Additionally, the detrimental impacts plant will increase competition for water with local commu- of certain strategies were demonstrated. The implication of nities, compromising adaptation. On the other hand, while synergies in different countries was shown not to progress constructing a dam to prevent seawater intrusion will secure well. For example, in Europe, only a quarter of the climate water supply and so reduce vulnerability, dam construction change action plans considered an in-depth analysis of the will generate greenhouse gases as a result of the cement and mitigation and adaptation synergies. In Cameroon, climate steel needed in construction, thereby impairing mitigation. change initiatives were solely focused on mitigating the Prior to implementing mitigation and adaptation techniques, effects of climate change. Finally, methods for promoting policymakers should conduct an in-depth analysis to ensure mitigation and adaptation synergies were recommended, that co-benefits are realized rather than negative impacts. including investments and community awareness. The integration of climate mitigation and adaptation in the European cities of Copenhagen and Helsinki was investigated (Landauer et al. 2018). The study concentrated on two con- Mapping direct and indirect carbon texts: (1) urban densification and buildings’ energy manage- emissions ment for mitigation, and (2) urban heat and runoff management for adaptation. Synergies have been discovered in Copenha- Carbon emissions mapping using statistical approaches is gen between energy ec ffi iency and flood protection criteria for critical for determining the magnitude of emissions and building design. Furthermore, the study discovered a contra- developing strategies for reducing them in order to attain car- diction in which a higher capacity of groundwater pumps was bon neutrality (Table 2). Research was conducted on map- necessary to regulate floodwater, resulting in increased energy ping CO emissions of various industrial sectors in China 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2293 (Bai et al. 2018). The findings indicated that the majority of 25.1 t  CO -eq/capita (Wiedmann et  al. 2016). Among CO exporters are involved in (1) the production and supply these emissions, the industries’ emissions incorporated in of electric and thermal energy, (2) petroleum processing and local and exported products are 4.3  t  CO -eq/capita and coking, and (3) metals mining and dressing. Nearly 80% of 5.3 t  CO -eq/capita, respectively. Additionally, power gen- CO emissions were attributed to these three sectors. On the eration and demand emissions totalled 10 t  CO -eq/capita, 2 2 other hand, the construction sector was the primary recipient while import-related emissions totalled 10.8 t  CO -eq/capita. of embodied carbon due to China’s fast urbanization, which The primary contributors to Melbourne’s carbon footprint resulted in significant infrastructure expansion. The study are households, government, and businesses, accounting recommended promoting energy efficiency in manufactur - for 64%, 15%, and 21% of total emissions, respectively. ing processes and reducing downstream industry usage of Here, policymakers are urged to concentrate their efforts energy-intensive products to reduce carbon emissions. on the social aspect of carbon emission reduction so that Another study examined the carbon emissions in the residents can learn how to reduce carbon emissions in their Chinese cities of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. The findings households. indicated that per capita CO emissions in Beijing and Tian- Another mapping was conducted in the urban area of jin’s metropolitan areas were lower than provincial averages, Sumida in Tokyo, with an emphasis on direct and indirect implying that intensive human activities were recorded (Cai emissions from buildings and transportation (Yamagata et al. et al. 2018). In comparison to Beijing and Tianjin, Hebei 2018). The study examined 46,352 and 7928 buildings and province’s urban areas were dominated by industries with road links and discovered that road emissions were particu- the most diverse functions. Urbanization reduced per capita larly high between 6:00 and 9:00 and between 15:00 and CO emissions from the transportation sector, with Hebei 18:00 due to intensive commuting. Emissions from buildings benefiting the most. Policymakers are encouraged not to were particularly high between 9:00 and 18:00. Addition- embrace a single solution but rather to impose options that ally, carbon emissions were highest during July compared consider the urban area’s breakdown. to other months, indicating that more energy was required Skole et al. used spatial and quantitative measurements for cooling, necessitating increased attention, particularly as to determine the rates of deforestation and forest degrada- global temperatures continue to rise. tion in Malawi’s forests and agricultural areas. The analy- The road links had significant direct emissions from fos- sis indicated that deforestation rates between 2000–2009 sil fuels compared to indirect emissions, indicating that the −1 −1 and 2009–2015 were 22,410 ha  yr and 38,937 ha  yr , transition from gasoline to electric vehicles will substantially respectively. Additionally, the forest degradation rates reduce carbon emissions. However, the use of electric vehi- −1 between 2000–2009 and 2009–2015 were 42,961 ha  yr cles will lead to indirect emissions from electricity usage; −1 and 71,878 ha  yr , respectively. The rates revealed in this hence more research is required in this area. The study study were higher than those obtained by global forest watch also discovered that carbon emissions around the commer- since the study carried out by global forest watch consid- cial district of Kinshi-Cho were higher than those around ered deforestation only in government forests, excluding SkyTree due to Kinshi-Cho being unplanned and densely agricultural lands and community forests. The updated esti- packed compared to SkyTree, which has well-planned mates are critical for developing a national policy for forest energy-efficient buildings (Yamagata et al. 2018). Here, the resource management (Skole et al. 2021). authors propose an improvement in commuting patterns to Another study of the ecosystem’s carbon footprint con- reduce carbon emissions throughout the morning and even- ducted in Romania discovered a density of 2949 ha and a ing hours. Additionally, a shift to more efficient and renew - projected crown coverage of 7616 ha. Additionally, the for- able energy systems will reduce carbon emissions associated est had 27,800 m of green biomass and 13,066 t of car- with building cooling and heating systems. Figure 3 sum- bon (Mihut et al. 2019). Another study on forest degrada- marizes the various types of carbon emissions, both direct tion as a result of logging was conducted in Venezuela’s and indirect. Amazon (Pacheco-Angulo et al. 2021). The findings indi- Another study examined indirect emissions across house- cated that forest degradation directly impacted 24,480 ha holds in China and the United States of America using an of the Imataca forest reserve. With a harvest intensity of input–output model (Ma et al. 2016). The findings indicated −1 2.8 ± 1.2  trees  ha , selective logging released around that the United States has historically emitted more indirect −1 61 ± 21.9 MgC  ha . The findings of these studies are criti- CO than China. However, there has been a recent trend in cal for executing projects for reducing emissions from defor- which China’s household emissions have increased while estation and forest degradation (REDD +). those in the United States of America have decreased. The Several researchers have attempted to map emissions trend is evident from 2000 to 2010; the United States of by creating city carbon maps. Wiedmann et al. created a America have maintained indirect household emissions at carbon footprint map for Melbourne, revealing a total of 400 million tonnes while China increased from 150 to 500 1 3 2294 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Table 2 Methods used to map the