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New Late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from the Kuiu Island area and Brooks Range, Alaska

New Late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from the Kuiu Island area and Brooks Range, Alaska G e o l o g i c a A c t a , V o l . 1 2 , N º 1 , M a r c h 2 0 1 4 , 2 9 - 5 2 D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 New Late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from the Kuiu Island area and Brooks Range, Alaska 1 2 3 J. FEDOROWSKI C.H. STEVENS E. KATVALA Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University Makow Polnych 16, PL-61-606, Poznan, Poland. E-mail: jerzy@amu.edu.pl Department of Geology, San Jose Unversity San Jose, California 95192, USA. E-mail: Calvin.Stevens@sjsu.edu Department of Geology, University of Calgary Calgary, Canada. E-mail: erik.katvala@ucalgary.ca A B S T R A C T Three new species of the genus Heritschioides, i.e., H. alaskensis sp. nov., H. kuiuensis sp. nov., and H. splendidus sp. nov., and Kekuphyllum sandoense gen. et sp. nov. from the northeastern Kuiu Island area and nearby islets, part of Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska, and Heritschioides separatus sp. nov. from the Brooks Range, Alaska, are described and illustrated. The three new fasciculate colonial coral species from the Kuiu Island area, collected from the Moscovian Saginaw Bay Formation, are phylogenetically related to those of probable Bashkirian age in the Brooks Range in northern Alaska as shown by the presence of morphologically similar species of Heritschioides. These corals from both areas also are related to one species in the Quesnel terrane in western Canada. Kekuphyllum sandoense from the Saginaw Bay Formation of the Kuiu Island area is the only cerioid-aphroid species within the Subfamily Heritschioidinae described so far. The complete early ontogeny of a protocorallite is for the first time described here on a basis of H. kuiuensis sp. nov. and compared to the hystero-ontogeny in order to show similarities and differences in those processes. KEYWORDS Late Carboniferous. Colonial corals. Coral ontogeny. Kuiu Island. Brooks Range. INTRODUCTION northern Caledonides in the Early Paleozoic (Colpron and Nelson, 2011). In the mid Paleozoic time these terranes This paper is the first of two studies of the middle Late were dispersed westward and according to Colpron and Carboniferous colonial coral faunas of the northeastern Nelson (2011) the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes, Kuiu Island area, part of the Alexander terrane in southern which were hypothesized to have been amalgamated Alaska, and the Brooks Range, northern Alaska (Fig. 1). in the Late Carboniferous (Gardner et al., 1988), were A more detailed discussion of the Late Carboniferous somewhat isolated from Laurasia out in the Panthalassa paleogeography and relationships of various coral Ocean throughout Late Carboniferous to Early Permian faunas will be addressed in that second paper. However, times. During these times the Brooks Range is interpreted here we note that the Alexander terrane and many other to have been in place in northern Alaska (Colpron and allochthonous terranes accreted to the northern and Nelson, 2011). In contrast, Katvala and Henderson (2007) western margins of Pangaea in the Mesozoic have been placed part of the Wrangellia terrane (Vancouver Island) interpreted to have been derived from a region between relatively close to North America, at least in the Early Baltica, Laurentia, and Siberia, in proximity of the Permian, closer to Pangaea than proposed by Colpron and 29 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska Nelson (2011). The middle Late Carboniferous colonial Permian stratigraphic column consists of the Cannery corals studied here suggest that the Alexander terrane was Formation, an unnamed “crinoidal limestone”, the located in the general vicinity of the Brooks Range in the Saginaw Bay Formation, the Halleck Formation, and the Late Carboniferous. Pybus Formation (Fig. 2). The Saginaw Bay Formation was divided by Muffler (1967) into four members. According to him, from older to younger, they were: the LOCATION AND AGE Volcanic Member, the Black Chert Member, the Chert and Limestone Member, and the Silty Limestone Member. Corals from the Kuiu Island area were collected by A.F. According to Katvala (personal communication, 2013), Buddington in 1922 (see Buddington and Chapin, 1929), however, the Chert and Limestone Member should be L.J.P. Muffler in 1965 (see Muffler, 1967), and Erik Katvala included in the Silty Limestone Member, and the Black in 2004 and 2005. All specimens but one (USGS loc. Chert Member is Devonian in age, based on conodont 27727-PC), which occurs in the “crinoidal limestone” of faunas, and therefore does not belong in the Saginaw Bay Muffler (1967), are from the Saginaw Bay Formation (Figs. Formation. Here the two members of the Saginaw Bay 1, 2). The specimens collected by Muffler and Buddington Formation shown on Figure 1 are the Silty Limestone were turned over to William Sando of the United States Member, which includes the Chert and Limestone Member Geological Survey where they were given USGS locality of Muffler (1967), and the Volcanic Member. numbers. These specimens were later distributed to Wayne Bamber, Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, and to Cal The corals reported upon here are from the Saginaw Bay Stevens by Sando. Bamber’s and Erik Katvala’s specimens Formation. An early Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan) fauna, were delivered to Cal Stevens by Erik Katvala in 2008. probably from the Chert and Limestone Member (sensu Fragments of most specimens were mailed in 2010 to Mufe fl r, 1967) of the Saginaw Bay Formation, was r fi st Jerzy Fedorowski, Poznań, Poland for additional studies identie fi d by Dutro and Douglass (1961). On the basis of including making serial sections. The specimen described recent conodont studies (Katvala, personal communication, by Armstrong (1972) from the Brooks Range, Alaska was 2013), however, the Saginaw Bay Formation is interpreted loaned to Cal Stevens by the Smithsonian Institution, to be mostly if not entirely of Moscovian age. This unit is National Museum of Natural History. underlain by the “crinoidal limestone” of Bashkirian age (Katvala, personal communication, 2013), and overlain by the Work in progress by Erik Katvala suggests that all of Halleck Formation, considered Early Permian in age, based the specimens from the Kuiu Island area described here are on conodont faunas (Katvala and Henderson, 2007; Fig. 2). Moscovian (Late Carboniferous) in age. The fauna from the Brooks Range was dated by Armstrong (1972) as Atokan (Bashkirian, Late Carboniferous) in age. The coral faunas MATERIAL AND METHODS from these two regions are quite different from all other known coral faunas of middle Late Carboniferous age except for the Samples from seven localities in the Kuiu Island area, six presence of the somewhat similar type species of Heritschioides of which were utilized in this study, were available for study. in the Quesnel terrane in southern British Columbia. United States Geological Survey localities are indicated by numbers followed by the letters PC (e.g. USGS 27727–PC). Localities of Erik Katvala are indicated by a combination STRATIGRAPHY of letters and numbers. Where several samples of the same species were collected, individual colonies in both collections In the first work on the stratigraphy of the Kuiu Island are indicated by an additional number (e.g. #1). The geographic area, Buddington and Chapin (1929) divided the upper position of localities is shown on Figure 1, and detailed Paleozoic rocks into the “lower division of the Permian” and descriptions of localities and their stratigraphic positions are the “upper division of the Permian”. According to Muffler indicated in Appendix I. Thin sections of all g fi ured specimens (1967) his newly named Halleck Formation, corresponds have been assigned the letter C followed by the number of that to the “lower division” whereas the Pybus Formation slide. Slides of all holotypes are housed in the collections of the of Loney (1964) was considered by Muffler (1967) to National Museum of Natural History and bear a USNM number correspond to the “upper division of the Permian” of as well as a C number. Paratypes, other g fi ured specimens, and Buddington and Chapin (1929). Muffler (1967) recognized other samples collected by Katvala, many containing solitary and named the older Carboniferous rocks in the area: the corals, have been placed in the collections of the University of “crinoidal limestone” and the Saginaw Bay Formation. California Museum of Paleontology at Berkeley. Katvala and Henderson (2007) and Katvala et al. All specimens have undergone various diagenetic (2009) have determined that the local Carboniferous and alterations: compression, replacement by dolomite and/or G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 Kuiu Island J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska Pybus Formation BR Halleck Formation KI Other units Saginaw Bay Formation, Volcanic Member Saginaw Bay Formation, Silty Limestone Member “Crinoidal Limestone” Alexander of Muffler, 1967 terrane 134 17’ 134 00’ 15’ 10’ 5’ Keku 55 57’ USGS 27727-PC Strait SMI-2004 USGS 5134-PC Halleck 55’ Harbor FH-C-F2 USGS 21334-PC Saginaw Bay USGS Cornwallis Peninsula 4305-PC (Kuiu Island) SoB-F1 C. C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 KILOMETERS FIGURE 1. Locations. A) Location of Kuiu Island (KI) and the coral locality in the Brooks Range (BR) in northeastern Alaska. B) Position of Kuiu Island in the Alexander terrane-Wrangellia terrane assembly. C) Location of sampled localities on Kuiu Island and nearby islets plotted on a geologic map of the area. silica, recrystallization, and dissolution resulting in small measured (in millimeters), and the number (n) of major geode-like structures within skeletons. Those alterations septa counted. These measurements are recorded as n:d are irregularly distributed within colonies, leaving values. some corallites or parts of them preserved well enough for photography of the microstructure of septa and for preparation of series of peels elucidating the blastogeny. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY Some of those series were photographed and drawn using a computer method. Order: Staurida VERRILL, 1865 Suborder: Aulophyllina HILL, 1981 In the description of all species the smallest Family: Aulophyllidae DYBOWSKI, 1873 diameter (d), as seen in transverse section, was Subfamily: Heritschioidinae SANDO, 1985 G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska Period Age Formation 2, sample USGS 21334-PC #1, with two transverse and one longitudinal thin section; paratype 3, sample USGS Pybus Formation Middle unconformity 5134-PC with one transverse thin section (not illustrated). Permian Early Halleck Formation Sample USGS 4305-PC #2 with one transverse and one unconformity longitudinal thin section is questionably assigned to this Pennsylvanian Moscovian Saginaw Bay Formation species. See Appendix I for locality information. Bashkirian “crinoidal limestone” Diagnosis. Heritschioides with maximum n:d value Mississippian Serpukhovian Cannery Formation 32:16.5, commonly less; complex axial column occupying up to 1/2 corallite diameter, consists of long regular and FIGURE 2. Local Late Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Kuiu Island area. extra septal lamellae and steeply elevated axial tabellae; median lamella inconspicuous when present; pseudonaotic septa at incipient development; dissepimentarium 1/5-1/4 Discussion. Sando (1985) introduced the name corallite radius; lonsdaleoid dissepiments very rare. Heritschioididae as a new family and included it in the Suborder Lithostrotionina Spassky & Kachanov, Description. Corallum fasciculate. Corallites closely 1971. However, the characteristics of the type genus packed. External wall 0.1-0.2mm thick. Corallite diameters Heritschioides Yabe, 1950 correspond more closely with generally 6-16mm; n:d = 20:5, 20-22:6, 23:7, 27:11, 28- those of the Suborder Aulophyllina Hill, 1981 and the Family 30:13-14. One corallite 32:23x19mm (Fig. 3F) with axial Aulophyllidae Dybowski, 1873, in which it was placed by structure either lacking or diagenetically destroyed. Major Lin et al. (1995), a position accepted by Fedorowski et al. septa long, moderately thin in dissepimentarium, slightly (2007) who restricted clinotabulae to the Prae- and Paleo- dilated at margin of tabularium, most lack taper, some Tethys taxa, thus informally eliminating that character penetrate axial column to become confluent with septal from the diagnosis of Heritschioides established by Sando lamellae. All those characters similar but variable within (1985, p. 979). Thus, all taxa bearing that important feature and between colonies beginning in late neanic growth are unrelated to the Heritschioidinae and are eliminated stage (compare small corallites in Figs. 3C, G; 7A, B, D, from the consideration. Also, the occurrence of two orders H, I), may be differently accentuated at different growth of septa - major and minor - considered diagnostic by levels of same corallite. Major septa vary during corallite Sando (1985), are observed in many unrelated taxa and growth from almost completely confluent through partly must be eliminated from consideration of subfamily and isolated to almost completely free from axial structure generic placements. (e.g. Fig. 7C-A, respectively). Cardinal septum slightly shortened in some largest corallites, hardly distinguishable In this paper we have added a cerioid-aphroid genus or elongated towards axial structure in others (Fig. 7A- to the list of genera included in the subfamily. Thus, the C). Axial structure may extend into cardinal fossula when subfamily now consists of Heritschioides Yabe, 1950, cardinal septum slightly shortened (Figs. 4G, right; 7D, Copia Vassilyuk and Kozyreva, 1974 and Kekuphyllum right corallite). Minor septa generally short, some extend gen. nov. as prongs into tabularium. Axial column one third to one- half corallite diameter; in transverse view composed of GENUS Heritschioides YABE, 1950 many straight or wavy, very thin septal lamellae including extra lamellae. Length and arrangement of both kinds of Type species: Waagenophyllum columbicum SMITH, 1935 septal lamellae highly variable within a single colony; best exemplified by holotype (Fig. 3A-C, G), also present in Heritschioides kuiuensis FEDOROWSKI and STEVENS, all paratypes. Up to eight or more rows of steeply dipping sp. nov. axial tabellae and few septal lamellae when longitudinal Figures 3-7 section well oriented (Figs. 3D, E; 7E, G, J); irregular, shorter, more numerous, and less steeply arranged when Etymology. Named for the Island of Kuiu from which the section slightly eccentric, i.e. when periphery of axial corals were collected structure is sectioned (Fig. 7F, upper). Linked axial tabellae Holotype. USNM 545244 from sample FH-C-F2 #4. at axial column periphery different in shape within same Locality and age of the holotype. FH-C-F2; Moscovian corallite; longer when axial lamellae rare, occasionally interrupted by inner tabellae of tabularium. In transverse Material. Holotype listed above with nine transverse section median lamella commonly obscure, thin, absent and three oblique longitudinal thin sections, and nineteen from parts of mature growth of several corallites, elongated peels. Paratype 1, sample FH-C-F2 #3 with four transverse towards and connected to cardinal septum in immature and six longitudinal thin sections, and 24 peels; paratype and some mature corallites. Axial structure either absent G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska 4 mm F G FIGURE 3. Heritschioides kuiuensis sp. nov. Holotype from sample FH-C-F2 #4. Macromorphology, A-C, F, G) transverse sections; D, E) longitudinal sections. Scale bar applies to all images. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska A B C 0.25 mm 2 mm 2 mm 0.25 mm 0.25 mm 0.25 mm 2 mm 0.5 mm FIGURE 4. Heritschioides kuiuensis sp. nov. Holotype from sample FH-C-F2 #4 except for D. Details, A, B, E, G, H transverse sections; A) three densely packed corallites, periphery of right corallite fills space between other two; B) contact between two corallites diagenetically the result of compaction; C, D) remnants of trabeculae (arrows with A) and growth lines (arrows with B) in strongly oblique sections; D) paratype 1 from sample FH-C-F2 #3; E) well oriented transverse section of septum; trabeculae destroyed by recrystallization; F) growth lines of primary septum (dark) in oblique and relatively well oriented longitudinal section; G) axial structure extending into cardinal fossula (right); H) partition (arrows with P) between parent and offset corallites, septa (arrows with S) and earliest dissepiments (arrows with D). G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska from some mature corallite growth stages or diagenetically damaged (Fig. 3F). Shallow cardinal fossula marked by slight depression of dissepimentarium in rare corallites, hardly distinguishable in most. Dissepimentarium occupies 1/5-1/4 corallite radius, generally composed of two to four ranks of small, mostly globose dissepiments as seen in longitudinal section (Figs. 3D, E; 7E, F, G, J). In transverse sections interseptal, irregular dissepiments located mainly in middle part of dissepimentarium, few lonsdaleoid. Small dissepiments, oblique to larger ones and to septa, grouped mostly at periphery of largest specimens, constitute first step in formation of pseudonaotic septa. Tabularium with incipient biformity in rare septal loculi, composed of complete and incomplete tabulae rather steeply inclined upward to axial column, eight-10/mm. Boundary of tabularium with dissepimentarium marked by light stereozone thickening. Microstructure diagenetically altered in most septa (Fig. 4E, F). Remnants of fine trabeculae apparent in oblique sections of reasonably well preserved septa in holotype and one paratype (Fig. 4C, D, respectively), 30µm wide, and separated from one another by similar distances; diagenetic alterations may have increased trabeculae thickness. Shape and width of “dark middle lines” (= the primary septa) depends on orientation of thin sections; in well oriented transverse sections (Fig. 4E) fans of crystalline fibrils of various sizes form an axial sector of septum irregular in shape and width, probably result of significant diagenetic alteration of trabeculae; similar appearing “middle dark lines” in septa in other specimens in all three species of Heritschioides described in this paper also probably represent fine trabecular microstructure. Longitudinal sections exhibit growth bands within septa, shape of which depends on orientation of septum relative to cut surface; bands appear more distinctive when cut oriented obliquely to septal axis and tend to unite when cut perpendicular to axis (Fig. 4F, lower and upper, respectively). External walls of corallites when in direct contact (Fig. 4A, left side) may appear as a partition, but its two partite FIGURE 5. Heritschioides kuiuensis sp. nov. Holotype from sample FH- C-F2 #4, A) transverse thin section and B, C) drawings based on pe- character obvious where corallites separate (Fig. 4A, B, els; variability in early blastogeny of three adjacent offsets. Diageneti- upper). Due to dissolution corallites may be crowded, cally destroyed areas left gray with ‘?” when important. Cardinal septa contacts between adjacent corallite walls may become marked by black and /or white arrows. Scale bar applies to all images. stylolitic (Fig. 4B, most), or parts of adjacent corallites may be destroyed (Fig. 3B, G; Fig. 7C). Partitions present between an offsetting individual arrow with ‘D’) and tabulae, in which microcrystalline and its bud (Fig. 4H, arrow with ‘P’) documents a direct fibrils grow only in one direction (as has previously been connection of the parent and the offset polyp. It closely documented independently by Wells (1969) and Sorauf resembles microstructure of septa (Fig. 4H, arrow with ‘S’) (1970). Partition microstructure similar to that of septa in showing diverging bunches of microcrystalline fibrils, suggesting trabecular origin. suggesting its secretion in a narrow endodermal fold, closely comparable to a septal pocket. That microstructure Blastogeny investigated in short series of transverse differs from dividing walls, dissepiments (Fig. 4H, sections of three neighboring holotype offsets (Fig. 5A- G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska C). Two marked ‘a’, ‘b’ derived from upper left parent’s axis variable. In offset ‘b’ level at which cardinal septum corallite; offset ‘c’ derived from upper right parent’s withdrew unknown; that septum increases in length during corallite. Information from immature corallites in random growth (Fig. 5A-C, corallite ‘b’), becoming dominant, as transverse sections also employed. Hystero-brephic typical in more advanced growth stages. In offset ‘c’ (Fig. growth stage unknown. In early hystero-neanic growth 5A, B) dissepiments already developed; cardinal septum stage (Fig. 5A, B, corallite ‘a’) axial septum intersects extends beyond corallite axis and meets counter septum, offset’s lumen; other septa, exclusively major, short and remains longest septum in cardinal quadrants during further wavy. Cardinal septum, probably an atavoseptum, located growth (Fig. 5C, corallite ‘c’), exact length camoua fl ged at offset’s periphery, withdrawn from corallite axis at by diagenetic alteration in offset’s axial area. Formation slightly more advanced growth stage, not shorter than of median lamella from protosepta not observed; septal other major septa. Counter septum remains long (Fig. 5C, lamellae of some other major septa developed in most corallite ‘a’). Withdrawal of cardinal septum from corallite advanced offset (Fig. 5C, offset ‘b’). Transverse sections of 1 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.6 mm 0.6 mm L I J 1.4 mm K 0.4 mm 0.4 mm FIGURE 6. Heritschioides kuiuensis sp. nov. Paratype 1 from sample FH-C-F2 #3. Transverse sections. Early ontogeny of protocorallite developed inside colony. A, B) brephic growth stage; C-H) neanic growth stage; I-L) late neanic/early mature growth stage. Cardinal and counter septa marked by black and/or white arrows. Alar septa where recognizable marked by black quadrangles. Scale bar applies to all images. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska A B 4 mm H I FIGURE 7. Heritschioides kuiuensis sp. nov. Paratypes. Paratype 1 from sample FH-C-F2 #3, A-C) transverse sections; E-G) longitudinal sections. Paratype 2 from sample 21334-PC #1, D, H, I) transverse sections; J) longitudinal section. Scale bar applies to all images. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska some paratype offsets (Fig. 7A, B, D, H, I) illustrate more septa variously elongated. In contrast to hystero-ontogeny, advanced steps in offset’s development. Corallite diameters major septa, including protosepta not shortened during increase a little; their dissepimentaria and minor septa early ontogeny, and both protosepta equally strong when already developed; axial structures well developed, and may axial structure begins to develop; strong and regular become partly isolated from inner margins of major septa. in young protocorallite, weak and irregular in offsets. Median lamella unrecognizable or weak; when recognizable Absence in literature of any detailed studies of ontogeny connected to cardinal septum. Underdevelopment of median and blastogeny of any other species of Rugosa, excludes lamella, characteristic of mature corallites, starts in early possibility of making comparisons. hystero-ontogeny, typical for this species. Septal lamellae weakly developed at this stage; regular and extra septal Discussion. H. kuiuensis differs from the type species lamellae strongly developed in mature growth stage. of the genus, H. columbicum (Smith, 1935), from the late Serpukhovian to early Bashkirian from Keremeos Early ontogeny of one protocorallite attached to a mature in southern British Columbia, Canada, in possessing a corallite inside paratype 1 (Fig. 6) has allowed the r fi st complete much wider and more complex axial column composed of study of this kind to be published. Diagenetic alterations long regular and extra septal lamellae, in having a much destroyed some details, including earliest ontogeny; most narrower and simpler dissepimentarium with very few important characteristics of protocorallite preserved. First two lonsdaleoid dissepiments, and showing the beginning of drawings (Fig. 6A, B) correspond to curved part of specimen. pseudonaotic septa. H. kuiuensis differs from the Atokan Obliqueness and dolomitization precludes deciphering species, H. separatus sp. nov., from the eastern Brooks increase and arrangement of septa in brephic growth stage. In Range, Alaska, in the development of a much more complex ontogenetically earlier stages (Fig. 6A), only vague outlines axial column clearly isolated from the tabularium and of probable septa recognizable within sclerenchymal mass; consisting of numerous regular and extra septal lamellae, three bodies, septal in microstructure, intersect corallite and in a narrower, simpler dissepimentarium. That colony lumen 0.2mm higher (Fig. 6B). Left body may correspond to was described and figured by Armstrong (1972, pl. 4, fig. cardinal septum (Fig. 6C, marked by an arrow), which with 3 and pl. 5, figs. 3, 4) as a paratype of his new species major septum in middle dominate in next 0.8 millimeters of Corwenia jagoensis. growth (Fig. 6D-G). Increased number and arrangement of septa irregular. Protosepta do not dominate in early ontogeny Occurrence. Locality FH-C-F2; USGS 21334-PC; USGS (Fig. 6 D-G); become obvious only after axial septum clearly 5134-PC; ?USGS3405-PC. constituted (Fig. 6I). Length and attachment of other major septa to one another also changes, commonly quickly, during Heritschioides splendidus FEDOROWSKI and STEVENS, neanic corallite growth (Fig. 6D-H); reason for irregularity sp. nov. unknown, corresponds to that observed in blastogeny (see Figures 8, 9 above). Arrangement of major septa becomes more regular Etymology. Lat. splendidus-impressive. After large size after axial septum formed (Fig. 6I-L); still number of septa in and elegant morphology of corallites. various quadrants uncertain. Recognizable alar septa marked Holotype. USNM 545245 from sample SOB F1. by black quadrangle (Fig. 6H-L). Locality and age of the holotype. One corallum from locality SOB F1, Kuiu Island, Alaska; Moscovian in age. Late neanic growth stage of specimen arbitrarily placed at insertion of first dissepiments and appearance of minor Material. Holotype listed above with 10 transverse septa in corallite lumen, both appearing in right cardinal and five longitudinal thin sections, and fourteen peels. See and right counter quadrant first (Fig. 6H, I). Axial structure Appendix I for locality information. formed at approximately same level, consists of axial part of axial septum, inner margins of major septa attached to Diagnosis. Heritschioides with n:d values up it, and several sections of axial tabellae; remains united to 41:29x25mm, major septa considerably dilated with inner margins of major septa for at least 1.2mm of in tabularium, some minor septa enter tabularium; growth (Fig. 6I-L). All axial skeletal elements, including tabular cardinal fossula present; axial structure 1/3 axial tabellae, strongly thickened by sclerenchyme; this corallite diameter; median lamella commonly reduced; and diagenetic alterations make axial structure - perhaps an dissepimentarium 1/5-1/3 corallite radius; lonsdaleoid axial column - appear solid. Individual skeletal elements dissepiments absent. scarcely recognizable in peels; some small details in drawings subjective interpretations of senior author. Description. Corallum fasciculate; fragment available for study originally greater than 18cm diameter. Corallites In early ontogeny and hystero-ontogeny (blastogeny) seldom offsetting. Offsets appear at similar levels of protosepta connected and in variable positions; major astogeny (Fig. 8D). Dimensions measured at different G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska 0.5 mm I J FIGURE 8. Heritschioides splendidus sp. nov. Holotype from sample SOB-F1. Macromorphology, A-G) transverse sections. Morphological changes in sequential sections of mature corallites ‘a’ and ‘b’, H-J) longitudinal sections. Cardinal septa marked by black and/or white dots. Scale bar applies to all images. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska growth levels of corallite ‘a’: 36:21.5 x 23.5mm and 29.0mm after 5.5cm and 3cm growth, respectively (Fig. 38:24.5 x 25.5mm after 3cm growth; of corallite ‘b’: 8A-D). External wall 0.06-0.1 mm thick. Major septa long, 40:26.5 x 30.5mm, 41:24.0 x 28.5mm and 41:24.8 x inner margins of most separated from axial column, few 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 0.1 mm 1 mm F G FIGURE 9. Heritschioides splendidus sp. nov. Holotype from sample SOB-F1. Details. Transverse sections, A-C) axial structures; A) mature growth stage; note thin, separated inner margin of cardinal septum (lower), B) advanced neanic growth stage; arrow points to sections of tabulae depressed into cardinal fossula, C) neanic growth stage – thin, wavy median lamella connected directly to cardinal septum; D-F) biform (arrows) and normal tabularium in transverse sections; G) transverse section, bunches of crystalline fibrils that replaced trabeculae. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska B C 4 mm 0.5 mm 0.1 mm G H 0.1 mm FIGURE 10. Heritschioides alaskensis sp. nov., A-E, G-J) holotype from SMI 2004 #4; F) paratype 1 from SMI 2004 #3. Transverse section. A-C) Transverse sections. Arrow in A points to corallite illustrated in Figure 11J-M. D, E, G) Longitudinal sections. H) Enlarged from A to document biform morphology and very shallow penetration of septa into narrow external wall. I) Enlarged from D, longitudinal section showing trabecular microstruc- ture; arrows with ‘a’ remnants of trabeculae, arrows with ‘b’ remnants of growth lines. J) Enlarged from A, bunches of fibrils (lower) are remnants of trabeculae, totally destroyed by diagenesis in remaining part of septum. Scale bar in the middle corresponds to all images, except where indicated. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska confluent with septal lamellae, thin in dissepimentarium, Discussion. H. splendidus sp. nov. resembles H. highly dilated in tabularium, tapering very slightly if at kuiuensis sp. nov, but differs in having a narrower column, all toward axial column when free-ended, rapidly and much larger corallites, having greater dilation of major strongly tapering when extending towards axial column septa in the tabularium, and lacking a recognizable (Fig. 8A-G). Cardinal septum in mature specimens slightly median lamella in mature corallites. From H. columbicum shortened, located in inconspicuous, parallel-walled (Smith, 1935) it differs primarily in the morphology of cardinal fossula. Minor septa most often extend through the axial column, which comprises both well developed dissepimentarium, rarely penetrate into tabularium as normal and numerous extra septal lamellae, a shortened prongs. Axial column continuous, one-forth to one-third cardinal septum, an easily recognizable cardinal fossula corallite diameter, composed of many septal lamellae, in mature corallites, the lack of lonsdaleoid dissepiments including extra lamellae and numerous, densely packed and pseudonaotic septa, greater dilation of the major axial tabellae. Two arrangements of septal lamellae shown septa in the tabularium, and a hemispherical arrangement by transverse sections of two adjacent mature corallites: of tabellae in the axial column. The latter character also centripetal with densely packed septal lamellae at periphery distinguishes it from H. kuiuensis. with few approaching and/or reaching corallite axis (Fig. 8A, D, G, corallite ‘a’; Fig. 9A), and irregularly twisted Occurrence. As for the holotype. (Fig. 8B-D, F, corallite ‘b’). In mature corallites median lamella indistinguishable irrespective of arrangement Heritschioides alaskensis FEDOROWSKI and STEVENS, of septal lamellae. Eccentric longitudinal sections cut sp. nov. at dense, peripheral part of axial column (Fig. 8I) show Figures 10, 11 septal lamellae closely crowded, in more centric sections Etymology. Named for the State of Alaska where the (Fig. 8H, J) fewer septal lamellae exposed. Axial tabellae specimens were collected. hemispherical with lateral tabellae well developed, clearly Holotype. USNM 545246 from sample SMI 2004 #4. separating axial column from tabularium. In immature Locality and age of the holotype. SMI 2004; Kuiu Island, growth stages median lamella thin and wavy, connected Alaska. Moscovian in age. with (Fig. 9C) or slightly elongated towards cardinal septum. At more advanced immature growth stage, median Material. Holotype specimen listed above originally lamella, as in corallite shown in Figure 9B, occurs as thin greater than 8cm in diameter with four transverse and plate or is absent, cardinal septum slightly shortened; three longitudinal thin sections, and 20 peels; paratype presence of cardinal fossula documented by arrangement 1, sample SMI 2004 #3 with two transverse and two of sections of tabulae (Fig. 9B, arrow). Remnants of inner longitudinal thin sections; paratype 2, sample SMI 2004 margin of cardinal septum or peripheral margin of median #5, with two transverse and one longitudinal thin section. lamella represented by thin, wavy strip in cardinal fossula Sample SMI 2004 F1 with six transverse thin sections and (Fig. 9A). Dissepimentarium composed of up to six or one longitudinal thin section questionably belongs to this eight ranks of small, globose, irregular and concentric, species. See Appendix I for locality information. interseptal dissepiments in major part of dissepimentarium; at maturity short bunches of small dissepiments, incipient Diagnosis. Heritschioides with n:d value = 26:9.0mm pseudonaotic structures, attached obliquely to peripheral to 26:12.0mm; axial column with obscure or no median limits of septa. Lonsdaleoid dissepiments absent. lamella occupies 1/4-1/3 corallite diameter; major septa Tabularium with biform morphology when minor septa somewhat dilated in tabularium; minor septa penetrate extend into tabularium (Fig. 9D, arrows), normal in loculi tabularium with slightly dilated margins; biform tabularium where those septa restricted to dissepimentarium (Fig. recognizable in many septal loculae; lonsdaleoid 9E), both types may be developed next to one another dissepiments absent. (Fig. 9F, biform indicated by arrows). Tabularium (Fig. 8H-J) composed mostly of incomplete, upwardly arched Description. External wall about 0.1-0.2mm thick. tabulae inclined gently upward to