direct and indirect carbon emissions. The mapping sectors, locations, used models, and data sources by differ - ent research on mapping carbon emissions are briefly described Mapping sectors Location Mapping methods References Industrial China The hypothetical extraction method (Bai et al. 2018) was used to check interdepend- ent methods. The data used were obtained from the input–Output Table of China 2012 and the Energy Statistical Yearbook 2013 All sectors Worldwide The spatial estimates of emissions (Kanemoto et al. 2016) and economic activities were related to the standard multi- regional input–output model. Then, an extension of the mone- tary transaction between countries and sectors to embodied carbon emission flows was done Industry, agriculture, household, Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei-China Industrial emissions data were (Cai et al. 2018) transport obtained from China industrial facility database, energy consump- tion data from the Chinese Energy Statistical Yearbook 2013, and transport data were calculated by authors. Then, socioeconomic data were obtained from provincial statistical yearbooks and popula- tion data from provincial popula- tion and employment statistics yearbooks. Then, the authors built a 1 km gridded spatial mapping system and used the Kaya equation for decomposition Forests Malawi The data were sourced from 30 m (Skole et al. 2021) Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM +), and Operational Land Imager of 2000, 2009, and 2015. Then, the authors used the fC Tool to map deforestation and forest degradation Ecosystem Romania Authors created Geographic Infor- (Mihut et al. 2019) mation System maps from satellite and aero-photographs. Then biom categories associated with fauna were selected, and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology was used for analysis City Melbourne-Australia Authors made city maps based on (Wiedmann et al. 2016) environmental input–output analy- sis and Leontief-inverse demand- pull Input–Output calculus 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2295 Table 2 (continued) Mapping sectors Location Mapping methods References Forests Venezuelan Amazon 50 Landsat 4, 5, 7, and 8-time (Pacheco-Angulo et al. 2021) series were used from US Geo- logical Survey. The field data were obtained from the Indus- tria Técnica de Maderas C.A (INTECMACA) and Empresa Nacional Forestal (ENAFOR) inventories, and reports from logging companies were used to obtain trees properties. Then, the analytical approach was done by mapping selective logging using the TerraAmazon system and vali- dating them, then construction and validation of degradation maps, then the estimation of Above- ground Biomass and Carbon, and estimation of Committed Carbon Emissions Buildings, transportation Sumida, Tokyo, Japan The authors used spatial micro–Big (Yamagata et al. 2018) Data, 3D carbon mapping, and a bottom-up approach model. Total emissions were estimated from Japan’s greenhouse gas Inven- tory Office, and unit emissions were estimated from the Japan Institute of Energy report. Then, the results were visualized in aeronautical reconnaissance cover- age geographic information system (ArcGIS) 10.5 Urban indirect emissions China The authors used data from Global (Cui and Zhang 2018) Change Research Data Publish- ing and Repository. Then used the Input–output method and logarith- mic mean divisia method (LMDI-I method) Industries indirect emissions China The authors used the Input–output (Du et al. 2018) analysis, carbon emissions inten- sity, and network theory to make the indirect carbon emissions flow network (ICEFN) Tourism direct and indirect emis- China The authors combined Tourism (Meng et al. 2016) sions Satellite Account and the input– output model to calculate tourism industry carbon emissions. Then, the authors obtained the energy input of different industries from the China Statistical Yearbook and calculated the direct emissions of the tourism industry. Then, using input–output balance, the indirect emissions data were obtained Household consumption indirect United States of America and China The authors used the Input–out- (Ma et al. 2016) emissions put model. The China data were obtained from the China Statistical yearbook, and the United States of America data were obtained from the Energy Information Adminis- tration website 1 3 2296 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Fig. 3 Carbon emissions are classified into three main categories, electricity or heat. Indirect value-chain emissions include those asso- including direct, indirect and indirect value-chain emissions. Direct ciated with the processing of products and waste management, among emissions are generated by mobile and stationary sources of direct others fuel combustion. Indirect emissions are a result of the consumption of million tonnes. In 2010, the United States of America’s resi- The input–output model, spatial systems, geographic dence; education, culture, and recreation; and transportation information system maps, light detection and ranging and communication sectors accounted for 39.5%, 15.85%, (LiDAR) technology, and the logarithmic mean divisia and 17.65%, respectively, of total indirect emissions. In method (LMDI-I) are just a few of the methodologies and comparison, China’s indirect emissions were accounted for technologies used. The findings of these mapping studies by residence; education, culture, and recreation; and trans- assist policymakers in determining which sectors or sec- portation and communication, which accounted for 50%, tions of cities deserve attention, allowing for more efficient 2.28%, and 2.48%, respectively. Here, several policies such climate change policies than general approaches. as government guidence to people, the development of new technology, and the promotion of energy-saving initiatives can be used to reduce emissions. Another study estimated the direct and indirect carbon Achieving carbon neutrality emissions produced by China’s tourism industry (Meng et al. 2016). The tourism industry generated total carbon emis- There are generally two viable approaches explored in the sions of 111.49 Mt, 141.88 Mt, 169.76 Mt, and 208.4 Mt literature concerning achieving carbon neutrality. The first in 2002, 2005, 2007, and 2010, respectively, accounting approach entails initiatives, policies, and technologies to for 2.489%, 2.425%, 2.439%, and 2.447% carbon emissions reduce  CO emissions. In addition to emissions reductions, from all industries in China. Apart from transportation, the further measures are required to achieve a net-zero carbon other tourism sectors emitted three to four times the amount system. A second approach focuses on carbon removal of direct carbon emissions indirectly. Due to the complex- from the atmosphere, also referred to as negative emis- ity of tourism carbon emissions, more research should be sions, via a variety of emerging engineered technologies conducted on mapping the industry’s direct and indirect and nature-based solutions. emissions. This section discussed the various approaches used by researchers to map direct and indirect carbon emissions. 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2297 gains realized through the implementation of energy-effi- Carbon emissions reduction cient processes and sector-specific technologies that reduce energy consumption, as well as end-use fuel switching Policies from fossil-based to renewable fuels and the deployment of renewable energy technologies (Fawzy et al. 2020). Another Carbon emissions are reduced when low-carbon policies are implemented. Wang et al. used synthetic control and important sector contributing to carbon emissions is agricul- ture and animal farming. difference-in-differences methodologies to examine China’s carbon trading policies from 2008 to 2018. The findings Energy Investment in clean energy and energy efficiency are indicated that carbon emissions decreased dramatically in several provinces following the implementation of the car- critical elements of reducing carbon emissions. Juan et  al. examined the impact of globalization and renewable energy bon trading policy. Additionally, the research demonstrated that the continued implementation of a carbon trading pol- on Brazil, India, China, and South Africa’s carbon neutral- ity targets (Juan et al. 2021). The study examined economic icy would result in carbon neutrality (Wang et al. 2022). Another study examined the feasibility of carbon tax incen- and energy indicators from 1980 to 2018 utilizing statisti- cal models such as fixed effect and random effect models. tive programmes for reducing the aviation industry’s carbon emissions using algorithms and airline data (Qiu et al. 2020). The findings indicated that increasing globalization by 1% increases carbon emissions by 0.0342%, whereas increasing The findings indicated that, under the right circumstances, such as a low fuel price differential, incentive schemes could a unit of renewable energy consumption such as wind and hydropower reduces carbon emissions by 0.0143%. These incentivize airline businesses to increase fuel efficiency, hence lowering carbon emissions. Carbon trading and tax findings demonstrate that renewable energy sources are an efficient way to reduce carbon emissions. policies help reduce carbon emissions and eventually lead to carbon neutrality. Based on carbon footprint measurements, another study conducted in Bangladesh quantified the environmental Another study examined the influence of vehicle emis- sions policies on carbon emissions reductions by monitoring implications of energy consumption from 1975 to 2016. The findings indicated that increasing per capita hydroelec- vehicle pollution in the European cities of Rome, London, and Florence using global positioning system tracing. The tricity consumption by 1% reduced the carbon footprint by 0.02–0.03%, all other things being equal. Renewable energy results indicated that particular cars and roads emit signifi- cantly more C O than others; thus, interventions such as sources improve environmental quality; nevertheless, their use in Bangladesh for electricity production is as low as 1%, electrification or changing travel patterns should target these large polluters rather than enacting broad carbon emission which is insufficient to reduce carbon emissions (Murshed et al. 2021). Another study conducted in China found that policies (Böhm et al. 2021). Low carbon policies are criti- cal for lowering carbon emissions; yet, policymakers should wind and solar capacity of 2495 and 2674 GW can meet 67% of China’s total energy consumption in 2050, respectively examine the economies of their particular communities to ensure that economic development is not adversely affected. (Liu et al. 2022a). Additionally, the analysis revealed that supplying 10.4 PWh of renewable energy annually would Overall, the role of policies implemented towards carbon emissions reduction such as carbon trading, carbon tax and result in a reduction of 2.08  Mt  SO and 1.97  Mt  NO , 2 x bringing the country closer to meeting its carbon neutral- targeted policies is critical and requires careful examination by policymakers. ity targets. In summary, achieving carbon neutrality is not a one-day accomplishment. Long-term strategies that pro- Sector specific technologies and initiatives mote renewable energy and energy efficiency are necessary to reduce carbon emissions and attain carbon neutrality. Energy-related emissions are the primary contributor to ris- A transition away from fossil fuel energy sources and toward renewable energy sources is critical to attaining ing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere; hence, typical emission reduction strategies and efforts should tar - future carbon neutrality. Millot and Maïzi examined pre- vious energy transitions and discovered that they occurred get both the energy supply and demand sides. The literature generally discusses emission reduction efforts regarding spontaneously as a result of technology advancements, eco- nomic, social, and political benefits such as lower prices technologies and strategies used in four primary sectors: power on the supply side and industrial, buildings and trans- and increased living comfort (Millot and Maïzi 2021). On the other hand, the shift to carbon neutrality cannot occur portation, on the demand side. Emission reduction can be accomplished within the power sector by introducing renew- spontaneously because carbon neutrality is primarily moti- vated by environmental concerns and offers no immediate able energy, carbon capture and storage, nuclear power, and supply-side fuel switching to low-carbon fuels. Additionally, financial benefits to individuals or corporations. As a result, low-carbon technologies must be competitive in order to demand-side emission reduction efforts include efficiency 1 3 2298 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 facilitate this energy transition. Additionally, governments China’s iron and steel industry by 2030 (Li et al. 2019). The should work to price carbon, support research and develop- simulation considered many scenarios, including business, ment, and advance technological innovation. as usual, industrial upgrading, carbon taxation, carbon trad- Another study was conducted on future energy systems in ing, and a combination of all scenarios. Carbon emissions Europe in order to achieve carbon neutrality by mid-century were well controlled in the industrial upgrade’s scenario, utilizing the European TIMES model (ETM-UCL), price- while carbon taxes encouraged low emissions technolo- induced market equilibrium system (PRIMES), and regional gies. Furthermore, a combination of all scenarios resulted model of investments and development (REMIND) energy in the most effective carbon emission reductions, meeting environment-economy models (Rodrigues et al. 2022). The China’s target. In summary, the iron and steel industries’ findings indicated that carbon neutrality is technically fea- key to emissions reductions is the use of sustainable techni- sible with future energy technologies by mid-century. The cal processes and energy sources. Furthermore, Arens et al. energy transition solutions proposed include electrifying examined worldwide steel production and its transition away energy services such as vehicles and heat pumps, alter- from coal-fired power generation, as coal-fired steel manu- ing lifestyles, improving energy efficiency, and promoting facturing currently accounts for 8% of global energy CO renewable energy. Because renewable energy is critical to emissions. According to the analysis, the steel industry is not reaching carbon neutrality, governments, financiers, legisla- well-positioned to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. Except tors, and academics should make renewable energy a major for members of the European Union, other countries have priority (Fawzy et al. 2020). Schiffer and Trüby examined not demonstrated a strong commitment to energy transition Germany’s energy strategy, dubbed the “Energiewende”, and decarbonization (Arens et al. 2021). which was implemented in 2010 with the goal of achiev- Another study examined the glass manufacturing sector ing carbon neutrality in the country. Until 2018, the energy and its decarbonization process, noting that the container programme was well-executed but fell short of reducing CO and flat glass industries alone release over 60 million tonnes emissions. A recommendation is that the energy transfor-of CO per year and that around 75–85% of energy is used mation should begin with electricity generation and expand to heat raw materials in a furnace (Furszyfer Del Rio et al. to the transportation, industrial, and building sectors to cut 2022). Carbon capture and storage, batch preheating, bio- emissions (Schiffer and Trüby 2018). Additionally, inter - fuels, electric furnaces, technical heating and melting, and national cooperation should be fostered to achieve global glass waste recycling were all addressed as approaches to carbon neutrality targets. create a low carbon glass industry. Additionally, the study Overall, the impact of transitioning from fossil-based identified impediments to the glass industry’s decarboni- to renewable energy is well documented and is considered