axial column, 10-12/ Maximum corallite diameter 13mm; n:d =19:6.0-7.0, cm. Boundary between dissepimentarium and tabularium 22:8.9, 23:10.0, 24:9.0, 26:9.0-12.0. In transverse sections marked by light stereozone thickening; boundary between (Fig. 10A-C, F) major septa penetrate very slightly into tabularium and axial column sharp. external wall or appear to be attached to it (Fig. 10H), commonly approach axial column, rarely continuous with Microstructure variously altered diagenetically. Based on septal lamellae, thin in dissepimentarium, slightly dilated comparison with similar structures in septa of H. kuiuensis sp. in tabularium, distal ends tapering to blunt. Cardinal nov., bunches of crystalline b fi rils in several septa (Fig. 9G), septum rarely and indistinctly shortened; more commonly interpreted as trabeculae enlarged during recrystallization equal in length to adjacent major septa, may join median process at expanse of sclerenchymal sheets of septa. lamella when one present. Cardinal fossula lacking. Minor G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska septa commonly penetrate short distance into tabularium mainly in transverse sections, indicated by different where inner margins dilated. Axial column continuous, one arrangement of peripheral parts of tabulae (Fig. 10H). third to one-fourth corallite diameter, isolated by vertical Very light stereozone developed at margin of tabularium. lateral tabellae and up to five or more ranks of steeply Boundary between tabularium and axial column sharp. dipping, elongate axial tabellae. Septal lamellae variable, representing most major septa in some corallites, few in In transverse sections of septa (Fig. 10J) septal others. Extra septal lamellae extremely rare, recognizable microstructure diagenetically altered into irregular bunches in some mature corallites. Median lamella commonly of crystalline fibrils; in longitudinal sections ultrastructure lacking, obscure when present. Dissepimentarium totally destroyed, but altered intersecting growth lines and commonly one-third corallite radius, generally composed rods interpreted as remnants of fine trabeculae (Fig. 10I, of three or four ranks of small, globose dissepiments as arrows with letters ‘b’ and ‘a’, respectively) are preserved. seen in longitudinal section (Fig. 10D, E, G); in transverse section dissepiments variable in size and shape: concentric, Blastogeny (Fig. 11A-M) investigated in two series irregular and pseudoherringbone; lonsdaleoid dissepiments of acetate peels from two offsetting corallites in holotype absent. Tabularium composed of complete and incomplete, (Fig. 11A-I and 11J-M, respectively). Earliest phase of slightly convex upward tabulae that rise moderately steeply offsetting in one offset diagenetically destroyed. Offsetting upward to axial column. Biform morphology recognizable in more complete specimen begins with formation of 0.2 mm C B 0.2 mm D 0.2 mm A 0.6 mm 0.4 mm F 0.4 mm G 0.3 mm E 0.4 mm 2 mm 0.9 mm 0.6 mm L 0.7 mm 1.2 mm FIGURE 11. Heritschioides alaskensis sp. nov. Holotype from SMI 2004 #4. Blastogeny of two offsets based on serial peels spaced as indicated. First corallite: A-D) hystero-brephic growth stage; E, F) early hystero-neanic growth stage; G-I) hystero-neanic growth stage. Second corallite: J) early hystero-neanic growth stage; K, L) neanic growth stage; M) late neanic/early mature growth stage. Scale bar at bottom applies to all figures. Arrow points to cardinal septum; dots indicate position of alar septa. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska narrow space for offset within dissepimentarium of parent Blastogeny of two offsets differs in development (Fig. 11A-C). Minor septa and dissepiments disappear of counter septum; similar in all other details. Cardinal from loculi between three major septa becoming separated septum participated in formation of median lamella in into unequal segments: long inner segments with strongly both instances, being dominant in first offset. Inconsistent thickened peripheral margins retained in parent; short, length of protosepta is typical for genus. thin peripheral segments forming initial skeleton of offset attached to external wall in offset. Neosepta appear early Discussion. This species resembles H. columbicum, at external wall in offset, suggesting peripheral segment of the type species of the genus, in the similar arrangement parent’s middle septum of offset becomes cardinal septum of axial tabellae in the axial column, in that the minor in offset. Its thin, tabula-like inner part extends far beyond septa penetrate the tabularium, and in having rare extra offset’s axis (Fig. 11A-H, arrow). Cardinal septum in septal lamellae appearing late in the hystero-ontogeny. second offset intersects its lumen early in hystero-ontogeny The type species, however, has much greater n:d values, (Fig. 11J, arrow), soon reduced to length of adjacent major a wider, more complex dissepimentarium with lonsdaleoid septa (Fig. 11K, arrow), elongates again to reach elongated dissepiments common, and pseudo-naotic structures well counter septum (Fig. 11L, arrow). developed. H. splendidus sp. nov. differs primarily in having much larger n:d values, much denser axial column Development of counter septum differs in two offsets with many extra septal tabellae and a shortened cardinal studied; hardly identifiable in first offset (Fig. 11G-I), long septum located in a tabular cardinal fossula. The present in second (Fig. 11K-M); in both counter septa inherited species differs from H. kuiuensis sp. nov. in the smaller from same middle major septum of parent corallite. Thus, size of the corallites, a narrower, less complex axial column both protosepta are atavosepta. with extremely rare extra septal lamellae if any, and with longer minor septa. Corallites of this species differ from H. Alar septa of both offsets inherited from two of parent’s separatus sp. nov. in the smaller diameters of the corallites, major septa, one on each side of major septum that gave the minor septa penetrating the tabularium, and in the rise to offset’s protosepta located in offset’s peripheral wall major septa closely approaching the axial column in most from beginning of offsetting process (Fig. 11A, B, dots), corallites (see below). clearly marked by being longest septa in cardinal quadrants and by short septa in counter quadrants adjacent to them Occurrence. As for the holotype. (Fig. 11D-H, K, dots). Heritschioides separatus FEDOROWSKI and STEVENS, Increase in number of offset’s septa in part common sp. nov. with parent camouflaged by both long-lasting thickening Figure 12 of skeletal elements and formation of partition composed partim 1972. Corwenia jagoensis Armstrong, 1972, p. 10, of short thickenings corresponding to major and minor pl. 4, fig. 3 and pl. 5, figs. 3-4 only. septa. Shortest major septa adjacent to alar septa indicate Etymology. Latin separatus – separated, distant. Named septal insertion typical for Rugosa; details unknown. for its morphological and taxonomic difference from the holotype of Corwenia jagoensis Armstrong, 1972. Insertion of minor septa (Fig. 11D, E) appears cyclic Holotype. USNM 161040. because they arise in offset’s lumen at approximately Locality and age of the holotype. Stratigraphic section same level of growth, but apparently inserted in series 60C-201, near Salisbury Mountain, about 1.5m below having earlier been hidden in thick external wall. the top of the Wahoo Limestone (see Armstrong, 1972). Dissepimentarium follows appearance of minor septa; best Associated microfossils (Armstrong, 1972, p. 13) indicate developed in cardinal quadrants in both offsets. an Atokan (Bashkirian) age. Development of axial structure forms main difference Material. Only the holotype colony, considered by between two offsets. In last preserved growth stage of r fi st Armstrong (1972) as a paratype of his species Corwenia offset, only a very long cardinal septum, slightly thickened jagoensis (see discussion below). Three transverse thin in axial part and extending beyond offset’s axis; counter sections made and illustrated by Armstrong (1972, pl. 4, septum attached to it by a tabula (Fig. 11I). In second offset fig. 3 and pl. 5, figs 3-4) and two well oriented longitudinal counter septum elongated beyond corallite axis, joining thin sections made by the second author were available for major septum right of cardinal septum; later joining cardinal the study. All of Armstrong’s transverse thin sections and septum for short period (Fig. 11L). Later counter septum the newly made longitudinal thin sections are illustrated free, still extends to offset’s axis (Fig. 11M). Long, curved, here. Neither the blastogeny nor the microstructure of axially thickened median lamella, free from both protosepta septa were studied. Although figure 2 on pl. 5 in Armstrong (Fig. 11M), preceded by temporary presence of axial septum. (1972) is labeled as belonging to the same colony as the G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska 5 mm FIGURE 12. Heritschioides separatus sp. nov. Holotype USNM 161040, A-C) transverse sections illustrated by Armstrong (1972, pl. 4, fig. 3; pl. 5, figs. 3, 4) as paratype of his species Corwenia jagoensis. Arrow in C points to part of corallite squashed by compaction, D, E) new longitudinal sections documenting continuous axial column. Scale bar in the middle corresponds to all images. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska other figures, the section is so different from those made Serpukhovian-early Bashkirian in age and all other species by one of the writers (Calvin Stevens), we suspect that it of Heritschioides are middle Carboniferous rather than actually was derived from another colony. Permian (Fedorowski et al., 2007). Diagnosis. Heritschioides with extreme n:d values We do not make an attempt here to revise ”Corwenia” 34:20 and 31:24x20mm; thin major septa do not penetrate jagoensis formally, but later we do plan to revise those axial structure; minor septa restricted to dissepimentarium specimens included in C. jagoensis, which are comparable which occupies up to 1/3 corallite radius; cardinal septum to colonies from Kuiu Island. The Atokan (Bashkirian) may reach simple axial structure with median lamella “paratype” USNM 161040, re-described by us here as obscure or absent; septal lamellae much smaller in number Heritschioides separatus sp. nov., possesses some of the than major septa; extra septal lamellae absent or very rare; largest corallites with the simplest axial structure among the row of lateral tabellae in axial column incomplete; small species assigned to this genus. It also possesses fewer septal lonsdaleoid dissepiments may occur. lamellae than the number of major septa, and apparently lacks extra septal lamellae. Both the large size and the Description. Corallites densely packed, but crowding simple axial structure are adequate for distinguishing this increased by compaction as demonstrated by broken species from all remaining members of the genus. peripheral skeletal elements in some neighboring corallites (Fig. 12C, arrow). N:d values of early mature and mature Occurrence. As for the holotype. corallites as in diagnosis and 30:21, 29:16.3, 29:15.6, 28:16; juvenile growth stages not observed. Major septa GENUS Kekuphyllum FEDOROWSKI and STEVENS, almost equal in length, rarely approach axial column in gen. nov. early mature corallites, slightly and equally thickened in Type species: Kekuphyllum sandoense FEDOROWSKI tabularium, thin in dissepimentarium. Cardinal septum and STEVENS, sp. nov. varies from slightly shortened to penetrating axial Etymology: Named for Keku Strait separating Kuiu Island, structure. Cardinal fossula barely recognizable or absent. Alaska, from other islands to the north. Minor septa thin, restricted to dissepimentarium, some Locality and age: USGS locality 21334-PC. Saginaw Bay interrupted by small lonsdaleoid dissepiments. Axial Formation, probably Moscovian. structure in transverse section weak, occupies less than 1/3 corallite diameter, less than 1/4 in some. Thin median Diagnosis: Cerioid-aphroid; partitions rarely interrupted; lamella hardly recognizable or absent. Septal lamellae median lamella monoseptal, derived from axial septum or thin and irregular, far fewer than number of major septa. cardinal septum alone, may remain continuous with it; most Extra septal lamellae absent from all thin sections studied. septal lamellae normal; extra septal lamellae occasional; Axial column in longitudinal section well developed, axial column continuous; tabularium weakly biform when incompletely separated from tabularium; lateral tabellae minor septa elongated; tabulae incomplete. absent from some parts of axial column. Tabulae mostly incomplete, some enter column. Tabellae steeply elevated Discussion. Heritschioides is the only genus adaxially near axial column, commonly anastomosing at presently included in the Subfamily Heritschioidinae, periphery. Unquestioned biform tabularium not observed. although Copia Vassilyuk and Kosyreva, 1974 is here Dissepimentarium 1/4 corallite radius in small specimens conditionally included in that subfamily. The fasciculate to slightly more than 1/3 in largest. Dissepiments small, growth form of those genera is diagnostically important most rectangular and irregular, rarely pseudoherringbone enough for the distinction between them and the cerioid- and/or lonsdaleoid; incipient pseudonaotic structures aphroid Kekuphyllum gen. nov. Thus, we concentrate common at periphery of largest corallites. on similarities supporting the inclusion of Kekuphyllum in the Heritschioidinae rather than on differences. The Discussion. Corwenia jagoensis Armstrong, 1972 early hystero-ontogeny is crucial in that respect. The comprises colonies belonging to different genera. Its holotype following characters are most important for the subfamily and most paratypes do not belong in Corwenia, but they identification of Kekuphyllum (Figs. 13-15): 1. either the most also differ from Heritschioides. The paratype USNM axial septum or the elongated cardinal septum occurs at 161040, the only exception, is here re-investigated. This an early growth stage; 2 the median lamella of the axial coral was recognized as somewhat similar to Heritschioides structure is derived from those septa, 3; lamella extending by Armstrong (1972, p. 13), who characterized it as follows: towards the cardinal septum, commonly intersects all or “Thus, of all the specimens, it shows the closest relationship most of the axial structure. 4. rare extra septal lamellae to the genus Heritschioides Yabe”, which Armstrong appear in axial structures of some corallites; and 5. accepted as a Permian taxon. We accept that relationship, the continuous axial column closely resembles that in but it is now known that the type species for the genus is late Heritschioides. All those characters are common to G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska 1 mm 1 mm G H FIGURE 13. Kekuphyllum sandoense sp. nov. Holotype 21223-PC #2. Macromorphology, A, B, D-F) transverse sections; C, G, H) longitudinal sections. Scale bar in the upper right corresponds to all images, except F. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska species of Heritschioides and all point to the Family even Permian in age. Revision of those species and Aulophyllidae. establishment of their stratigraphic occurrence is needed prior to making a final decision of their true relationship Kekuphyllum is the only massive colony included in to K. sandoense on a generic level. The continuous axial the Subfamily Heritschioidinae so far, but two species of column, lack or very weak development of a cardinal Gorsky (1938), Lonsdaleia (Wentzelella) diversa and L. fossula with the cardinal septum slightly shortened in (W.) multivesiculosa from the so-called Barents Series some corallites (Fig. 13F) and the cerioid-aphroid growth of Novaya Zemlya, may belong to Kekuphyllum. We do form of K. sandoense are important characteristics to not suggest that relationship in a formal way because be considered for comparison with the Novaya Zemlya several important characters of Gorsky’s specimens, species after they are revised. such as the microstructure of the intercorallite walls, the early blastogeny, and the occurrence of extra septal Kekuphyllum sandoense FEDOROWSKI and lamellae are unknown from his specimens and are not STEVENS, sp. nov. recognizable in his illustrations. Only the latter character Figures 13-15 may be suspected to occur in L. (W.) multivesiculosa judging from Gorsky’s (1938, p. 120) expression “large Etymology. Named for the late well known coral expert number of tabulae intersections”, which may refer to William J. Sando who provided the specimen for study. septal lamellae. Besides, Gorsky (1938) suggested a Late Carboniferous the word age (in the Russian three Holotype. USNM 545243 from sample USGS 21334- partite scale). Thus, his species may be Gzhelian or PC #2 0.5 mm A B 2 mm E G FIGURE 14. Kekuphyllum sandoense sp. nov. Holotype 21223-PC #2. Details, A-C, E-G) transverse sections. A, C) Channels, shown by arrows, over- grown by dissepiments as suggested by their arrangement. B) Diagenetically caused break imitating intercorallite channel. D, F) Morphology of partition (D: longitudinal, F: transverse section). E) Lonsdaleoid dissepiments extremely well developed. G) Chert replacing skeletal elements of a corallite. Scale bar in right middle applies to all images except E. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska Locality and age of the holotype. USGS locality tabularium; lonsdaleoid dissepiments occur in corallite 21334-PC, Kuiu Island, Alaska; Saginaw Bay Formation, corners. probably Moscovian in age. Description. Corallum cerioid-aphroid. Partitions Material. Type specimen listed above consisting of mostly continuous, about 0.3mm thick between peripheral several large fragments apparently from one corallum margins of septa, much thicker when septa laterally originally at least 18cm in diameter with eleven transverse contiguous (Fig. 14D, F). Rarely observed interruptions and seven longitudinal thin sections and 73 acetate peels. (channels) terminate gently, closed by dissepiments See Appendix I for locality information. arranged in rows perpendicular to partition and parallel to one another (Fig. 14A, arrow) or filling in inter- Diagnosis. Kekuphyllum with maximum n:d value corallite channels between partitions (Fig. 14C, arrow); 28:9.5 and 28:11.2mm; minor septa rarely slightly enter sharply ended interruptions of partitions (Fig. 14B) 1 mm 1 mm FIGURE 15. Kekuphyllum sandoense sp. nov. Holotype 21223-PC #2, A-D) transverse sections. A-C) Offsets in early hystero-ontogenetic growth stage. D) Offsets in advanced growth stage. Letters correspond to description in text. E) Longitudinal section. Arrow points to biformly curved tabula. Scale bar in upper left corresponds to all images except E. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska due to diagenesis. Two adjacent corallites similar in peripheral margins of which strongly thickened at parent/ size indicating twins may merge (Fig. 13B, upper; E, offset boundary. Axial septum of offset directly connected lower) for some unknown reason. Completely isolated to middle thickened septum of parent. Continuous axial corallites polygonal, diameter at maturity 7-11.2mm; septum retained in hystero-ontogenetically more advanced n:d values = 20-21:4.0mm, 23:5-7mm; 25-26:10.0mm, offsets (Fig. 15B, lower left; C). Arrangement of major and maximum as in Diagnosis (Fig. 13A, B, D, E). septa suggest cardinal septum in offset formed from Major septa long with peripheral margins thickened up peripheral segment of axial septum (Fig. 15C, white dot); to lateral contiguity with minor septa in some (Fig. 14E, arrangement of septa in offset and its symmetry irregular; F), some closely approach axial column, others may be recognition of axial septum relative to position of cardinal continuous with septal lamellae, many free-ended, thin in septum; uncertain in some (Fig. 15B, upper offset). dissepimentarium, slightly thickened at outer margin of tabularium, then tapering toward axial column. Counter Three adjacent immature corallites separated by septum indistinguishable from other major septa, rarely partitions (Fig. 15D) all have minor septa, which penetrate attached to slightly thickened median lamella with wavy tabularium and complete dissepimentaria. Hystero- and strongly tapering inner margin, free from median ontogenetically youngest corallite (Fig. 15D, corallite ‘a’ lamella in most. Counter septum not dominant even cardinal [left] and counter septa marked by white dots) when continuous with median lamella. Cardinal septum possesses thin, inconspicuous median lamella connected to of variable length: slightly shortened, equal to adjacent curved inner margins of both protosepta; some major septa major septa, or extending to median lamella; axial unite with their lamellae in axial structure. In corallite structure points towards that septum when shortened intermediate in advancement in hystero-ontogeny (Figure (Fig. 13F). Minor septa vary in length, most confined to 15D, corallite ‘b’) cardinal septum (marked by white dot) dissepmentarium, few penetrate outermost tabularium, directly connected to slightly thickened median lamella to some discontinuous. Cardinal fossula lacking in most, which most major septa unite. Most advanced corallite in inconspicuous and does not penetrate dissepimentarium hystero-ontogeny (Fig. 15, corallite ‘c’, cardinal septum when present. Axial column prominent, continuous (Fig. marked by white dot) possesses axial structure completely 13C, G, H), from less than 1/2 to slightly more than 1/3 separated from inner margins of major septa with free, corallite diameter, composed of simple median lamella, slightly thickened median lamella which points towards numerous septal lamellae, including rare extra lamellae, shortened cardinal septum shown by short intercept attached and up to six rows of steeply dipping, very elongate axial to section of a tabula. Differences develop in corallites of tabellae; lateral tabellae numerous. Boundary between any growth stage as indicated by both illustrated (Fig. 13A, tabularium and axial column mostly distinct. Tabularium B, D-F) and non-illustrated corallites. commonly normal. Incipient biformity indicated mainly by sections of tabulae attached to inner margins of some Discussion. Being the only species of the genus known longest minor septa; may be observed in longitudinal so far, K. sandoense does not require discussion other than sections (Fig. 15E, arrow and above it). Tabulae steeply that of the genus. The only existing taxa similar to our inclined up to axial column, commonly seven or species are pointed out in that discussion. eight/5mm, commonly incomplete with peripheral and periaxial tabellae, rarely complete. Dissepimentarium Occurrence. As for the holotype. about one-third corallite radius, composed of two- to several ranks of small irregular and concentric, globose dissepiments with lonsdaleoid dissepiments present at SUMMARY corners of several corallites; may extend around almost entire corallite in some (Fig. 14E). Pseudonaotic septa Recent studies on the Genus Heritschioides and occur in several corallites. Sclerenchyme thickening at genetically related and/or morphologically similar taxa inner row of dissepiments common. (Fedorowski et al., 2007; Kawamura and Stevens 2012; present paper) allow some introductory conclusions. Blastogeny was investigated in several offsets of These studies show that the stratigraphic position of all holotype. Diagenetic alteration, however, has limited the representatives of the genus Heritschioides described so precision of the descriptions and drawings of series of far is much older (Fedorowski et al., 2007; Kawamura acetate peels that were made. and Stevens, 2012) than previously thought. The type species, H. columbicum (Smith, 1935), is not Permian, but Earliest growth stage observed (Figure 15A) closely late Serpukhovian/early Bashkirian in age, thus being the comparable to species of Heritschioides. Septa divided into stratigraphically oldest species of the genus. Other species thin external segments inherited by offset and attached to are younger, upper Bashkirian to Moscovian in age. Thus, external wall and inner segments retained in parent corallite, the genus can be considered characteristic for these ages. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska Also almost all species of Heritschioides occur in Range, arctic Alaska. United States Geological Survey, 747 accreted terranes. H. separatus sp. nov. known from the (Professional Paper), 21pp. Atokan (Bashkirian) strata of the Brooks Range is the only Buddington, A.F., Chapin, T., 1929. Geology and mineral deposits exception recognized so far. Such a distribution suggests of southeastern Alaska. United States Geological Survey, 800 that this genus originated on the northern margin of the (Bulletin), 398pp. North American Craton in the general vicinity of the Brooks Colpron, M., Nelson, J.L. 2011. A Palaeozoic NW passage Range or on oceanic platforms to the west or northwest. and the Tinamian, Caledonian and Uralian connections of In addition the distance between those platforms and the some exotic terranes in the North American Cordillera. In: cratonal shelf in Alaska must have been short enough for Spencer, A.M., Embry, A.F., Gautier, D.L., Stoupakova, A.V., corals in the middle Carboniferous to migrate from one Sorensen, K. (eds.). Arctic Petroleum Geology. London, locality to another. Finally the complex nature of structures Geological Society, 35 (Memoirs), 463-484. (as in Kekuphyllum) described here also tends to suggest a Dutro, J.T.Jr., Douglass, R.C., 1961. Pennsylvanian rocks in subtropical to tropical climate. southeastern Alaska. United States Geological Survey, 424-B (Professional Paper), B239-B241. The detailed study of the protocorallite developed inside Dybowski, W.N., 1873. Monographie der Zoantharia the colony of H. kuiuensis allows a comparison of the ontogeny Sclerodermata Rugosa aus der Silurformation Estlands, to the hystero-ontogeny, a kind of study not previously Nordlivlands und der Insel Gotland. Archiv für Naturkunde conducted. The ontogeny leaves no doubt as to the close der Livlands, Estlands, Kurlands, 1, 257-414. relationship of Heritschioides to the Family Aulophyllidae. Fedorowski, J., Bamber, E.W., Stevens, C.H., 2007. Lower In addition, the hystero-ontogeny characteristics of Permian colonial rugose corals, western and northwestern Heritschioides and Kekuphyllum sandoense, although Pangaea: Taxonomy and Distribution. Ottawa (Ontario, slightly different in details, are different from that of other Canada), National Research Council Press, 231pp. genera in the Aulophyllidae, indicating the necessity for a Gardner, M.C., Bergman, S.C., Cushing, G.W., Mackevett, separate subfamily status of those two genera. E.M.Jr., Plafker, G., Campbell, R.B., Dodds, C.J., Mcclelland, W.C., Muller, P.A., 1988. Pennsylvanian pluton stiching of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane, Wrangell Mountains, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Alaska. Geology, 16, 967-971. Gorsky, I.I., 1938. Kamennougolnye korally Novoy Zemli (In We are grateful to Charles Henderson for his work on the Russian). Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Arkticheskogo Instituta, 93, conodont faunas which forms the basis for age determinations of 1-221. corals from the Kuiu Island area. We also thank Marta Bartkowiak Hill, D., 1981. Supplement 1. Rugosa and Tabulata. In: Teichert, from the Institute of Geology, Adam. Mickiewicz University for C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part F. her technical assistance. All facilities and the n fi ancial support Coelenterata. Boulder (Colorado) and Lawrence (Kansas), for Fedorowski were supplied by Adam Mickiewicz University. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Facilities were provided for Stevens by the Department of Geology Press, F1-F762. Katvala, E.C., Henderson, C.M., 2002. Conodont sequence at San Jose State University. Katvala received n fi ancial support biostratigraphy and paleogeography of the Pennsylvanian- from an Alberta Ingenuity Student Scholarship, the University of Permian Mount Mark and Fourth Lake Formations, southern Calgary Silver anniversary Graduate Fellowship, and from Charles Vancouver Island. In: Hills, L.V., Henderson, C.M., Bamber, Henderson at the University of Calgary via a Discovery Grant from W. (eds.). Carboniferous and Permian of the World. Canadian the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. He also Society of Petroleum Geologists, 19 (Memoir), 461-478. is indebted to his supervisor Len Hills (deceased) and to Mike Katvala, E.C., Henderson, C.M., 2007. Updates to the Late Wamsteeker and Mark Taylor who helped in collection of specimens Paleozoic history of the Alexander Terrane. Geological in the e fi ld. In addition, we want to express our appreciation to the Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 39(6), 490. critical readers, Erica Kido, Graz University, Austria, and Andrew Katvala, E.C., Henderson, C.M., Beatty, T.W., 2009. Reworked Caruthers, University of British Columbia, for their helpful remarks conodonts of the Alexander Terrane: Utility and lithologic on the manuscript. Finally we all are grateful to the Smithsonian occurrence. 2009, Permophiles: Newsletter of the Institution, National Museum of Natural History for the loan of Subcommission on Permian Stratigraphy, 53(1, Abstracts), 25. specimens from the Brooks Range, Alaska. Kawamura, T., Stevens, C.H., 2012. Middle Pennsylvanian rugose corals from the Baird Formation, Klamath Mountains, northwestern California. Journal of Paleontology, 86, 513-520. REFERENCES Lin, B.Y., Xu, S.Y., Jia, H.Z., Guo, S.Z., Ouyang, X., Wang, Z.J., Ding, Y.J., Cao, X.D., Yan, Y.Y., Chen, H.C., 1995. Armstrong, A.K., 1972. Pennsylvanian carbonates, paleoecology, Monograph of Palaeozoic corals. Rugosa and Heterocorallia and rugose colonial corals, north flank, eastern Brooks G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska (In Chinese with English summary). Beijing, Geological Spasskiy, N.Ya., Kachanov, E.I., 1971. Novye primitivnye Publishing House, I-VII+1-778. rannekamennougolnye korally Altaya i Urala (In Russian). Loney, R.A., 1964. Stratigaphy and petrography of the Pybus- Zapiski Leningradskogo Gornogo Instituta, 59, 48-64. Gambier area, Admiralty Island, Alaska. United States Vassilyuk, N.P., Kosyreva, T.A., 1974. Noviy rod korallov Copia Geological Survey, 1178 (Bulletin), 103pp. (Rugosa) iz Nizhnego Karbona Voronezhskoi Anteklizy (In Muffler, L.J.P., 1967. Stratigraphy of Keku Islets and neighboring Russian). Paleontologicheskiy Sbornik, 11, 31-34. parts of Kuiu and Kupreanof Islands, southeastern Alaska. Verrill, A.E., 1865. Classification of polyps (Extract condensed United States Geological Survey, 1241-C (Bulletin), C1-C52. from a synopsis of the polypi of the North Pacific Exploring Sando, W.J., 1985. Paraheritschioides, a new rugose coral Expedition, under captains Ringgold and Rodgers, U.S.N.). genus from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Idaho. Journal of Proceedings of the Essex Institute, 4, 145-149. Paleontology, 59, 979-985. Wells, J.W., 1969. The formation of dissepiments in zoantharian Smith, S., 1935. Two Anthracolithic corals from British Columbia and corals. In: Campbell, K.S.W. (ed.). Stratigraphy and related species from the Tethys. Journal of Paleontology, 9, 30-42. Palaeontology: Essays in honour of Dorothy Hill. Canberra, Sorauf, E.J., 1970. Microstructure and formation of dissepiments Australian National University Press, 17-26. in the skeleton of the recent Scleractinia (hexacorals). Yabe, H., 1950. Permian corals resembling Waagenophyllum and Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur. Maintz. Corwenia. Proceedings of the Japanese Academy, 26, 74-79. Biomineralization Forschungsberichte, 2, 1-22. Manuscript received June 2013; revision accepted January 2014; published Online February 2014. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska APPENDIX I USGS 4305-PC. Petersburg 1:4 quadrangle, Kuiu Island, west here considered Moscovian in age based on its occurrence in the of south end of Keku Island Group. Limestone interbedded with Volcanic Member of the Saginaw Bay Formation. Collected by basaltic lava; limestone with many layers rich in corals identified Muffler, 1965 (see Muffler, 1967). as Lonsdaleia and Clisiophyllum by Buddington and Chapin (1929), both taxa needing revision. These fossils apparently are SMI 2004, Samtron Monitor Island, Keku Strait Region. from the Volcanic Member of the Saginaw Bay Formation of Small, unnamed island in northwest Keku Islets close to Muffler (1967). Probably Moscovian in age. Collected by A.F. Cornwallis Peninsula on Kuiu Island located about 4.5 miles east- Buddington, 1922 (see Buddington and Chapin, 1929) from rocks southeast of Cornwallis Point. From coastal outcrop on north and called the “Lower Division of the Permian”. northwest side of island. Mapped as the Volcanic Member of the Saginaw Bay Formation by Muffler (1967). Lat. 56° 55.399’N, USGS 5134-PC. Islet in Keku Strait about 1 ¼ mile east- long. 134° 08.546’W. Fossils collected from Muffler’s localities northeast of point 4 miles southeast of Point Cornwallis. 78, 79, 80. Probably Moscovian in age. Collected by Erik Katvala, Limestone interbedded with andesitic flows and tuff. The coral 2004. Londaleia was listed as present by Buddington and Chapin, 1929). Fossils reported by Dutro and Douglas (1961) include SOB-F1, School of Bass, Saginaw Bay, northeastern Kuiu brachiopods, gastropods, pelecypods, bryozoans, and the corals Island, small cove on east side of Saginaw Bay located about 4 Syringopora, Favosites, Striatopora, and Lonsdalia. All of miles southeast of Cornwallis Point along a mostly continuous these generic identifications require revision. Muffler’s (1967) section along southeast-facing shoreline. From an undescribed map suggests the Silty Limestone Member of the Saginaw conglomerate at the top? of the Chert and Limestone Member, here included in the Silty Limestone Member of the Saginaw Bay Formation, but Katvala (pers. comm.) has placed it in the Bay Formation. Probably Moscovian in age. Collected by Erik Volcanic Member. Conodonts suggest a Moscovian in age. Katvala, 2005. Collected by A.F. Buddington, 1922 (see Buddington and Chapin, 1929). FH-C-F2, Floating Hatchery, Keku Strait Region, south end of Cornwallis Peninsula on the northeast shore of Kuiu Island, USGS loc. 21334-PC (63Amp 239, map locality 55 of mapped as Volcanic Member of the Saginaw Bay Formation by Muffler (1967), NE shore of Kuiu Island (Cornwallis Peninsula), Muffler (1967). Section is northwest of a small, narrow inlet at lat. 56°53.21’N, long. 134° 0.245’W. Light gray limestone the southern end of this unit as mapped by Muffler (1967). A interbedded with pillow lava; Volcanic Member of Saginaw Bay floating hatchery is located in this inlet. Probably Moscovian in Formation. Brachiopods were considered Atokan (~Bashkirian) age. Collected by Erik Katvala (2005). in age by Dutro and Douglas (1961). However this collection is G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Geologica Acta Unpaywall