zation, including a shortage of capital, fluctuating energy the most important approach to achieving carbon neutrality prices, and unreliable infrastructure. in the energy sector. However, it is important to note that The forestry industry contributes a substantial amount such transition cannot happen spontaneously. Governments, of CO to the atmosphere, requiring attention. The forestry financiers, legislators, and academics need to focus on pro- industry in Finland and Sweden was studied by identifying moting renewable energy systems. the sectors with the highest emissions, including transpor- tation, non-road machinery, lime kilns and dryers, onsite Industry In relation to the industrial sector, Griffin and energy production, and purchasing power (Lipiäinen et al. Hammond researched the carbon emissions reduction for the 2022). Several techniques for decarbonization have been iron and steel industry in the United Kingdom, accounting proposed, including switching to biofuels for energy and for 26% of the total industry-related greenhouse gas emis- electrifying the forestry industry’s transportation sector. sions in the country. The blast furnace was the most efficient However, effective regulations and incentives are essential to and the highest energy user of all the steel production pro- accomplish a realistic level of decarbonization while avoid- cesses, requiring attention to achieve carbon neutrality. The ing negative consequences. For example, excessive demand research recommended energy-saving technologies such as for biofuels can lead to over-demand in biomass, increasing heat recovery in coke ovens, sinter plants, and electric arc price and scarcity. furnaces. The utilization of such technologies results in an Besides the obvious benefits of fuel-switching and the use 18% reduction in energy consumption and a 12% reduction of renewable energy technologies, there are many oppor- in greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, the study con- tunities for industrial operations to benefit from efficiency cluded that carbon emissions reductions until 2050 are pos- improvements in order to reduce carbon emissions. In the sible with the use of efficient production processes and a steel and cement sectors, waste heat from exhaust gases can shift to bioenergy (Griffin and Hammond 2019). be used for onsite power and heat production via waste-heat Using an environmental-economic simulation model, driven power plants. In process industries that use steam, another study examined the carbon emission reductions of there are various opportunities for efficiency gains, starting 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2299 from efficiency improvements that are carried out in the In conclusion, carbon capture, utilization and storage, boiler, followed by the installation of back pressure tur- where carbon captured can be stored or utilized in produc- bines in areas where pressure reduction is required to gen- tion of chemicals, algae, and concrete building materials erate additional electricity. Furthermore, energy efficiency is an emerging technology that can play a pivotal role in improvements can be realized by deploying advanced equip- achieving carbon emission reductions. However, it should ment control systems across a multitude of industries (Fawzy not be a solution that encourages the continued use of fossil- et al. 2020). based energy. Overall, there are various approaches to reduce carbon emissions in the industrial sector. This includes fuel-switch- Buildings and cities Due to the increasing urban population ing from fossil-based to renewable fuels and the deployment and the amount of time people spend in buildings, buildings of various technologies to promote energy efficiency. Fur - and cities are responsible for significant amounts of carbon thermore, the re-utilization of waste energy sources and the emissions that contribute to climate change. For cities, one introduction of renewable energy systems into the energy- strategy for adapting to climate change is to develop resil- mix of such industrial processes are promising approaches. ient designs capable of withstanding natural disasters while These measures can be implemented across a wide range of minimizing the impact on the natural environment (Wang industries. et  al. 2018). Additionally, mitigation can be attained by deploying decentralized energy systems for cities; however, New carbon emission reduction technologies Furthermore, this option has a significant initial cost. carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) is emerging Buildings can achieve a carbon-free future by utilizing as a promising technology that has been addressed in the lit- improved building envelopes, renewable materials, and 3D erature as a possible strategy to reduce emissions in both the printing. Additionally, this can be achieved by developing power and industrial sectors. The method entails separating heating and cooling systems powered by renewable energy and capturing C O gases produced by processes that utilize and employing energy-efficient technologies (Fawzy et al. fossil fuels. The captured CO is then transported and stored 2020). Furthermore, the use of sensors to monitor and regu- for very long periods of time in geological reserves. Alterna- late smart building equipment such as lighting, as well as the tively, the captured CO can be used to produce chemicals, development of electric and thermal energy storage systems, algae, and concrete building materials, as well as being used are promising approaches. Moreover, electromechanical in enhanced oil recovery. The primary objective is to reduce equipment in buildings should be eco-labelled, and mini- emissions while continuing to use fossil fuels. The literature mum standards for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning discusses three capture technologies: pre-combustion, post- systems should be implemented. combustion, and oxyfuel combustion. Each technique has a The reintroduction of lumber into structures is critical distinct process for CO extraction and capture. However, because a cubic metre of wood stores half a tonne of car- post-combustion capture systems are ideal for retrofit pro- bon; hence, timber buildings and cities can act as carbon jects and have a wide range of applications (Fawzy et  al. sinks. Additionally, combining and covering construction 2020; Osman et al. 2020). materials with nanoparticles improves their characteristics, Furthermore, advancements in capture technologies are increasing their sustainability. In summary, significant work required to enhance efficiency and consequently improve must be done on new construction and retrofitting existing the costs of such systems. Lei et al. reviewed the application structures to align with carbon neutrality programmes and of carbon membrane systems in different processes such as objectives. However, careful planning is essential to avoid hydrogen purification, capturing CO during combustion, poor and optimistic plans that result in unreachable goals, and natural gas sweetening. For CO capture, carbon mem- such as the failed smart cities initiatives in several countries. branes have advantages such as low energy consumption Overall, buildings and cities play a critical role in reduc- and footprint compared to other C O capture methods like ing carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality. Sev- amine absorption. The carbon molecular sieve membrane eral strategies are suggested, including resilient designs, has a high separation performance of C O /NO with a 2140 decentralized energy systems, improved building envelopes, 2 2 Barrer permeability of C O even at high humidity (~ 90%). renewable energies, eco-labelling and the use of lumber in However, the use of carbon molecular sieve membranes in construction. flue gas separation has drawbacks, such as the huge area required to capture a given amount of C O and deteriorating Transportation The transition of the transportation sector performance over time due to carbon matrix species sorp- to renewable energy is challenging, particularly for large, tion. The authors recommended the development of ultra- long-range vehicles and aircraft (Dominković et  al. 2018). thin carbon molecular sieve membranes that are highly Several alternatives to fossil fuels have been proposed, hydrophobic (Lei et al. 2020). including biofuels, hydrogen, electro-fuels, and electricity. 