New Late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from the Kuiu Island area and Brooks Range, Alaska

Geologica ActaJan 1, 2014

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Abstract

G e o l o g i c a A c t a , V o l . 1 2 , N º 1 , M a r c h 2 0 1 4 , 2 9 - 5 2 D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 New Late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from the Kuiu Island area and Brooks Range, Alaska 1 2 3 J. FEDOROWSKI C.H. STEVENS E. KATVALA Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University Makow Polnych 16, PL-61-606, Poznan, Poland. E-mail: jerzy@amu.edu.pl Department of Geology, San Jose Unversity San Jose, California 95192, USA. E-mail: Calvin.Stevens@sjsu.edu Department of Geology, University of Calgary Calgary, Canada. E-mail: erik.katvala@ucalgary.ca A B S T R A C T Three new species of the genus Heritschioides, i.e., H. alaskensis sp. nov., H. kuiuensis sp. nov., and H. splendidus sp. nov., and Kekuphyllum sandoense gen. et sp. nov. from the northeastern Kuiu Island area and nearby islets, part of Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska, and Heritschioides separatus sp. nov. from the Brooks Range, Alaska, are described and illustrated. The three new fasciculate colonial coral species from the Kuiu Island area, collected from the Moscovian Saginaw Bay Formation, are phylogenetically related to those of probable Bashkirian age in the Brooks Range in northern Alaska as shown by the presence of morphologically similar species of Heritschioides. These corals from both areas also are related to one species in the Quesnel terrane in western Canada. Kekuphyllum sandoense from the Saginaw Bay Formation of the Kuiu Island area is the only cerioid-aphroid species within the Subfamily Heritschioidinae described so far. The complete early ontogeny of a protocorallite is for the first time described here on a basis of H. kuiuensis sp. nov. and compared to the hystero-ontogeny in order to show similarities and differences in those processes. KEYWORDS Late Carboniferous. Colonial corals. Coral ontogeny. Kuiu Island. Brooks Range. INTRODUCTION northern Caledonides in the Early Paleozoic (Colpron and Nelson, 2011). In the mid Paleozoic time these terranes This paper is the first of two studies of the middle Late were dispersed westward and according to Colpron and Carboniferous colonial coral faunas of the northeastern Nelson (2011) the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes, Kuiu Island area, part of the Alexander terrane in southern which were hypothesized to have been amalgamated Alaska, and the Brooks Range, northern Alaska (Fig. 1). in the Late Carboniferous (Gardner et al., 1988), were A more detailed discussion of the Late Carboniferous somewhat isolated from Laurasia out in the Panthalassa paleogeography and relationships of various coral Ocean throughout Late Carboniferous to Early Permian faunas will be addressed in that second paper. However, times. During these times the Brooks Range is interpreted here we note that the Alexander terrane and many other to have been in place in northern Alaska (Colpron and allochthonous terranes accreted to the northern and Nelson, 2011). In contrast, Katvala and Henderson (2007) western margins of Pangaea in the Mesozoic have been placed part of the Wrangellia terrane (Vancouver Island) interpreted to have been derived from a region between relatively close to North America, at least in the Early Baltica, Laurentia, and Siberia, in proximity of the Permian, closer to Pangaea than proposed by Colpron and 29 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska Nelson (2011). The middle Late Carboniferous colonial Permian stratigraphic column consists of the Cannery corals studied here suggest that the Alexander terrane was Formation, an unnamed “crinoidal limestone”, the located in the general vicinity of the Brooks Range in the Saginaw Bay Formation, the Halleck Formation, and the Late Carboniferous. Pybus Formation (Fig. 2). The Saginaw Bay Formation was divided by Muffler (1967) into four members. According to him, from older to younger, they were: the LOCATION AND AGE Volcanic Member, the Black Chert Member, the Chert and Limestone Member, and the Silty Limestone Member. Corals from the Kuiu Island area were collected by A.F. According to Katvala (personal communication, 2013), Buddington in 1922 (see Buddington and Chapin, 1929), however, the Chert and Limestone Member should be L.J.P. Muffler in 1965 (see Muffler, 1967), and Erik Katvala included in the Silty Limestone Member, and the Black in 2004 and 2005. All specimens but one (USGS loc. Chert Member is Devonian in age, based on conodont 27727-PC), which occurs in the “crinoidal limestone” of faunas, and therefore does not belong in the Saginaw Bay Muffler (1967), are from the Saginaw Bay Formation (Figs. Formation. Here the two members of the Saginaw Bay 1, 2). The specimens collected by Muffler and Buddington Formation shown on Figure 1 are the Silty Limestone were turned over to William Sando of the United States Member, which includes the Chert and Limestone Member Geological Survey where they were given USGS locality of Muffler (1967), and the Volcanic Member. numbers. These specimens were later distributed to Wayne Bamber, Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, and to Cal The corals reported upon here are from the Saginaw Bay Stevens by Sando. Bamber’s and Erik Katvala’s specimens Formation. An early Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan) fauna, were delivered to Cal Stevens by Erik Katvala in 2008. probably from the Chert and Limestone Member (sensu Fragments of most specimens were mailed in 2010 to Mufe fl r, 1967) of the Saginaw Bay Formation, was r fi st Jerzy Fedorowski, Poznań, Poland for additional studies identie fi d by Dutro and Douglass (1961). On the basis of including making serial sections. The specimen described recent conodont studies (Katvala, personal communication, by Armstrong (1972) from the Brooks Range, Alaska was 2013), however, the Saginaw Bay Formation is interpreted loaned to Cal Stevens by the Smithsonian Institution, to be mostly if not entirely of Moscovian age. This unit is National Museum of Natural History. underlain by the “crinoidal limestone” of Bashkirian age (Katvala, personal communication, 2013), and overlain by the Work in progress by Erik Katvala suggests that all of Halleck Formation, considered Early Permian in age, based the specimens from the Kuiu Island area described here are on conodont faunas (Katvala and Henderson, 2007; Fig. 2). Moscovian (Late Carboniferous) in age. The fauna from the Brooks Range was dated by Armstrong (1972) as Atokan (Bashkirian, Late Carboniferous) in age. The coral faunas MATERIAL AND METHODS from these two regions are quite different from all other known coral faunas of middle Late Carboniferous age except for the Samples from seven localities in the Kuiu Island area, six presence of the somewhat similar type species of Heritschioides of which were utilized in this study, were available for study. in the Quesnel terrane in southern British Columbia. United States Geological Survey localities are indicated by numbers followed by the letters PC (e.g. USGS 27727–PC). Localities of Erik Katvala are indicated by a combination STRATIGRAPHY of letters and numbers. Where several samples of the same species were collected, individual colonies in both collections In the first work on the stratigraphy of the Kuiu Island are indicated by an additional number (e.g. #1). The geographic area, Buddington and Chapin (1929) divided the upper position of localities is shown on Figure 1, and detailed Paleozoic rocks into the “lower division of the Permian” and descriptions of localities and their stratigraphic positions are the “upper division of the Permian”. According to Muffler indicated in Appendix I. Thin sections of all g fi ured specimens (1967) his newly named Halleck Formation, corresponds have been assigned the letter C followed by the number of that to the “lower division” whereas the Pybus Formation slide. Slides of all holotypes are housed in the collections of the of Loney (1964) was considered by Muffler (1967) to National Museum of Natural History and bear a USNM number correspond to the “upper division of the Permian” of as well as a C number. Paratypes, other g fi ured specimens, and Buddington and Chapin (1929). Muffler (1967) recognized other samples collected by Katvala, many containing solitary and named the older Carboniferous rocks in the area: the corals, have been placed in the collections of the University of “crinoidal limestone” and the Saginaw Bay Formation. California Museum of Paleontology at Berkeley. Katvala and Henderson (2007) and Katvala et al. All specimens have undergone various diagenetic (2009) have determined that the local Carboniferous and alterations: compression, replacement by dolomite and/or G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 Kuiu Island J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska Pybus Formation BR Halleck Formation KI Other units Saginaw Bay Formation, Volcanic Member Saginaw Bay Formation, Silty Limestone Member “Crinoidal Limestone” Alexander of Muffler, 1967 terrane 134 17’ 134 00’ 15’ 10’ 5’ Keku 55 57’ USGS 27727-PC Strait SMI-2004 USGS 5134-PC Halleck 55’ Harbor FH-C-F2 USGS 21334-PC Saginaw Bay USGS Cornwallis Peninsula 4305-PC (Kuiu Island) SoB-F1 C. C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 KILOMETERS FIGURE 1. Locations. A) Location of Kuiu Island (KI) and the coral locality in the Brooks Range (BR) in northeastern Alaska. B) Position of Kuiu Island in the Alexander terrane-Wrangellia terrane assembly. C) Location of sampled localities on Kuiu Island and nearby islets plotted on a geologic map of the area. silica, recrystallization, and dissolution resulting in small measured (in millimeters), and the number (n) of major geode-like structures within skeletons. Those alterations septa counted. These measurements are recorded as n:d are irregularly distributed within colonies, leaving values. some corallites or parts of them preserved well enough for photography of the microstructure of septa and for preparation of series of peels elucidating the blastogeny. SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY Some of those series were photographed and drawn using a computer method. Order: Staurida VERRILL, 1865 Suborder: Aulophyllina HILL, 1981 In the description of all species the smallest Family: Aulophyllidae DYBOWSKI, 1873 diameter (d), as seen in transverse section, was Subfamily: Heritschioidinae SANDO, 1985 G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska Period Age Formation 2, sample USGS 21334-PC #1, with two transverse and one longitudinal thin section; paratype 3, sample USGS Pybus Formation Middle unconformity 5134-PC with one transverse thin section (not illustrated). Permian Early Halleck Formation Sample USGS 4305-PC #2 with one transverse and one unconformity longitudinal thin section is questionably assigned to this Pennsylvanian Moscovian Saginaw Bay Formation species. See Appendix I for locality information. Bashkirian “crinoidal limestone” Diagnosis. Heritschioides with maximum n:d value Mississippian Serpukhovian Cannery Formation 32:16.5, commonly less; complex axial column occupying up to 1/2 corallite diameter, consists of long regular and FIGURE 2. Local Late Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Kuiu Island area. extra septal lamellae and steeply elevated axial tabellae; median lamella inconspicuous when present; pseudonaotic septa at incipient development; dissepimentarium 1/5-1/4 Discussion. Sando (1985) introduced the name corallite radius; lonsdaleoid dissepiments very rare. Heritschioididae as a new family and included it in the Suborder Lithostrotionina Spassky & Kachanov, Description. Corallum fasciculate. Corallites closely 1971. However, the characteristics of the type genus packed. External wall 0.1-0.2mm thick. Corallite diameters Heritschioides Yabe, 1950 correspond more closely with generally 6-16mm; n:d = 20:5, 20-22:6, 23:7, 27:11, 28- those of the Suborder Aulophyllina Hill, 1981 and the Family 30:13-14. One corallite 32:23x19mm (Fig. 3F) with axial Aulophyllidae Dybowski, 1873, in which it was placed by structure either lacking or diagenetically destroyed. Major Lin et al. (1995), a position accepted by Fedorowski et al. septa long, moderately thin in dissepimentarium, slightly (2007) who restricted clinotabulae to the Prae- and Paleo- dilated at margin of tabularium, most lack taper, some Tethys taxa, thus informally eliminating that character penetrate axial column to become confluent with septal from the diagnosis of Heritschioides established by Sando lamellae. All those characters similar but variable within (1985, p. 979). Thus, all taxa bearing that important feature and between colonies beginning in late neanic growth are unrelated to the Heritschioidinae and are eliminated stage (compare small corallites in Figs. 3C, G; 7A, B, D, from the consideration. Also, the occurrence of two orders H, I), may be differently accentuated at different growth of septa - major and minor - considered diagnostic by levels of same corallite. Major septa vary during corallite Sando (1985), are observed in many unrelated taxa and growth from almost completely confluent through partly must be eliminated from consideration of subfamily and isolated to almost completely free from axial structure generic placements. (e.g. Fig. 7C-A, respectively). Cardinal septum slightly shortened in some largest corallites, hardly distinguishable In this paper we have added a cerioid-aphroid genus or elongated towards axial structure in others (Fig. 7A- to the list of genera included in the subfamily. Thus, the C). Axial structure may extend into cardinal fossula when subfamily now consists of Heritschioides Yabe, 1950, cardinal septum slightly shortened (Figs. 4G, right; 7D, Copia Vassilyuk and Kozyreva, 1974 and Kekuphyllum right corallite). Minor septa generally short, some extend gen. nov. as prongs into tabularium. Axial column one third to one- half corallite diameter; in transverse view composed of GENUS Heritschioides YABE, 1950 many straight or wavy, very thin septal lamellae including extra lamellae. Length and arrangement of both kinds of Type species: Waagenophyllum columbicum SMITH, 1935 septal lamellae highly variable within a single colony; best exemplified by holotype (Fig. 3A-C, G), also present in Heritschioides kuiuensis FEDOROWSKI and STEVENS, all paratypes. Up to eight or more rows of steeply dipping sp. nov. axial tabellae and few septal lamellae when longitudinal Figures 3-7 section well oriented (Figs. 3D, E; 7E, G, J); irregular, shorter, more numerous, and less steeply arranged when Etymology. Named for the Island of Kuiu from which the section slightly eccentric, i.e. when periphery of axial corals were collected structure is sectioned (Fig. 7F, upper). Linked axial tabellae Holotype. USNM 545244 from sample FH-C-F2 #4. at axial column periphery different in shape within same Locality and age of the holotype. FH-C-F2; Moscovian corallite; longer when axial lamellae rare, occasionally interrupted by inner tabellae of tabularium. In transverse Material. Holotype listed above with nine transverse section median lamella commonly obscure, thin, absent and three oblique longitudinal thin sections, and nineteen from parts of mature growth of several corallites, elongated peels. Paratype 1, sample FH-C-F2 #3 with four transverse towards and connected to cardinal septum in immature and six longitudinal thin sections, and 24 peels; paratype and some mature corallites. Axial structure either absent G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska 4 mm F G FIGURE 3. Heritschioides kuiuensis sp. nov. Holotype from sample FH-C-F2 #4. Macromorphology, A-C, F, G) transverse sections; D, E) longitudinal sections. Scale bar applies to all images. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska A B C 0.25 mm 2 mm 2 mm 0.25 mm 0.25 mm 0.25 mm 2 mm 0.5 mm FIGURE 4. Heritschioides kuiuensis sp. nov. Holotype from sample FH-C-F2 #4 except for D. Details, A, B, E, G, H transverse sections; A) three densely packed corallites, periphery of right corallite fills space between other two; B) contact between two corallites diagenetically the result of compaction; C, D) remnants of trabeculae (arrows with A) and growth lines (arrows with B) in strongly oblique sections; D) paratype 1 from sample FH-C-F2 #3; E) well oriented transverse section of septum; trabeculae destroyed by recrystallization; F) growth lines of primary septum (dark) in oblique and relatively well oriented longitudinal section; G) axial structure extending into cardinal fossula (right); H) partition (arrows with P) between parent and offset corallites, septa (arrows with S) and earliest dissepiments (arrows with D). G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska from some mature corallite growth stages or diagenetically damaged (Fig. 3F). Shallow cardinal fossula marked by slight depression of dissepimentarium in rare corallites, hardly distinguishable in most. Dissepimentarium occupies 1/5-1/4 corallite radius, generally composed of two to four ranks of small, mostly globose dissepiments as seen in longitudinal section (Figs. 3D, E; 7E, F, G, J). In transverse sections interseptal, irregular dissepiments located mainly in middle part of dissepimentarium, few lonsdaleoid. Small dissepiments, oblique to larger ones and to septa, grouped mostly at periphery of largest specimens, constitute first step in formation of pseudonaotic septa. Tabularium with incipient biformity in rare septal loculi, composed of complete and incomplete tabulae rather steeply inclined upward to axial column, eight-10/mm. Boundary of tabularium with dissepimentarium marked by light stereozone thickening. Microstructure diagenetically altered in most septa (Fig. 4E, F). Remnants of fine trabeculae apparent in oblique sections of reasonably well preserved septa in holotype and one paratype (Fig. 4C, D, respectively), 30µm wide, and separated from one another by similar distances; diagenetic alterations may have increased trabeculae thickness. Shape and width of “dark middle lines” (= the primary septa) depends on orientation of thin sections; in well oriented transverse sections (Fig. 4E) fans of crystalline fibrils of various sizes form an axial sector of septum irregular in shape and width, probably result of significant diagenetic alteration of trabeculae; similar appearing “middle dark lines” in septa in other specimens in all three species of Heritschioides described in this paper also probably represent fine trabecular microstructure. Longitudinal sections exhibit growth bands within septa, shape of which depends on orientation of septum relative to cut surface; bands appear more distinctive when cut oriented obliquely to septal axis and tend to unite when cut perpendicular to axis (Fig. 4F, lower and upper, respectively). External walls of corallites when in direct contact (Fig. 4A, left side) may appear as a partition, but its two partite FIGURE 5. Heritschioides kuiuensis sp. nov. Holotype from sample FH- C-F2 #4, A) transverse thin section and B, C) drawings based on pe- character obvious where corallites separate (Fig. 4A, B, els; variability in early blastogeny of three adjacent offsets. Diageneti- upper). Due to dissolution corallites may be crowded, cally destroyed areas left gray with ‘?” when important. Cardinal septa contacts between adjacent corallite walls may become marked by black and /or white arrows. Scale bar applies to all images. stylolitic (Fig. 4B, most), or parts of adjacent corallites may be destroyed (Fig. 3B, G; Fig. 7C). Partitions present between an offsetting individual arrow with ‘D’) and tabulae, in which microcrystalline and its bud (Fig. 4H, arrow with ‘P’) documents a direct fibrils grow only in one direction (as has previously been connection of the parent and the offset polyp. It closely documented independently by Wells (1969) and Sorauf resembles microstructure of septa (Fig. 4H, arrow with ‘S’) (1970). Partition microstructure similar to that of septa in showing diverging bunches of microcrystalline fibrils, suggesting trabecular origin. suggesting its secretion in a narrow endodermal fold, closely comparable to a septal pocket. That microstructure Blastogeny investigated in short series of transverse differs from dividing walls, dissepiments (Fig. 4H, sections of three neighboring holotype offsets (Fig. 5A- G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska C). Two marked ‘a’, ‘b’ derived from upper left parent’s axis variable. In offset ‘b’ level at which cardinal septum corallite; offset ‘c’ derived from upper right parent’s withdrew unknown; that septum increases in length during corallite. Information from immature corallites in random growth (Fig. 5A-C, corallite ‘b’), becoming dominant, as transverse sections also employed. Hystero-brephic typical in more advanced growth stages. In offset ‘c’ (Fig. growth stage unknown. In early hystero-neanic growth 5A, B) dissepiments already developed; cardinal septum stage (Fig. 5A, B, corallite ‘a’) axial septum intersects extends beyond corallite axis and meets counter septum, offset’s lumen; other septa, exclusively major, short and remains longest septum in cardinal quadrants during further wavy. Cardinal septum, probably an atavoseptum, located growth (Fig. 5C, corallite ‘c’), exact length camoua fl ged at offset’s periphery, withdrawn from corallite axis at by diagenetic alteration in offset’s axial area. Formation slightly more advanced growth stage, not shorter than of median lamella from protosepta not observed; septal other major septa. Counter septum remains long (Fig. 5C, lamellae of some other major septa developed in most corallite ‘a’). Withdrawal of cardinal septum from corallite advanced offset (Fig. 5C, offset ‘b’). Transverse sections of 1 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.2 mm 0.6 mm 0.6 mm L I J 1.4 mm K 0.4 mm 0.4 mm FIGURE 6. Heritschioides kuiuensis sp. nov. Paratype 1 from sample FH-C-F2 #3. Transverse sections. Early ontogeny of protocorallite developed inside colony. A, B) brephic growth stage; C-H) neanic growth stage; I-L) late neanic/early mature growth stage. Cardinal and counter septa marked by black and/or white arrows. Alar septa where recognizable marked by black quadrangles. Scale bar applies to all images. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska A B 4 mm H I FIGURE 7. Heritschioides kuiuensis sp. nov. Paratypes. Paratype 1 from sample FH-C-F2 #3, A-C) transverse sections; E-G) longitudinal sections. Paratype 2 from sample 21334-PC #1, D, H, I) transverse sections; J) longitudinal section. Scale bar applies to all images. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska some paratype offsets (Fig. 7A, B, D, H, I) illustrate more septa variously elongated. In contrast to hystero-ontogeny, advanced steps in offset’s development. Corallite diameters major septa, including protosepta not shortened during increase a little; their dissepimentaria and minor septa early ontogeny, and both protosepta equally strong when already developed; axial structures well developed, and may axial structure begins to develop; strong and regular become partly isolated from inner margins of major septa. in young protocorallite, weak and irregular in offsets. Median lamella unrecognizable or weak; when recognizable Absence in literature of any detailed studies of ontogeny connected to cardinal septum. Underdevelopment of median and blastogeny of any other species of Rugosa, excludes lamella, characteristic of mature corallites, starts in early possibility of making comparisons. hystero-ontogeny, typical for this species. Septal lamellae weakly developed at this stage; regular and extra septal Discussion. H. kuiuensis differs from the type species lamellae strongly developed in mature growth stage. of the genus, H. columbicum (Smith, 1935), from the late Serpukhovian to early Bashkirian from Keremeos Early ontogeny of one protocorallite attached to a mature in southern British Columbia, Canada, in possessing a corallite inside paratype 1 (Fig. 6) has allowed the r fi st complete much wider and more complex axial column composed of study of this kind to be published. Diagenetic alterations long regular and extra septal lamellae, in having a much destroyed some details, including earliest ontogeny; most narrower and simpler dissepimentarium with very few important characteristics of protocorallite preserved. First two lonsdaleoid dissepiments, and showing the beginning of drawings (Fig. 6A, B) correspond to curved part of specimen. pseudonaotic septa. H. kuiuensis differs from the Atokan Obliqueness and dolomitization precludes deciphering species, H. separatus sp. nov., from the eastern Brooks increase and arrangement of septa in brephic growth stage. In Range, Alaska, in the development of a much more complex ontogenetically earlier stages (Fig. 6A), only vague outlines axial column clearly isolated from the tabularium and of probable septa recognizable within sclerenchymal mass; consisting of numerous regular and extra septal lamellae, three bodies, septal in microstructure, intersect corallite and in a narrower, simpler dissepimentarium. That colony lumen 0.2mm higher (Fig. 6B). Left body may correspond to was described and figured by Armstrong (1972, pl. 4, fig. cardinal septum (Fig. 6C, marked by an arrow), which with 3 and pl. 5, figs. 3, 4) as a paratype of his new species major septum in middle dominate in next 0.8 millimeters of Corwenia jagoensis. growth (Fig. 6D-G). Increased number and arrangement of septa irregular. Protosepta do not dominate in early ontogeny Occurrence. Locality FH-C-F2; USGS 21334-PC; USGS (Fig. 6 D-G); become obvious only after axial septum clearly 5134-PC; ?USGS3405-PC. constituted (Fig. 6I). Length and attachment of other major septa to one another also changes, commonly quickly, during Heritschioides splendidus FEDOROWSKI and STEVENS, neanic corallite growth (Fig. 6D-H); reason for irregularity sp. nov. unknown, corresponds to that observed in blastogeny (see Figures 8, 9 above). Arrangement of major septa becomes more regular Etymology. Lat. splendidus-impressive. After large size after axial septum formed (Fig. 6I-L); still number of septa in and elegant morphology of corallites. various quadrants uncertain. Recognizable alar septa marked Holotype. USNM 545245 from sample SOB F1. by black quadrangle (Fig. 6H-L). Locality and age of the holotype. One corallum from locality SOB F1, Kuiu Island, Alaska; Moscovian in age. Late neanic growth stage of specimen arbitrarily placed at insertion of first dissepiments and appearance of minor Material. Holotype listed above with 10 transverse septa in corallite lumen, both appearing in right cardinal and five longitudinal thin sections, and fourteen peels. See and right counter quadrant first (Fig. 6H, I). Axial structure Appendix I for locality information. formed at approximately same level, consists of axial part of axial septum, inner margins of major septa attached to Diagnosis. Heritschioides with n:d values up it, and several sections of axial tabellae; remains united to 41:29x25mm, major septa considerably dilated with inner margins of major septa for at least 1.2mm of in tabularium, some minor septa enter tabularium; growth (Fig. 6I-L). All axial skeletal elements, including tabular cardinal fossula present; axial structure 1/3 axial tabellae, strongly thickened by sclerenchyme; this corallite diameter; median lamella commonly reduced; and diagenetic alterations make axial structure - perhaps an dissepimentarium 1/5-1/3 corallite radius; lonsdaleoid axial column - appear solid. Individual skeletal elements dissepiments absent. scarcely recognizable in peels; some small details in drawings subjective interpretations of senior author. Description. Corallum fasciculate; fragment available for study originally greater than 18cm diameter. Corallites In early ontogeny and hystero-ontogeny (blastogeny) seldom offsetting. Offsets appear at similar levels of protosepta connected and in variable positions; major astogeny (Fig. 8D). Dimensions measured at different G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska 0.5 mm I J FIGURE 8. Heritschioides splendidus sp. nov. Holotype from sample SOB-F1. Macromorphology, A-G) transverse sections. Morphological changes in sequential sections of mature corallites ‘a’ and ‘b’, H-J) longitudinal sections. Cardinal septa marked by black and/or white dots. Scale bar applies to all images. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska growth levels of corallite ‘a’: 36:21.5 x 23.5mm and 29.0mm after 5.5cm and 3cm growth, respectively (Fig. 38:24.5 x 25.5mm after 3cm growth; of corallite ‘b’: 8A-D). External wall 0.06-0.1 mm thick. Major septa long, 40:26.5 x 30.5mm, 41:24.0 x 28.5mm and 41:24.8 x inner margins of most separated from axial column, few 1 mm 1 mm 1 mm 0.1 mm 1 mm F G FIGURE 9. Heritschioides splendidus sp. nov. Holotype from sample SOB-F1. Details. Transverse sections, A-C) axial structures; A) mature growth stage; note thin, separated inner margin of cardinal septum (lower), B) advanced neanic growth stage; arrow points to sections of tabulae depressed into cardinal fossula, C) neanic growth stage – thin, wavy median lamella connected directly to cardinal septum; D-F) biform (arrows) and normal tabularium in transverse sections; G) transverse section, bunches of crystalline fibrils that replaced trabeculae. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska B C 4 mm 0.5 mm 0.1 mm G H 0.1 mm FIGURE 10. Heritschioides alaskensis sp. nov., A-E, G-J) holotype from SMI 2004 #4; F) paratype 1 from SMI 2004 #3. Transverse section. A-C) Transverse sections. Arrow in A points to corallite illustrated in Figure 11J-M. D, E, G) Longitudinal sections. H) Enlarged from A to document biform morphology and very shallow penetration of septa into narrow external wall. I) Enlarged from D, longitudinal section showing trabecular microstruc- ture; arrows with ‘a’ remnants of trabeculae, arrows with ‘b’ remnants of growth lines. J) Enlarged from A, bunches of fibrils (lower) are remnants of trabeculae, totally destroyed by diagenesis in remaining part of septum. Scale bar in the middle corresponds to all images, except where indicated. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska confluent with septal lamellae, thin in dissepimentarium, Discussion. H. splendidus sp. nov. resembles H. highly dilated in tabularium, tapering very slightly if at kuiuensis sp. nov, but differs in having a narrower column, all toward axial column when free-ended, rapidly and much larger corallites, having greater dilation of major strongly tapering when extending towards axial column septa in the tabularium, and lacking a recognizable (Fig. 8A-G). Cardinal septum in mature specimens slightly median lamella in mature corallites. From H. columbicum shortened, located in inconspicuous, parallel-walled (Smith, 1935) it differs primarily in the morphology of cardinal fossula. Minor septa most often extend through the axial column, which comprises both well developed dissepimentarium, rarely penetrate into tabularium as normal and numerous extra septal lamellae, a shortened prongs. Axial column continuous, one-forth to one-third cardinal septum, an easily recognizable cardinal fossula corallite diameter, composed of many septal lamellae, in mature corallites, the lack of lonsdaleoid dissepiments including extra lamellae and numerous, densely packed and pseudonaotic septa, greater dilation of the major axial tabellae. Two arrangements of septal lamellae shown septa in the tabularium, and a hemispherical arrangement by transverse sections of two adjacent mature corallites: of tabellae in the axial column. The latter character also centripetal with densely packed septal lamellae at periphery distinguishes it from H. kuiuensis. with few approaching and/or reaching corallite axis (Fig. 8A, D, G, corallite ‘a’; Fig. 9A), and irregularly twisted Occurrence. As for the holotype. (Fig. 8B-D, F, corallite ‘b’). In mature corallites median lamella indistinguishable irrespective of arrangement Heritschioides alaskensis FEDOROWSKI and STEVENS, of septal lamellae. Eccentric longitudinal sections cut sp. nov. at dense, peripheral part of axial column (Fig. 8I) show Figures 10, 11 septal lamellae closely crowded, in more centric sections Etymology. Named for the State of Alaska where the (Fig. 8H, J) fewer septal lamellae exposed. Axial tabellae specimens were collected. hemispherical with lateral tabellae well developed, clearly Holotype. USNM 545246 from sample SMI 2004 #4. separating axial column from tabularium. In immature Locality and age of the holotype. SMI 2004; Kuiu Island, growth stages median lamella thin and wavy, connected Alaska. Moscovian in age. with (Fig. 9C) or slightly elongated towards cardinal septum. At more advanced immature growth stage, median Material. Holotype specimen listed above originally lamella, as in corallite shown in Figure 9B, occurs as thin greater than 8cm in diameter with four transverse and plate or is absent, cardinal septum slightly shortened; three longitudinal thin sections, and 20 peels; paratype presence of cardinal fossula documented by arrangement 1, sample SMI 2004 #3 with two transverse and two of sections of tabulae (Fig. 9B, arrow). Remnants of inner longitudinal thin sections; paratype 2, sample SMI 2004 margin of cardinal septum or peripheral margin of median #5, with two transverse and one longitudinal thin section. lamella represented by thin, wavy strip in cardinal fossula Sample SMI 2004 F1 with six transverse thin sections and (Fig. 9A). Dissepimentarium composed of up to six or one longitudinal thin section questionably belongs to this eight ranks of small, globose, irregular and concentric, species. See Appendix I for locality information. interseptal dissepiments in major part of dissepimentarium; at maturity short bunches of small dissepiments, incipient Diagnosis. Heritschioides with n:d value = 26:9.0mm pseudonaotic structures, attached obliquely to peripheral to 26:12.0mm; axial column with obscure or no median limits of septa. Lonsdaleoid dissepiments absent. lamella occupies 1/4-1/3 corallite diameter; major septa Tabularium with biform morphology when minor septa somewhat dilated in tabularium; minor septa penetrate extend into tabularium (Fig. 9D, arrows), normal in loculi tabularium with slightly dilated margins; biform tabularium where those septa restricted to dissepimentarium (Fig. recognizable in many septal loculae; lonsdaleoid 9E), both types may be developed next to