1 3 2300 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Electricity offers the greatest number of benefits, including such as travel demand management and the promotion of higher efficiency, reduced CO emissions, and improved air sharing economies. quality in the transportation sector. For instance, electricity can provide 72.3% of the total  energy necessary for trans- Agriculture, food, and  waste Agricultural land use, food port in the European Union using existing technologies. consumption habits, and waste disposal all contribute sig- Another study examined the life expectancy of electric nificantly to greenhouse gas reduction. Strapasson et  al. vehicle batteries in the context of a circular and low-carbon used the European Union land-use futures (EULUF) economy (Bonsu 2020). The study identified several issues model to examine the effect of food consumption and associated with electric car batteries, including ethical con- agricultural practices on greenhouse gas emissions in the cerns, excessive extraction of raw materials for batteries, a European Union. The study concluded that shifting to a lack of policies addressing manufacturing emissions, and a more vegetarian diet, consuming less meat, and reducing lack of research and a market for end-of-life batteries. The food waste will mitigate climate change. Additionally, analysis demonstrated that a circular economy can achieve increased livestock yields and soil carbon in pasture lands net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. However, the circular minimize the livestock sector’s carbon impact (Strapasson economy should not be limited to recycling raw materials et al. 2020). and repurposing batteries; circular economy should also Another study in South America examined the pos- consider issues such as equitable employment, value chain sibilities for low-carbon agriculture to help reduce cli- emissions, environmental protection, and responsible natural mate change and promote food security. South America resource consumption. accounts for 31.3% of global annual  greenhouse gas Wu et al. investigated the obstacles and solutions to the emissions from land use and land-use change, according deployment of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in China, identi- to the study (Sa et  al. 2017). Between 2016 and 2050, fying barriers such as insufficient supporting infrastructure, South America’s potential as a carbon sink through low- a scarcity of manufacturers, and concerns about hydrogen carbon agriculture was 8.24 PgC. Agriculture’s contri- fuel safety. To accelerate the transition to carbon-neutral bution to climate change mitigation was estimated to be transportation, the study recommended developing hydrogen 31% through pasture restoration, 25.6% through the crop, supply chains, ensuring the safety of hydrogen supplies, and livestock, and forestry integration, 24.3% through no-till expanding financial support and research (Wu et al. 2021). farming, 12.8% through forestation, 4.2% through biologi- Another study examined the use and potential of biogas in cal nitrogen fixation, and 2% through industrial organic transportation in the European Union by upgrading biogas to waste recycling. Additionally, low carbon agriculture −1 biomethane (Prussi et al. 2019). By 2030, the usage of biom- can improve food and meat output by 17.6 Mt.year and −1 ethane in vehicles for compressed natural gas and liquified 1.6  Mt.year , respectively. A recommendation to poli- natural gas will increase to 30 billion m3/yr. Additionally, cymakers is to devise means of incentivizing the public biomethane will be used in maritime and inland waterway to adopt sustainable land-use practices and healthy diets. transportation. In summary, decarbonizing the transporta- Global population growth results in a rise in agricul- tion sector is feasible through the use of electricity, biofuels, tural and food waste. Incineration and landfilling both have hydrogen, and electro-fuels, with electricity being the most drawbacks in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and envi- practical alternative. However, adequate research should be ronmental pollution. Rao and Rathod investigated various conducted on the proper disposal of end-of-life batteries in methods for repurposing food and agricultural waste in order to ensure sustainable energy for the transportation sec- order to attain carbon neutrality. Food and agro-waste can tor’s entire lifecycle. be used to produce new pharmaceuticals, phytochemicals, Other forms of efficiency measures are viable in the trans- enzyme immobilization, heavy metal removal from waste- portation sector. The introduction of travel demand man- water, and waste cooking oil that can be converted to bio- agement to reduce travel frequency and distance may also diesel. The study concluded that while these applications contribute to efficiency improvements in the transportation have been investigated in the laboratory, they should be sector (Fawzy et al. 2020). Furthermore, the growth of shar- scaled up to realize their benefits (Rao and Rathod 2019). ing economies, such as sharing rides, parking spaces, and In summary, adopting low carbon agriculture, changing crowdsourcing information, would increase the sector’s effi- eating behaviours, and valorizing food and agro-waste ciency, resulting in decreased carbon emissions. implementation is essential to achieving a carbon-free In conclusion, the electrification of the transportation future. sector was found to be the best way to lower the sector’s Overall, the main strategies to reduce carbon emissions carbon emissions. Other strategies to reduce carbon emis- around agriculture, food and waste include shifting to veg- sions in the transportation sector include electro-fuels, etarian diets, reducing food waste, pasture restoration, no-till hydrogen, biofuels, as well as other efficiency measures farming, and repurposing food and agricultural wastes. 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2301 General societal initiatives technologies are required to attain a carbon-free world. The primary negative emissions techniques that have been exten- Apart from corporations and governments, individuals and sively discussed in the literature include bioenergy carbon households are critical in reducing carbon emissions. Pul- capture and storage, direct air carbon capture and storage, selli et al. quantified greenhouse gas emissions from house- biochar, soil carbon sequestration (Fawzy et al. 2020). This holds in European cities and examined mitigation strategies. is along with afforestation and reforestation, enhanced ter - A typical household’s carbon footprint was determined to be restrial weathering, wetland construction and restoration, 6.93 t CO -eq/yr, which corresponds to the annual carbon ocean alkalinity enhancement, and ocean fertilization, as absorbed by 0.51 hectare of forest (Pulselli et al. 2019). well as alternative storage approaches such as mineral car- Another study examined the carbon footprints of house- bonation and the use of biomass in construction (Fawzy holds in Berlin, Germany, comparing voluntary carbon et al. 2020). Each of these techniques carries its costs, chal- emission reductions in 2018 to involuntary carbon emis- lenges, limitations and merits. sion reductions during the coronavirus disease 2019. Carbon In Scotland, a study was conducted to determine the trackers were installed in the households to monitor their energy and economic costs associated with adopting land- carbon footprints associated with electricity use, mobility, based negative emissions technologies (Alcalde et al. 2018). and food intake. The findings indicated that households Bioenergy carbon capture and storage, direct air capture, saved an average of 11% in carbon emissions, with some enhanced weathering, forest sink capacity, soil carbon people saving