one another dissepiments absent. (Fig. 9F, biform indicated by arrows). Tabularium (Fig. 8H-J) composed mostly of incomplete, upwardly arched Description. External wall about 0.1-0.2mm thick. tabulae inclined gently upward to axial column, 10-12/ Maximum corallite diameter 13mm; n:d =19:6.0-7.0, cm. Boundary between dissepimentarium and tabularium 22:8.9, 23:10.0, 24:9.0, 26:9.0-12.0. In transverse sections marked by light stereozone thickening; boundary between (Fig. 10A-C, F) major septa penetrate very slightly into tabularium and axial column sharp. external wall or appear to be attached to it (Fig. 10H), commonly approach axial column, rarely continuous with Microstructure variously altered diagenetically. Based on septal lamellae, thin in dissepimentarium, slightly dilated comparison with similar structures in septa of H. kuiuensis sp. in tabularium, distal ends tapering to blunt. Cardinal nov., bunches of crystalline b fi rils in several septa (Fig. 9G), septum rarely and indistinctly shortened; more commonly interpreted as trabeculae enlarged during recrystallization equal in length to adjacent major septa, may join median process at expanse of sclerenchymal sheets of septa. lamella when one present. Cardinal fossula lacking. Minor G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska septa commonly penetrate short distance into tabularium mainly in transverse sections, indicated by different where inner margins dilated. Axial column continuous, one arrangement of peripheral parts of tabulae (Fig. 10H). third to one-fourth corallite diameter, isolated by vertical Very light stereozone developed at margin of tabularium. lateral tabellae and up to five or more ranks of steeply Boundary between tabularium and axial column sharp. dipping, elongate axial tabellae. Septal lamellae variable, representing most major septa in some corallites, few in In transverse sections of septa (Fig. 10J) septal others. Extra septal lamellae extremely rare, recognizable microstructure diagenetically altered into irregular bunches in some mature corallites. Median lamella commonly of crystalline fibrils; in longitudinal sections ultrastructure lacking, obscure when present. Dissepimentarium totally destroyed, but altered intersecting growth lines and commonly one-third corallite radius, generally composed rods interpreted as remnants of fine trabeculae (Fig. 10I, of three or four ranks of small, globose dissepiments as arrows with letters ‘b’ and ‘a’, respectively) are preserved. seen in longitudinal section (Fig. 10D, E, G); in transverse section dissepiments variable in size and shape: concentric, Blastogeny (Fig. 11A-M) investigated in two series irregular and pseudoherringbone; lonsdaleoid dissepiments of acetate peels from two offsetting corallites in holotype absent. Tabularium composed of complete and incomplete, (Fig. 11A-I and 11J-M, respectively). Earliest phase of slightly convex upward tabulae that rise moderately steeply offsetting in one offset diagenetically destroyed. Offsetting upward to axial column. Biform morphology recognizable in more complete specimen begins with formation of 0.2 mm C B 0.2 mm D 0.2 mm A 0.6 mm 0.4 mm F 0.4 mm G 0.3 mm E 0.4 mm 2 mm 0.9 mm 0.6 mm L 0.7 mm 1.2 mm FIGURE 11. Heritschioides alaskensis sp. nov. Holotype from SMI 2004 #4. Blastogeny of two offsets based on serial peels spaced as indicated. First corallite: A-D) hystero-brephic growth stage; E, F) early hystero-neanic growth stage; G-I) hystero-neanic growth stage. Second corallite: J) early hystero-neanic growth stage; K, L) neanic growth stage; M) late neanic/early mature growth stage. Scale bar at bottom applies to all figures. Arrow points to cardinal septum; dots indicate position of alar septa. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska narrow space for offset within dissepimentarium of parent Blastogeny of two offsets differs in development (Fig. 11A-C). Minor septa and dissepiments disappear of counter septum; similar in all other details. Cardinal from loculi between three major septa becoming separated septum participated in formation of median lamella in into unequal segments: long inner segments with strongly both instances, being dominant in first offset. Inconsistent thickened peripheral margins retained in parent; short, length of protosepta is typical for genus. thin peripheral segments forming initial skeleton of offset attached to external wall in offset. Neosepta appear early Discussion. This species resembles H. columbicum, at external wall in offset, suggesting peripheral segment of the type species of the genus, in the similar arrangement parent’s middle septum of offset becomes cardinal septum of axial tabellae in the axial column, in that the minor in offset. Its thin, tabula-like inner part extends far beyond septa penetrate the tabularium, and in having rare extra offset’s axis (Fig. 11A-H, arrow). Cardinal septum in septal lamellae appearing late in the hystero-ontogeny. second offset intersects its lumen early in hystero-ontogeny The type species, however, has much greater n:d values, (Fig. 11J, arrow), soon reduced to length of adjacent major a wider, more complex dissepimentarium with lonsdaleoid septa (Fig. 11K, arrow), elongates again to reach elongated dissepiments common, and pseudo-naotic structures well counter septum (Fig. 11L, arrow). developed. H. splendidus sp. nov. differs primarily in having much larger n:d values, much denser axial column Development of counter septum differs in two offsets with many extra septal tabellae and a shortened cardinal studied; hardly identifiable in first offset (Fig. 11G-I), long septum located in a tabular cardinal fossula. The present in second (Fig. 11K-M); in both counter septa inherited species differs from H. kuiuensis sp. nov. in the smaller from same middle major septum of parent corallite. Thus, size of the corallites, a narrower, less complex axial column both protosepta are atavosepta. with extremely rare extra septal lamellae if any, and with longer minor septa. Corallites of this species differ from H. Alar septa of both offsets inherited from two of parent’s separatus sp. nov. in the smaller diameters of the corallites, major septa, one on each side of major septum that gave the minor septa penetrating the tabularium, and in the rise to offset’s protosepta located in offset’s peripheral wall major septa closely approaching the axial column in most from beginning of offsetting process (Fig. 11A, B, dots), corallites (see below). clearly marked by being longest septa in cardinal quadrants and by short septa in counter quadrants adjacent to them Occurrence. As for the holotype. (Fig. 11D-H, K, dots). Heritschioides separatus FEDOROWSKI and STEVENS, Increase in number of offset’s septa in part common sp. nov. with parent camouflaged by both long-lasting thickening Figure 12 of skeletal elements and formation of partition composed partim 1972. Corwenia jagoensis Armstrong, 1972, p. 10, of short thickenings corresponding to major and minor pl. 4, fig. 3 and pl. 5, figs. 3-4 only. septa. Shortest major septa adjacent to alar septa indicate Etymology. Latin separatus – separated, distant. Named septal insertion typical for Rugosa; details unknown. for its morphological and taxonomic difference from the holotype of Corwenia jagoensis Armstrong, 1972. Insertion of minor septa (Fig. 11D, E) appears cyclic Holotype. USNM 161040. because they arise in offset’s lumen at approximately Locality and age of the holotype. Stratigraphic section same level of growth, but apparently inserted in series 60C-201, near Salisbury Mountain, about 1.5m below having earlier been hidden in thick external wall. the top of the Wahoo Limestone (see Armstrong, 1972). Dissepimentarium follows appearance of minor septa; best Associated microfossils (Armstrong, 1972, p. 13) indicate developed in cardinal quadrants in both offsets. an Atokan (Bashkirian) age. Development of axial structure forms main difference Material. Only the holotype colony, considered by between two offsets. In last preserved growth stage of r fi st Armstrong (1972) as a paratype of his species Corwenia offset, only a very long cardinal septum, slightly thickened jagoensis (see discussion below). Three transverse thin in axial part and extending beyond offset’s axis; counter sections made and illustrated by Armstrong (1972, pl. 4, septum attached to it by a tabula (Fig. 11I). In second offset fig. 3 and pl. 5, figs 3-4) and two well oriented longitudinal counter septum elongated beyond corallite axis, joining thin sections made by the second author were available for major septum right of cardinal septum; later joining cardinal the study. All of Armstrong’s transverse thin sections and septum for short period (Fig. 11L). Later counter septum the newly made longitudinal thin sections are illustrated free, still extends to offset’s axis (Fig. 11M). Long, curved, here. Neither the blastogeny nor the microstructure of axially thickened median lamella, free from both protosepta septa were studied. Although figure 2 on pl. 5 in Armstrong (Fig. 11M), preceded by temporary presence of axial septum. (1972) is labeled as belonging to the same colony as the G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska 5 mm FIGURE 12. Heritschioides separatus sp. nov. Holotype USNM 161040, A-C) transverse sections illustrated by Armstrong (1972, pl. 4, fig. 3; pl. 5, figs. 3, 4) as paratype of his species Corwenia jagoensis. Arrow in C points to part of corallite squashed by compaction, D, E) new longitudinal sections documenting continuous axial column. Scale bar in the middle corresponds to all images. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska other figures, the section is so different from those made Serpukhovian-early Bashkirian in age and all other species by one of the writers (Calvin Stevens), we suspect that it of Heritschioides are middle Carboniferous rather than actually was derived from another colony. Permian (Fedorowski et al., 2007). Diagnosis. Heritschioides with extreme n:d values We do not make an attempt here to revise ”Corwenia” 34:20 and 31:24x20mm; thin major septa do not penetrate jagoensis formally, but later we do plan to revise those axial structure; minor septa restricted to dissepimentarium specimens included in C. jagoensis, which are comparable which occupies up to 1/3 corallite radius; cardinal septum to colonies from Kuiu Island. The Atokan (Bashkirian) may reach simple axial structure with median lamella “paratype” USNM 161040, re-described by us here as obscure or absent; septal lamellae much smaller in number Heritschioides separatus sp. nov., possesses some of the than major septa; extra septal lamellae absent or very rare; largest corallites with the simplest axial structure among the row of lateral tabellae in axial column incomplete; small species assigned to this genus. It also possesses fewer septal lonsdaleoid dissepiments may occur. lamellae than the number of major septa, and apparently lacks extra septal lamellae. Both the large size and the Description. Corallites densely packed, but crowding simple axial structure are adequate for distinguishing this increased by compaction as demonstrated by broken species from all remaining members of the genus. peripheral skeletal elements in some neighboring corallites (Fig. 12C, arrow). N:d values of early mature and mature Occurrence. As for the holotype. corallites as in diagnosis and 30:21, 29:16.3, 29:15.6, 28:16; juvenile growth stages not observed. Major septa GENUS Kekuphyllum FEDOROWSKI and STEVENS, almost equal in length, rarely approach axial column in gen. nov. early mature corallites, slightly and equally thickened in Type species: Kekuphyllum sandoense FEDOROWSKI tabularium, thin in dissepimentarium. Cardinal septum and STEVENS, sp. nov. varies from slightly shortened to penetrating axial Etymology: Named for Keku Strait separating Kuiu Island, structure. Cardinal fossula barely recognizable or absent. Alaska, from other islands to the north. Minor septa thin, restricted to dissepimentarium, some Locality and age: USGS locality 21334-PC. Saginaw Bay interrupted by small lonsdaleoid dissepiments. Axial Formation, probably Moscovian. structure in transverse section weak, occupies less than 1/3 corallite diameter, less than 1/4 in some. Thin median Diagnosis: Cerioid-aphroid; partitions rarely interrupted; lamella hardly recognizable or absent. Septal lamellae median lamella monoseptal, derived from axial septum or thin and irregular, far fewer than number of major septa. cardinal septum alone, may remain continuous with it; most Extra septal lamellae absent from all thin sections studied. septal lamellae normal; extra septal lamellae occasional; Axial column in longitudinal section well developed, axial column continuous; tabularium weakly biform when incompletely separated from tabularium; lateral tabellae minor septa elongated; tabulae incomplete. absent from some parts of axial column. Tabulae mostly incomplete, some enter column. Tabellae steeply elevated Discussion. Heritschioides is the only genus adaxially near axial column, commonly anastomosing at presently included in the Subfamily Heritschioidinae, periphery. Unquestioned biform tabularium not observed. although Copia Vassilyuk and Kosyreva, 1974 is here Dissepimentarium 1/4 corallite radius in small specimens conditionally included in that subfamily. The fasciculate to slightly more than 1/3 in largest. Dissepiments small, growth form of those genera is diagnostically important most rectangular and irregular, rarely pseudoherringbone enough for the distinction between them and the cerioid- and/or lonsdaleoid; incipient pseudonaotic structures aphroid Kekuphyllum gen. nov. Thus, we concentrate common at periphery of largest corallites. on similarities supporting the inclusion of Kekuphyllum in the Heritschioidinae rather than on differences. The Discussion. Corwenia jagoensis Armstrong, 1972 early hystero-ontogeny is crucial in that respect. The comprises colonies belonging to different genera. Its holotype following characters are most important for the subfamily and most paratypes do not belong in Corwenia, but they identification of Kekuphyllum (Figs. 13-15): 1. either the most also differ from Heritschioides. The paratype USNM axial septum or the elongated cardinal septum occurs at 161040, the only exception, is here re-investigated. This an early growth stage; 2 the median lamella of the axial coral was recognized as somewhat similar to Heritschioides structure is derived from those septa, 3; lamella extending by Armstrong (1972, p. 13), who characterized it as follows: towards the cardinal septum, commonly intersects all or “Thus, of all the specimens, it shows the closest relationship most of the axial structure. 4. rare extra septal lamellae to the genus Heritschioides Yabe”, which Armstrong appear in axial structures of some corallites; and 5. accepted as a Permian taxon. We accept that relationship, the continuous axial column closely resembles that in but it is now known that the type species for the genus is late Heritschioides. All those characters are common to G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska 1 mm 1 mm G H FIGURE 13. Kekuphyllum sandoense sp. nov. Holotype 21223-PC #2. Macromorphology, A, B, D-F) transverse sections; C, G, H) longitudinal sections. Scale bar in the upper right corresponds to all images, except F. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska species of Heritschioides and all point to the Family even Permian in age. Revision of those species and Aulophyllidae. establishment of their stratigraphic occurrence is needed prior to making a final decision of their true relationship Kekuphyllum is the only massive colony included in to K. sandoense on a generic level. The continuous axial the Subfamily Heritschioidinae so far, but two species of column, lack or very weak development of a cardinal Gorsky (1938), Lonsdaleia (Wentzelella) diversa and L. fossula with the cardinal septum slightly shortened in (W.) multivesiculosa from the so-called Barents Series some corallites (Fig. 13F) and the cerioid-aphroid growth of Novaya Zemlya, may belong to Kekuphyllum. We do form of K. sandoense are important characteristics to not suggest that relationship in a formal way because be considered for comparison with the Novaya Zemlya several important characters of Gorsky’s specimens, species after they are revised. such as the microstructure of the intercorallite walls, the early blastogeny, and the occurrence of extra septal Kekuphyllum sandoense FEDOROWSKI and lamellae are unknown from his specimens and are not STEVENS, sp. nov. recognizable in his illustrations. Only the latter character Figures 13-15 may be suspected to occur in L. (W.) multivesiculosa judging from Gorsky’s (1938, p. 120) expression “large Etymology. Named for the late well known coral expert number of tabulae intersections”, which may refer to William J. Sando who provided the specimen for study. septal lamellae. Besides, Gorsky (1938) suggested a Late Carboniferous the word age (in the Russian three Holotype. USNM 545243 from sample USGS 21334- partite scale). Thus, his species may be Gzhelian or PC #2 0.5 mm A B 2 mm E G FIGURE 14. Kekuphyllum sandoense sp. nov. Holotype 21223-PC #2. Details, A-C, E-G) transverse sections. A, C) Channels, shown by arrows, over- grown by dissepiments as suggested by their arrangement. B) Diagenetically caused break imitating intercorallite channel. D, F) Morphology of partition (D: longitudinal, F: transverse section). E) Lonsdaleoid dissepiments extremely well developed. G) Chert replacing skeletal elements of a corallite. Scale bar in right middle applies to all images except E. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska Locality and age of the holotype. USGS locality tabularium; lonsdaleoid dissepiments occur in corallite 21334-PC, Kuiu Island, Alaska; Saginaw Bay Formation, corners. probably Moscovian in age. Description. Corallum cerioid-aphroid. Partitions Material. Type specimen listed above consisting of mostly continuous, about 0.3mm thick between peripheral several large fragments apparently from one corallum margins of septa, much thicker when septa laterally originally at least 18cm in diameter with eleven transverse contiguous (Fig. 14D, F). Rarely observed interruptions and seven longitudinal thin sections and 73 acetate peels. (channels) terminate gently, closed by dissepiments See Appendix I for locality information. arranged in rows perpendicular to partition and parallel to one another (Fig. 14A, arrow) or filling in inter- Diagnosis. Kekuphyllum with maximum n:d value corallite channels between partitions (Fig. 14C, arrow); 28:9.5 and 28:11.2mm; minor septa rarely slightly enter sharply ended interruptions of partitions (Fig. 14B) 1 mm 1 mm FIGURE 15. Kekuphyllum sandoense sp. nov. Holotype 21223-PC #2, A-D) transverse sections. A-C) Offsets in early hystero-ontogenetic growth stage. D) Offsets in advanced growth stage. Letters correspond to description in text. E) Longitudinal section. Arrow points to biformly curved tabula. Scale bar in upper left corresponds to all images except E. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska due to diagenesis. Two adjacent corallites similar in peripheral margins of which strongly thickened at parent/ size indicating twins may merge (Fig. 13B, upper; E, offset boundary. Axial septum of offset directly connected lower) for some unknown reason. Completely isolated to middle thickened septum of parent. Continuous axial corallites polygonal, diameter at maturity 7-11.2mm; septum retained in hystero-ontogenetically more advanced n:d values = 20-21:4.0mm, 23:5-7mm; 25-26:10.0mm, offsets (Fig. 15B, lower left; C). Arrangement of major and maximum as in Diagnosis (Fig. 13A, B, D, E). septa suggest cardinal septum in offset formed from Major septa long with peripheral margins thickened up peripheral segment of axial septum (Fig. 15C, white dot); to lateral contiguity with minor septa in some (Fig. 14E, arrangement of septa in offset and its symmetry irregular; F), some closely approach axial column, others may be recognition of axial septum relative to position of cardinal continuous with septal lamellae, many free-ended, thin in septum; uncertain in some (Fig. 15B, upper offset). dissepimentarium, slightly thickened at outer margin of tabularium, then tapering toward axial column. Counter Three adjacent immature corallites separated by septum indistinguishable from other major septa, rarely partitions (Fig. 15D) all have minor septa, which penetrate attached to slightly thickened median lamella with wavy tabularium and complete dissepimentaria. Hystero- and strongly tapering inner margin, free from median ontogenetically youngest corallite (Fig. 15D, corallite ‘a’ lamella in most. Counter septum not dominant even cardinal [left] and counter septa marked by white dots) when continuous with median lamella. Cardinal septum possesses thin, inconspicuous median lamella connected to of variable length: slightly shortened, equal to adjacent curved inner margins of both protosepta; some major septa major septa, or extending to median lamella; axial unite with their lamellae in axial structure. In corallite structure points towards that septum when shortened intermediate in advancement in hystero-ontogeny (Figure (Fig. 13F). Minor septa vary in length, most confined to 15D, corallite ‘b’) cardinal septum (marked by white dot) dissepmentarium, few penetrate outermost tabularium, directly connected to slightly thickened median lamella to some discontinuous. Cardinal fossula lacking in most, which most major septa unite. Most advanced corallite in inconspicuous and does not penetrate dissepimentarium hystero-ontogeny (Fig. 15, corallite ‘c’, cardinal septum when present. Axial column prominent, continuous (Fig. marked by white dot) possesses axial structure completely 13C, G, H), from less than 1/2 to slightly more than 1/3 separated from inner margins of major septa with free, corallite diameter, composed of simple median lamella, slightly thickened median lamella which points towards numerous septal lamellae, including rare extra lamellae, shortened cardinal septum shown by short intercept attached and up to six rows of steeply dipping, very elongate axial to section of a tabula. Differences develop in corallites of tabellae; lateral tabellae numerous. Boundary between any growth stage as indicated by both illustrated (Fig. 13A, tabularium and axial column mostly distinct. Tabularium B, D-F) and non-illustrated corallites. commonly normal. Incipient biformity indicated mainly by sections of tabulae attached to inner margins of some Discussion. Being the only species of the genus known longest minor septa; may be observed in longitudinal so far, K. sandoense does not require discussion other than sections (Fig. 15E, arrow and above it). Tabulae steeply that of the genus. The only existing taxa similar to our inclined up to axial column, commonly seven or species are pointed out in that discussion. eight/5mm, commonly incomplete with peripheral and periaxial tabellae, rarely complete. Dissepimentarium Occurrence. As for the holotype. about one-third corallite radius, composed of two- to several ranks of small irregular and concentric, globose dissepiments with lonsdaleoid dissepiments present at SUMMARY corners of several corallites; may extend around almost entire corallite in some (Fig. 14E). Pseudonaotic septa Recent studies on the Genus Heritschioides and occur in several corallites. Sclerenchyme thickening at genetically related and/or morphologically similar taxa inner row of dissepiments common. (Fedorowski et al., 2007; Kawamura and Stevens 2012; present paper) allow some introductory conclusions. Blastogeny was investigated in several offsets of These studies show that the stratigraphic position of all holotype. Diagenetic alteration, however, has limited the representatives of the genus Heritschioides described so precision of the descriptions and drawings of series of far is much older (Fedorowski et al., 2007; Kawamura acetate peels that were made. and Stevens, 2012) than previously thought. The type species, H. columbicum (Smith, 1935), is not Permian, but Earliest growth stage observed (Figure 15A) closely late Serpukhovian/early Bashkirian in age, thus being the comparable to species of Heritschioides. Septa divided into stratigraphically oldest species of the genus. Other species thin external segments inherited by offset and attached to are younger, upper Bashkirian to Moscovian in age. Thus, external wall and inner segments retained in parent corallite, the genus can be considered characteristic for these ages. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska Also almost all species of Heritschioides occur in Range, arctic Alaska. United States Geological Survey, 747 accreted terranes. H. separatus sp. nov. known from the (Professional Paper), 21pp. Atokan (Bashkirian) strata of the Brooks Range is the only Buddington, A.F., Chapin, T., 1929. Geology and mineral deposits exception recognized so far. Such a distribution suggests of southeastern Alaska. United States Geological Survey, 800 that this genus originated on the northern margin of the (Bulletin), 398pp. North American Craton in the general vicinity of the Brooks Colpron, M., Nelson, J.L. 2011. A Palaeozoic NW passage Range or on oceanic platforms to the west or northwest. and the Tinamian, Caledonian and Uralian connections of In addition the distance between those platforms and the some exotic terranes in the North American Cordillera. In: cratonal shelf in Alaska must have been short enough for Spencer, A.M., Embry, A.F., Gautier, D.L., Stoupakova, A.V., corals in the middle Carboniferous to migrate from one Sorensen, K. (eds.). Arctic Petroleum Geology. London, locality to another. Finally the complex nature of structures Geological Society, 35 (Memoirs), 463-484. (as in Kekuphyllum) described here also tends to suggest a Dutro, J.T.Jr., Douglass, R.C., 1961. Pennsylvanian rocks in subtropical to tropical climate. southeastern Alaska. United States Geological Survey, 424-B (Professional Paper), B239-B241. The detailed study of the protocorallite developed inside Dybowski, W.N., 1873. Monographie der Zoantharia the colony of H. kuiuensis allows a comparison of the ontogeny Sclerodermata Rugosa aus der Silurformation Estlands, to the hystero-ontogeny, a kind of study not previously Nordlivlands und der Insel Gotland. Archiv für Naturkunde conducted. The ontogeny leaves no doubt as to the close der Livlands, Estlands, Kurlands, 1, 257-414. relationship of Heritschioides to the Family Aulophyllidae. Fedorowski, J., Bamber, E.W., Stevens, C.H., 2007. Lower In addition, the hystero-ontogeny characteristics of Permian colonial rugose corals, western and northwestern Heritschioides and Kekuphyllum sandoense, although Pangaea: Taxonomy and Distribution. Ottawa (Ontario, slightly different in details, are different from that of other Canada), National Research Council Press, 231pp. genera in the Aulophyllidae, indicating the necessity for a Gardner, M.C., Bergman, S.C., Cushing, G.W., Mackevett, separate subfamily status of those two genera. E.M.Jr., Plafker, G., Campbell, R.B., Dodds, C.J., Mcclelland, W.C., Muller, P.A., 1988. Pennsylvanian pluton stiching of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane, Wrangell Mountains, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Alaska. Geology, 16, 967-971. Gorsky, I.I., 1938. Kamennougolnye korally Novoy Zemli (In We are grateful to Charles Henderson for his work on the Russian). Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Arkticheskogo Instituta, 93, conodont faunas which forms the basis for age determinations of 1-221. corals from the Kuiu Island area. We also thank Marta Bartkowiak Hill, D., 1981. Supplement 1. Rugosa and Tabulata. In: Teichert, from the Institute of Geology, Adam. Mickiewicz University for C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part F. her technical assistance. All facilities and the n fi ancial support Coelenterata. Boulder (Colorado) and Lawrence (Kansas), for Fedorowski were supplied by Adam Mickiewicz University. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Facilities were provided for Stevens by the Department of Geology Press, F1-F762. Katvala, E.C., Henderson, C.M., 2002. Conodont sequence at San Jose State University. Katvala received n fi ancial support biostratigraphy and paleogeography of the Pennsylvanian- from an Alberta Ingenuity Student Scholarship, the University of Permian Mount Mark and Fourth Lake Formations, southern Calgary Silver anniversary Graduate Fellowship, and from Charles Vancouver Island. In: Hills, L.V., Henderson, C.M., Bamber, Henderson at the University of Calgary via a Discovery Grant from W. (eds.). Carboniferous and Permian of the World. Canadian the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. He also Society of Petroleum Geologists, 19 (Memoir), 461-478. is indebted to his supervisor Len Hills (deceased) and to Mike Katvala, E.C., Henderson, C.M., 2007. Updates to the Late Wamsteeker and Mark Taylor who helped in collection of specimens Paleozoic history of the Alexander Terrane. Geological in the e fi ld. In addition, we want to express our appreciation to the Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 39(6), 490. critical readers, Erica Kido, Graz University, Austria, and Andrew Katvala, E.C., Henderson, C.M., Beatty, T.W., 2009. Reworked Caruthers, University of British Columbia, for their helpful remarks conodonts of the Alexander Terrane: Utility and lithologic on the manuscript. Finally we all are grateful to the Smithsonian occurrence. 2009, Permophiles: Newsletter of the Institution, National Museum of Natural History for the loan of Subcommission on Permian Stratigraphy, 53(1, Abstracts), 25. specimens from the Brooks Range, Alaska. Kawamura, T., Stevens, C.H., 2012. Middle Pennsylvanian rugose corals from the Baird Formation, Klamath Mountains, northwestern California. Journal of Paleontology, 86, 513-520. REFERENCES Lin, B.Y., Xu, S.Y., Jia, H.Z., Guo, S.Z., Ouyang, X., Wang, Z.J., Ding, Y.J., Cao, X.D., Yan, Y.Y., Chen, H.C., 1995. Armstrong, A.K., 1972. Pennsylvanian carbonates, paleoecology, Monograph of Palaeozoic corals. Rugosa and Heterocorallia and rugose colonial corals, north flank, eastern Brooks G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska (In Chinese with English summary). Beijing, Geological Spasskiy, N.Ya., Kachanov, E.I., 1971. Novye primitivnye Publishing House, I-VII+1-778. rannekamennougolnye korally Altaya i Urala (In Russian). Loney, R.A., 1964. 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The formation of dissepiments in zoantharian Smith, S., 1935. Two Anthracolithic corals from British Columbia and corals. In: Campbell, K.S.W. (ed.). Stratigraphy and related species from the Tethys. Journal of Paleontology, 9, 30-42. Palaeontology: Essays in honour of Dorothy Hill. Canberra, Sorauf, E.J., 1970. Microstructure and formation of dissepiments Australian National University Press, 17-26. in the skeleton of the recent Scleractinia (hexacorals). Yabe, H., 1950. Permian corals resembling Waagenophyllum and Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur. Maintz. Corwenia. Proceedings of the Japanese Academy, 26, 74-79. Biomineralization Forschungsberichte, 2, 1-22. Manuscript received June 2013; revision accepted January 2014; published Online February 2014. G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4 J . F e d o r o w s k i e t a l . New late Carboniferous Heritschioidinae (Rugosa) from Alaska APPENDIX I USGS 4305-PC. Petersburg 1:4 quadrangle, Kuiu Island, west here considered Moscovian in age based on its occurrence in the of south end of Keku Island Group. Limestone interbedded with Volcanic Member of the Saginaw Bay Formation. Collected by basaltic lava; limestone with many layers rich in corals identified Muffler, 1965 (see Muffler, 1967). as Lonsdaleia and Clisiophyllum by Buddington and Chapin (1929), both taxa needing revision. These fossils apparently are SMI 2004, Samtron Monitor Island, Keku Strait Region. from the Volcanic Member of the Saginaw Bay Formation of Small, unnamed island in northwest Keku Islets close to Muffler (1967). Probably Moscovian in age. Collected by A.F. Cornwallis Peninsula on Kuiu Island located about 4.5 miles east- Buddington, 1922 (see Buddington and Chapin, 1929) from rocks southeast of Cornwallis Point. From coastal outcrop on north and called the “Lower Division of the Permian”. northwest side of island. Mapped as the Volcanic Member of the Saginaw Bay Formation by Muffler (1967). Lat. 56° 55.399’N, USGS 5134-PC. Islet in Keku Strait about 1 ¼ mile east- long. 134° 08.546’W. Fossils collected from Muffler’s localities northeast of point 4 miles southeast of Point Cornwallis. 78, 79, 80. Probably Moscovian in age. Collected by Erik Katvala, Limestone interbedded with andesitic flows and tuff. The coral 2004. Londaleia was listed as present by Buddington and Chapin, 1929). Fossils reported by Dutro and Douglas (1961) include SOB-F1, School of Bass, Saginaw Bay, northeastern Kuiu brachiopods, gastropods, pelecypods, bryozoans, and the corals Island, small cove on east side of Saginaw Bay located about 4 Syringopora, Favosites, Striatopora, and Lonsdalia. All of miles southeast of Cornwallis Point along a mostly continuous these generic identifications require revision. Muffler’s (1967) section along southeast-facing shoreline. From an undescribed map suggests the Silty Limestone Member of the Saginaw conglomerate at the top? of the Chert and Limestone Member, here included in the Silty Limestone Member of the Saginaw Bay Formation, but Katvala (pers. comm.) has placed it in the Bay Formation. Probably Moscovian in age. Collected by Erik Volcanic Member. Conodonts suggest a Moscovian in age. Katvala, 2005. Collected by A.F. Buddington, 1922 (see Buddington and Chapin, 1929). FH-C-F2, Floating Hatchery, Keku Strait Region, south end of Cornwallis Peninsula on the northeast shore of Kuiu Island, USGS loc. 21334-PC (63Amp 239, map locality 55 of mapped as Volcanic Member of the Saginaw Bay Formation by Muffler (1967), NE shore of Kuiu Island (Cornwallis Peninsula), Muffler (1967). Section is northwest of a small, narrow inlet at lat. 56°53.21’N, long. 134° 0.245’W. Light gray limestone the southern end of this unit as mapped by Muffler (1967). A interbedded with pillow lava; Volcanic Member of Saginaw Bay floating hatchery is located in this inlet. Probably Moscovian in Formation. Brachiopods were considered Atokan (~Bashkirian) age. Collected by Erik Katvala (2005). in age by Dutro and Douglas (1961). However this collection is G e o l o g i c a A c t a , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 2 9 - 5 2 ( 2 0 1 4 ) D O I : 1 0 . 1 3 4 4 / 1 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 7 4

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Geologica ActaUnpaywall

Published: Jan 1, 2014

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