up to 40% (Reusswig et al. 2021). The house- sequestration, and biomass conversion to biochar are the holds highlighted various difficulties in reducing emissions, technologies investigated. Economically, the enhanced such as concerns about road safety, which prevented them weathering approach had the highest costs, with lower and from converting to bicycles. The emergence of the corona- upper costs of $US 25/t CO and $US 1600/t CO , respec- 2 2 virus disease 2019 resulted in a 10% reduction in carbon tively. On the other hand, bioenergy carbon capture and stor- emissions in Germany, but scientists expected that emis- age and forestation were less expensive, whereas biochar sions would increase when economies recovered following and soil carbon sequestration could be cost-effective. The the coronavirus disease 2019. Households can implement study advised implementing a mix of bioenergy carbon cap- several low-cost mitigation strategies to help reduce carbon ture and storage, soil carbon sequestration, and enhanced emissions, including shading facades, efficient lighting use, weathering technologies, which has the potential to reduce walking or cycling to work, carpooling, and public trans- emissions by 8.3–36.8 Mt CO . The combined maximum portation use. capacity could eliminate up to 89.8% of Scotland’s annual Apart from households, universities can help reduce emissions. In addition, bioenergy can be produced through carbon emissions. Carbon emissions were quantified at the thermochemical processes which are more efficient in time NED University of engineering and technology in Karachi, and conversion rate or biochemical processes which produce Pakistan, using a carbon calculator, and mitigating strategies more volatile organic compounds and require less energy were identified (Mustafa et al. 2022). The data indicated that and temperature (Liu et al. 2022b). When compared to a the campus produced 21,500 Mt C O -eq in 2017, equating single negative emissions technology, a combination of dif- to 1.79 Mt CO -eq per student. The key mitigation methods ferent negative emissions technologies that act in concert suggested were the adoption of renewable energy sources, produces the best results with the least amount of resource the use of energy-efficient appliances, the conversion to elec- use. tric vehicles, and the planting of trees. Thus, because house- Fuhrman et al. investigated the negative emissions tech- holds and individuals are critical components of achieving nologies’ impacts on food, energy, and water resources. carbon neutrality, climate change education should be pro- According to the study, direct air carbon capture technology −1 vided to educate individuals about strategies to minimize can achieve negative emissions of 3 Gt  CO yr by 2035 at carbon emissions at home, school, and work. current pricing and efficiency levels. Additionally, direct air As noted, society can play an important role in carbon carbon capture avoids the land use demand and food crop emission reduction. The suggested strategies include shading crisis difficulties associated with bioenergy carbon capture facades, efficient lighting use, walking or cycling to work, and storage and afforestation. The study concluded that energy-efficient appliances, converting to electric vehicles, policymakers considering negative emission technologies planting of trees, and climate change education. should take into account non-climate-related environmental implications (Fuhrman et al. 2020). Atmospheric carbon removal Negative emission technologies, on the other hand, have some drawbacks. Utilizing the impulse response function, a Carbon neutrality cannot be achieved solely through car- study investigated the risk of carbon leakage into the atmos- bon emissions reduction; therefore, negative emissions phere as a result of using negative emissions technologies. 1 3 2302 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 The results indicated that over various time scales of leak- neutrality, life cycle analysis has been used to assess biologi- age and assuming that 80% carbon was permanently stored, cal, building, materials, chemical, and other carbon-neutral the leakage to the environment was negligible at 3 parts per systems. Table 3 summarizes various carbon-neutral systems million CO (Lyngfelt et al. 2019). In conclusion, leakage is in different countries and sectors that have used life cycle unlikely to have a substantial negative impact on the accom- analysis. plishment of carbon-negative emissions unless an excessive Carbon neutrality expresses a state in which individu- amount of leakage occurs. als, products, and the activities of countries, cities, com- Another study concluded that negative emissions technol- panies, and other organizations strive to emit zero carbon ogies are not yet ready for widespread use due to uncertainty dioxide. Net-zero emissions indicate that their activities do regarding their technologies, pricing, and environmental not release greenhouse gases or use other technical means to implications (Chavez 2018). Thus, the research concluded decarbonize emissions or remove atmospheric carbon. While that measures such as renewable portfolio standards, which decarbonization plans are one method of achieving carbon require electricity companies to offer a specific percentage neutrality, all decarbonization techniques must undergo a of their energy supply using eligible renewable sources, life cycle evaluation to avoid greenwashing. Additionally, should be established to expedite the development of nega- carbon removal projects need to be examined from a life tive emissions technologies. Applying a similar policy in cycle perspective. carbon removal will drive investment in negative emissions According to Table 3, which details the adoption of life technologies. In summary, negative emissions technologies cycle assessment studies in various carbon neutral systems have enormous promise for achieving future carbon neutral- across different countries and sectors, we discovered that, ity; hence, additional investment, research, and regulations while the majority of countries signed the Paris agreement in are needed to encourage deployment. 2015 to achieve carbon neutrality, researchers in the United In conclusion, negative emissions technologies can con- Kingdom, Norway, and Italy had already adopted life cycle tribute to achieving carbon neutrality. However, each of assessment in 2012, 2013 and 2014 in the transportation, these technologies requires a different level of investment, biology, and drainage sectors, respectively, to achieve carbon operating conditions, and energy demand, which implement- neutrality. Additionally, between 2017 and 2019, research- ers should consider when scaling them up. Additionally, ers from China, Italy, Germany, and Sweden investigated researchers should conduct a comprehensive life cycle analy- studies that combined life cycle assessment methods with sis of these technologies to ensure they are implemented carbon-neutral systems in the domains of forestry, architec- efficiently and at the lowest possible cost. ture, chemistry, and materials science. The majority of these studies evaluated a model, technology, or material’s abil- ity to achieve carbon neutrality across its entire life cycle. Additionally, carbon neutrality is a twenty-first-century trend Life cycle analysis of various carbon neutral that can integrate a life cycle perspective into organizational systems and decision-making environments, although pure life cycle assessments have not yet accomplished this goal (Finkbeiner A life cycle analysis is a technique for determining the envi- and Bach 2021). ronmental impact of a product system across its useful life In conclusion, we identified that most projects use life (Finnveden et al. 2009; Rebitzer et al. 2004). The life cycle cycle assessment to analyse carbon neutrality technologies analysis process begins with formulating objectives, and the or models and use a life cycle perspective to incorporate scope for a life cycle inventory continues with a life cycle organizational and decision-making environments. The life impact analysis and concludes with the interpretation and cycle analysis of entire systems should be enhanced and translation of the results (Corporation and Curran 2006). detailed from the cradle to the grave in order to ensure over- Life cycle analysis is also frequently utilized in various car- all system carbon neutrality. bon-neutral systems to characterize greenhouse gases, and related climate change impacts objectively (Osman et al. 2021). For example, Wiloso et al. investigated the impact of Sustainability resulting from carbon biochar inventories on bioenergy life cycle analysis (Wiloso neutrality et al. 2016), Petrovic et al. explored the life cycle analysis of building materials for single-family houses in Sweden Carbon neutrality is a new industrial revolution that human- (Petrovic et al. 2019), and Thonemann and Pizzol analysed ity faces, one that will progress toward a carbon-free and the corresponding carbon capture and utilization technolo- sustainable future, which will have a major effect on the gies in the chemical industry (Thonemann and Pizzol 2019). environment, society, and economy (Fawzy et al. 2021). As some nations have established targets to achieve carbon 1 3 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2303 1 3 Table 3 Life cycle analysis of various carbon neutral systems. Table  3 investigates different countries that have adopted life-cycle assessment methods in carbon-neutral systems in different areas Sector Project description Country Year Key findings Reference Transportation Transport carbon modelling in the United Kingdom: The United Kingdom 2012 This study presents the United Kingdom Transport (Brand et al. 2012) an integrated life cycle approach to exploring a low Carbon Model, which can develop transport policy carbon future scenarios that explore the full range of technical, fiscal, regulatory, and behavioural change policy interventions to achieve the United Kingdom’s climate change and energy security goals Forestry A critical analysis of carbon-neutral assumptions in life China 2017 This study critically analyses the carbon neutrality (Liu et al. 2017) cycle assessment of forest bioenergy systems assumptions in the life cycle assessment model for assessing the climate change impacts of bioenergy use such that the climate change impacts of bioenergy use can be accurately assessed Building Smart windows for carbon-neutral buildings: a life cycle Italy 2018 The study evaluated the life cycle impact of photocell (Pierucci et al. 2018) approach windows on office buildings and total life cycle energy consumption. Its smart windows have proven benefi- cial technology and a possible solution for commer- cial buildings to meet near-zero energy building and carbon-neutral building standards Biology Key issues and options for accounting for carbon Italy 2013 This paper reviews and discusses six existing methods (Brandão et al. 2013) sequestration and interim storage in life cycle assess- for accounting for the potential climate impacts of ment and carbon footprinting carbon sequestration and temporary storage or release of biogenic carbon in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting Drainage Life cycle assessment of water and wastewater systems Norway 2014 This study presents the results of a life cycle assessment (Slagstad and Brattebø 2014) in Trondheim, Norway: a case study of the water and wastewater systems in the city of Trondheim. The study results were used to plan a new carbon-neutral urban settlement Chemistry Sustainable conversion of carbon dioxide: an integrated Germany 2018 This paper assesses the potential for reducing the (Artz et al. 2018) review of catalysis and life cycle assessment environmental footprint in these applications relative to the current petrochemical value chain. The paper also mentions that advances in synthetic methods with CO as an essential component present a challenge for long-term assessment methods to provide a sound and comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts Biology The impact of biochar inventories on bioenergy life Netherlands 2016 This paper analyses eight scenarios focusing on various (Wiloso et al. 2016) cycle assessment: a challenge to the neutrality carbon flows, including biomass decomposition in the assumption field and alternative uses as a bioenergy feedstock, regarding general bioenergy systems to coordinate future bioenergy life cycle assessments Material Life cycle assessment of building materials for single- Sweden 2019 The life cycle assessment results in this study dem- (Petrovic et al. 2019) family houses in Sweden onstrate the environmental impacts associated with building materials from the production and construc- tion phases, including transportation, replacement, and deconstruction phases 2304 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 Impact on the environment The ultimate goal of the Paris climate agreement is to keep global warming below 2 ℃ and try to limit it to below 1.5 ℃ (Rogelj et al. 2016). One of the most severe environmen- tal problems currently facing the world is climate change. The overexploitation of non-renewable resources by global industrial development and other forms of environmental damage such as heavy reliance on fossil fuels, deforestation, and waste incineration have resulted in an increase in green- house gases in the atmosphere, ultimately causing environ- mental degradation such as global temperature increase and melting of the north and south pole glaciers (Tan and Wang 2021). The primary and most direct benefit of achieving car - bon neutrality is to mitigate negative environmental impacts and slow the rising rate of global temperature. As a result, achieving carbon neutrality is a critical objective for a vari- ety of countries today and one of the possible solutions to the problem of climate change (Udemba 2021). Since each country faces unique environmental chal- lenges, its steps vary, but they all eventually aim to reduce negative environmental impacts and attain carbon neutrality. As a result, on the path to carbon neutrality, we can encour- age the development of various measures, including those addressed in this review. Simultaneously, achieving carbon neutrality will help decrease global warming and resolve the world’s energy dilemma while also having good ecologi- cal impacts such as improved air quality, more sustainable landscapes, and ecological restoration (Chen 2021). Carbon neutrality is critical for humanity to coexist in harmony with nature and progress toward a future sustainable environment. Impact on society If the world does not implement a series of measures to control global warming, human beings will confront envi- ronmental deterioration, including increased global tem- peratures, more frequent extreme weather, and significant harm to land and marine ecosystems (Zou et al. 2021). If global temperatures rise by 2 °C, around 13% of terrestrial ecosystems will be destroyed, and many animals and plants will become extinct; sea levels will rise by approximately 36 to 87 cm, and approximately 95% of coral reefs will face extinction (IPCC 2018). Achieving carbon neutrality would decrease the frequency of catastrophic disasters, and its direct impact on society would be to preserve the existing social order, while its indirect impact would be to promote human society’s evolution. Extreme weather frequently results in house collapses, human casualties, and crop failures, resulting in habitat destruction, loss of loved ones, and food scarcity, severely affecting the existing social order. Additionally, the vast number of trees that felled would dramatically reduce forest 1 3 Table 3 (continued) Sector Project description Country Year Key findings Reference Chemistry Corresponding life cycle assessment of carbon capture Germany 2019 The study evaluated 12 CO conversion technologies to (Thonemann and Pizzol 2019) and utilization technologies in the chemical industry provide decision support for each technology’s poten- tial life-cycle environmental impacts to better achieve carbon neutrality in the introduction of carbon capture and utilization technologies in the chemical industry Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 2305 cover, and many wild creatures will lose habitat, expedit- neutrality makes a significant contribution to reversing the ing species extinction and severely damaging the biological environmental degradation that has occurred in recent years chain. The collapse of the biological chain will destroy the and to promoting the development of a sustainable environ- ecosystem, eventually resulting in human beings becoming ment for future generations. In terms of society, reaching unable to survive and the destabilization of society. Addi- carbon neutrality contributes to the development of a stable tionally, rising sea levels will result in the global inunda- society, social growth, and the creation of new technolo- tion of some island countries and coastal towns, resulting in gies and measures. Finally, achieving carbon neutrality will enormous human migration and potentially wars, threaten- encourage a shift in economic development models, energy ing global social stability. As countries take various steps production and consumption, and the eventual emergence toward carbon neutrality, humanity is confronted with new of a new economic system based on energy consumption. technologies and measures that contribute to the progress of society at large. Conclusion Impact on the economy This comprehensive assessment of the literature examined Several of the initiatives adopted to attain carbon neutral- the critical nature of achieving net-zero carbon emissions ity will have a substantial economic impact (Ji et al. 2021). in order to support sustainable development. It began with The economic impact of carbon neutrality is mostly due to a systematic review of the 26th United Nations Climate a shift in economic development models, as well as energy Change Conference of the Parties, a once-in-a-generation production and consumption. Carbon neutrality will reorient opportunity to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change economic growth toward green, low-carbon, and sustain- and achieve carbon neutrality in the aftermath of the corona- able development; it will also significantly impact emerg- virus disease 2019 pandemic. Simultaneously, the four out- ing technology trends, such as decarbonization technologies, come targets presented at the 26th United Nations Climate energy efficiency technologies, recycling technologies, and Change Conference of the Parties were studied further. The new power systems energy storage technologies, as well as results of the four targets have far-reaching positive implica- negative emissions technologies. Additionally, new models tions for achieving carbon neutrality globally. Meanwhile, will almost certainly displace certain economic activities this study gave a full and exhaustive overview of worldwide or businesses; for example, the existing coal industry and initiatives to attain carbon neutrality, the majority of which its accompanying infrastructure, manufacturing, and service are policies or measures implemented by specific countries. sectors will likely continue to lose jobs. On the other hand, Only 4.5% of the 198 countries examined have reached car- carbon neutrality will spur job creation in the clean energy, bon neutrality, while most of the remaining countries are carbon-free energy, and renewable energy sectors, resulting still planning to do so, with the majority of them aiming for in economic shocks. carbon neutrality after 2050. Continued advancement of carbon neutrality targets is Additionally, this research systematically examined the projected to considerably impact the development and reor- interconnections and synergies between adaptation and miti- ganization of the energy mix, particularly in the higher car- gation strategies and their associated benefits. Certain strate- bon-emitting oil, coal, and natural gas sectors. Consumption gies found in the analysis may have a detrimental effect on of refined oil will gradually be phased out in the oil sector; the objective of net-zero carbon emissions. The investigation countries with a high demand for crude oil consumption indicated that synergies across countries are lagging. Only a will see their consumption steady and then fall. The coal quarter of Climate Change and Political Stability in Europe sector’s backward production capacity will progressively incorporate an in-depth investigation of mitigation and adap- be phased out; the coal chemical industry, coal power, and tation synergies. It is worth noting that the various methods other coal conversion industries will face limited expansion for mapping direct and indirect carbon emissions (input–out- space; and alternative energy sources will steadily weaken put models, spatial systems, geographic information system and eventually replace coal use. The gradual use of alterna- maps, LiDAR techniques, and LMDI-I methods), as well as tive energy sources will gradually reduce the demand for systematic survey analysis, can be extremely beneficial for natural gas in the energy sector. Meanwhile, in the field of decision-makers in determining precisely which urban areas non-fossil energy, new energy technologies will accelerate should be concerned about in order to develop more effective their development on a wide scale, and the development of and targeted climate change policies. its new power system will continue, gradually building a In addition, this assessment included several sustainable new energy consumption economy. strategies for achieving carbon neutrality in various sectors. In conclusion, the positive impacts of carbon neutrality on The first step is to shift away from fossil fuel energy and the environment, society and the economy are clear. Carbon toward renewable sources of energy, as well as to develop 1 3 2306 Environmental Chemistry Letters (2022) 20:2277–2310 low-carbon technologies. The strategy for energy transition Declarations should be to electrify energy services, increase energy effi- Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no known com- ciency, and promote renewable energy sources. Simultane- peting financial interests or personal relationships that could have ap- ously, modifying dietary habits (more vegetarian, less meat, peared to influence the work reported in this review. less food waste) can help minimize the negative effects of climate change in terms of agricultural land use, food con- Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attri- sumption patterns, and waste disposal. Pasture restoration, bution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adapta- tion, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems, no-till agricul- as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, ture, afforestation, biological nitrogen fixation, and organic provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes waste recycling are all examples of climate change miti- were made. The images or other third party material in this article are gation techniques. Adopting low-carbon agriculture, alter- included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in ing consumer behaviour, and raising the value of food and the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not agricultural waste are essential steps toward net-zero carbon permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will emissions. need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a In terms of buildings and cities, buildings should be copy of this licence, visit http://cr eativ ecommons. or g/licen ses/ b y/4.0/ . designed to be resilient to natural hazards while minimizing disruption to the natural environment. Cities with decentral- ized energy systems and technology such as electric vehi- cles, the Internet of things, and big data can significantly References contribute to climate change mitigation. 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Journal

Environmental Chemistry LettersSpringer Journals

Published: Aug 1, 2022

Keywords: Carbon neutrality; Net-zero carbon plan; Worldwide initiatives; Carbon emissions; Carbon neutral system; Life cycle analysis

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